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Inauguration of Barack Obama

Inauguration of Barack Obama
2009 Presidential Inauguration of Barack Obama

Barack Obama takes the oath of office of the President of the United States. Participants President of the United States, Barack H. Obama
Assuming office

Chief Justice of the United States, John G. Roberts, Jr.
Administering oath

Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden, Jr.
Assuming office

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, John Paul Stevens
Administering oath

United States Congress Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies Location Date Website Washington, D.C. United States Capitol January 20, 2009

This article is part of a series about Barack Obama

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · US Senate Political positions · Public image · Family 2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign Transition · Inauguration · Electoral history Presidency (Timeline, First 100 days)

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place on January 20, 2009. The inauguration, which set a record attendance for any event held in Washington, D.C., marked the commencement of the four‑year term of Barack Obama as President and Joseph (Joe) Biden as Vice President. With his inauguration as President of the United States, Obama became the first African American to hold the

office, the first President born in Hawaii and the third President to hail from Illinois. People in the United States and from around the world paid unequaled attention to the inaugural event, with reactions ranging from celebration and praise to cautious optimism and indifference. "A New Birth of Freedom," a phrase from the Gettysburg Address, served as the theme for the historic occasion of the 56th inauguration of the President of the United States to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth year of Abraham Lincoln. In his speeches to the crowds, Obama referred to ideals expressed by Lincoln about renewal, continuity and national unity as he stressed the need for shared sacrifice and a new sense of responsibility to answer America’s challenges at home and abroad. Obama and others paid homage to Lincoln in the form of tributes and references during several of the events, starting with a commemorative train tour from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Washington, D.C. on January 17 and concluding with the interfaith inaugural prayer service. The 2009 inaugural events held in Washington, D.C. from January 18 to January 21, 2009 included concerts, a national day of community service on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, the swearing‑in ceremony, luncheon and parade, inaugural balls, and the national prayer service. The presidential oath as administered to Obama during his swearing‑in ceremony on January 20 strayed from the oath of office prescribed in the United States Constitution, which led to its re‑administration the next evening. In contrast to a larger than usual celebrity attendance, the Presidential Inaugural Committee increased its outreach to ordinary citizens to encourage greater participation in inaugural events compared to participation in recent past inaugurations. The committee opened for the first time the entire length of the National Mall as the public viewing area for the swearing‑in ceremony, breaking with the tradition of past inaugurations. "Everyday" American citizens participated in the train tour and other inaugural events,


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and a philanthropist organized a "People’s Inaugural Ball" for disadvantaged people who otherwise would be unable to afford to attend the inaugural festivities. Among the celebrations for the inauguration, the committee hosted a first‑ever Neighborhood Inaugural Ball with free or affordable tickets for ordinary citizens.

Inauguration of Barack Obama
The congressional committee released the full schedule of the January 20 inaugural events on December 17, 2008. The inauguration schedule referred to the President‑elect as "Barack H. Obama," even though Obama specified previously that he wanted to use his full name for his swearing‑in ceremony, including his middle name Hussein, in "follow[ing] the tradition, not trying to make a statement one way or the other."[6][7] During the election campaign, Obama’s detractors tried to use his middle name to imply falsely that he was a Muslim.[6] Breaking with tradition in the use of the National Mall as the inaugural parade staging area, the Presidential Inaugural Committee opened for the first time the mall from the U.S. Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial as the public viewing area for the swearing‑in ceremony.[8] The presidential committee set aside a section of the mall close to the U.S. Capitol for people holding reserved tickets for the event.[9][10][11] The committee opened the entire length of the mall in order to make the inaugural event "’the most open and accessible in history,’ allowing those who [could not] get the [reserved] tickets to the swearing‑in ceremony on the Capitol grounds to fill the mall."[11] To enable people in attendance to see and hear the ceremony, the committee arranged for placement of JumboTrons at points along the entire mall.[8] Despite criticism that such a large event could not be carbon‑friendly, the presidential committee incorporated environment‑friendly measures in its planning of the inaugural events. The environmental measures included the use of recyclable carpet for the platform, retrieval of recyclable items from outdoor areas after an event,[12] and the use of recycled paper for invitations and inaugural ball tickets.[13] The District of Columbia City Council used the occasion to help bars and restaurants increase sales by staying open around‑the‑clock to provide hospitality services to the hordes of people planning to attend the inaugural festivities.[14] To accommodate the crowds expected in the city for the inauguration, the City Council planned to pass legislation to temporarily extend the closing time of bars and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages beyond the normal 2:00 a.m. weekday and 3:00 a.m. EST Friday and Saturday closing times. The original plan legislated in early December 2008 permitted


Preparations at the United States Capitol The swearing‑in ceremony and the inaugural luncheon for the President‑elect and Vice President‑elect of the United States were planned by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, a committee chaired by United States Senator Dianne Feinstein of the state of California and overseen by the U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. The 2009 Presidential Inaugural Committee organized several other inauguration‑related events at the direction of President‑elect Obama and Vice President‑elect Biden. The Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies chose the inaugural theme, "A New Birth of Freedom,"[1][2] a phrase from Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address from the Civil War era.[1][3] The theme, which was selected by the committee to mark the inaugural occasion and honor the 200th anniversary year of Lincoln’s birth, expressed "Lincoln’s hope that the sacrifice of those who died to preserve the United States would lead to ’a new birth of freedom’ for the nation.’"[4] In his reliance on the inaugural theme, Obama wanted "to give Americans reassurance that today, as in Lincoln’s time, the country would find its way through any crisis."[5]


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the service of alcoholic beverages until 5:00 a.m. and 24–hour food service between January 17 and January 20.[15][16] Members of the council, the congressional committee and other civic leaders worried that the extended times for alcoholic beverage consumption could lead to increased crime, violence and drunken driving, compromising public safety and security in the hours before the inauguration.[17] To address concerns about alcohol consumption and oversight, the City Council amended and passed legislation signed by District of Columbia Mayor Adrian Fenty to allow bars and restaurants to operate 24‑hours with payment of a registration fee, but with 4:00 a.m. EST as the cut‑off for serving alcoholic beverages.[18][19] The Hotel Association of Metropolitan Washington agreed to pay for extended train service provided by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority on January 19 to accommodate visitors attending inaugural events and workers providing support for those events.[20]

Inauguration of Barack Obama

Invitations and tickets
The Presidential Inaugural Committee and members of the 111th U.S. Congress distributed invitations and color‑coded tickets to both dignitaries and ordinary citizens to gain access to, and view the swearing‑in ceremony from, reserved sections on or near the U.S. Capitol grounds.[22] Invitations and tickets were sent to ambassadors and chiefs of diplomatic missions to the United States and their spouses, but not to other representatives of foreign countries, and invitations were distributed to U.S. politicians and an array of dignitaries across the spectrum of business and industry. House and Senate congressional members distributed free tickets for the inaugural ceremony to the public by lottery or on a first‑come, first served basis because of overwhelming requests to attend the event.[23][24] Because of high demand and limited availability of the reserved tickets, some people planned to offer their tickets for sale through ticket brokers, Internet auctions and classified listing services.[25] Sales offers for tickets reached as high as $1,750 each for the reserved standing room section behind the Capitol Reflecting Pool, $5,500 each for the reserved standing room section in front of the Reflecting Pool and $20,000 each for the

One of the one million public invitations to the inaugural ceremony of Barack Obama[21]

One of the color‑coded tickets issued by members of the 111th U.S. Congress


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VIP section on the Capitol grounds.[26] In one case, a former legislative aide to Representative Ted Poe was exposed by a prospective buyer after the aide used Craigslist and e‑mail to offer five tickets for $4,500.[27] Federal and state officials became concerned about ticket scalping and fraud related to sales of the tickets for the swearing‑in ceremony.[28] To address such concerns, Senator Dianne Feinstein introduced legislation in mid-November 2008 to ban sales of the swearing‑in ceremony tickets.[29] The Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies contacted online auction operators, ticket resellers and classified listing services to block sales of the tickets. StubHub and eBay agreed to ban ticket sales for the swearing‑in ceremony on all of its sites.[26][28][30] Senator Feinstein re-introduced legislation in December 2008 to ban ticket sales for the swearing‑in ceremony after amending the bill to exempt tickets issued by official presidential inaugural committees to donors for inaugural event fundraising.[31] The U.S. Senate failed to pass the final bill without consideration by the House of Representatives, causing the bill to die in the closing days of the lame duck legislative session.[32]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
federal lobbyists, such as Google executive Eric Schmidt and Microsoft executive Steve Ballmer.[35] Based on its fundraising efforts and crowd estimates for the Obama inauguration, the presidential committee set its budget at $160–$170 million for the inauguration, including about $45 million for the gala events.[34] The federal government contributed about $49 million, including $1.2 million to cover the actual swearing‑in ceremony.[33][34][38] The District of Columbia and the neighboring states of Maryland and Virginia projected costs to provide support for inaugural events at more than $75 million alone for police, fire and medical services.[33][38] To help fund the efforts, President George W. Bush declared a federal state of emergency as a precaution so that funds could be sought from Federal Emergency Management Agency.[39][40][41]

Pre-inaugural events
Train ride: Commemorating Lincoln
On January 17, 2009, Obama hosted a whistle stop train tour in honor of the 200th anniversary of the birth year of Abraham Lincoln. Obama reenacted the final part of Lincoln’s 1861 train tour from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Washington, D.C.[42][43] to capture the mood of the 1861 Springfield to Washington train tour traveled by Lincoln to his own inauguration.[44][45] For his train ride to the nation’s capital, Obama rode in the Georgia 300, a vintage railroad car used by past presidents and the same one he used for touring Pennsylvania during his presidential primary campaign.[46] On the tour, Obama was accompanied by his wife Michelle, their daughters Malia and Sasha, and a host of friends and guests.[46]

The 2009 Presidential Inaugural Committee attempted to raise more individual contributions in smaller dollar amounts compared with the second inauguration of George W. Bush in 2005. The 2009 contribution limit was set at $50,000 for donations by individuals, while individuals and companies were able to give a maximum of $250,000 apiece in 2005.[33] As of January 30, 2009, the presidential committee raised more than $53 million, with at least 458 people giving the committee‑imposed maximum of $50,000,[34] including big name donors such as George Soros, Halle Berry, Jamie Foxx and George Lucas.[35] Emphasizing a change to business as usual, the committee set stringent guidelines for campaign contributions, barring donations from corporations, political action committees, registered federal lobbyists, labor and trade unions, registered foreign agents and non-U.S. citizens.[34][36][37] The committee did accept donations from people with active lobbying interests before the federal government, but not registered as

Obama aboard the Georgia 300 on January 17, 2009


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For the train ride to Washington, Obama invited 41 "everyday" American citizens he met during his presidential campaign to accompany him on the tour and attend other inaugural events, including the swearing‑in ceremony, the parade and an inaugural ball.[44][47] The group of citizens who joined the tour shared stories with then-candidate Obama about themselves and their families during the presidential cam[48][49][50][51] Citizens invited on the paign. tour by the president‑elect included Matt Kuntz, head of the Montana chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness and a former Army officer, and Lilly Ledbetter, a former production supervisor at Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company plant who lost her appeal at the U.S. Supreme Court.[52] Kuntz dedicated his efforts to improve mental health screening for Iraq War soldiers returning home after he lost his own step‑brother to suicide after returning home from the Gulf War.[52] Ledbetter sued her employer for alleged pay discrimination, but lost her case before the Supreme Court because she did not file her claim within 180 days of the discriminatory act, an act she became aware of years later.[52] Nine days after his inauguration, Obama as president signed into law the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, allowing claims filed against employers not only within 180 days of the pay discrimination, but also restarting the 180‑day period for claims upon receiving any paycheck based on a discriminatory pay action.[53] Obama commenced the tour in Philadelphia by holding a town hall meeting at 30th Street Station with a few hundred supporters.[54][55] At the first stop in Wilmington, Delaware Vice President‑elect Biden and his family joined the tour. Biden, dubbed "Amtrak Joe" for his daily commutes on Amtrak between Wilmington and Washington, built a reputation as a supporter of increased funding for U.S. commuter rail transportation.[56][57] The train continued to Baltimore, Maryland, its second stop, where Obama spoke to a crowd of about 40,000 people.[54] During his speeches to the crowds, he emphasized the theme "A New Birth of Freedom" using phrases associated with Lincoln such as "better angels" and "a new declaration of independence."[43] Obama referred to patriotic forebearers in his speech when he reminded the crowds that "we should never

Inauguration of Barack Obama
forget that we are the heirs of that first band of patriots, ordinary men and women who refused to give up when it all seemed so improbable; and who somehow believed that they had the power to make the world anew."[58] Thousands of well‑wishers gathered at various points along the train route taking pictures, cheering and waving American flags and homemade signs,[43][54] with Obama reciting his trademark rejoinder "I love you back" to the enthusiastic crowds.[55][59] The one-day train tour concluded at Union Station in Washington, D.C.[44]

"We Are One" concert

The Obamas wave at the crowd at the We Are One concert held at the Lincoln Memorial on January 18, 2009. The day after Obama arrived in Washington, D.C., an inaugural concert, "We Are One," took place at the Lincoln Memorial. The concert featured performances and readings of historical passages by more than three dozen celebrities.[60][60][61][62] Attendance at the concert was free to the public, and HBO broadcast the concert live on an open feed, enabling anyone with cable television to watch the event.[61][63] An estimated 400,000 people attended the concert at the Lincoln Memorial.[64] The Washington Metro recorded 616,324 passenger trips during the day, breaking the old Sunday ridership record of 540,945 passenger trips set on July 4, 1999.[64]


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Inauguration of Barack Obama
volunteering in homeless shelters, visiting elderly people or writing letters to U.S. troops.[71]

King Day of Service
The eve of the Inauguration Day, January 19, 2009, fell on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, a U.S. federal holiday in recognition of Dr. King’s birthday. Obama called upon communities everywhere to observe the King Day of Service, a day of citizen volunteer service honoring the human rights leader.[65][66] More than 13,000 community service events took place across the nation on the day, the largest participation in the 14 years since Congress passed the King Holiday and Service Act and more than double the previous year.[67] Obama spent an hour at Walter Reed Army Medical Center meeting privately with the families of troops who were recovering from wounds sustained in the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan.[66][68] After visiting the medical center, he, along with Martin Luther King, III, headed to the Sasha Bruce House homeless shelter for teens to participate with others in service activities.[66][68] Joe Biden hung drywall at a Habitat for Humanity home in N.E. Washington, D.C.[66][69] Biden’s wife, Jill, their daughter, Ashley Biden, Michelle Obama and the Obamas’ daughters, Malia and Sasha, spent the morning at Robert F. Kennedy Stadium where they helped thousands of volunteers prepare more than 85,000 care packages destined for U.S. troops overseas.[67][68][70] Later that evening, the president-elect hosted three separate bipartisan dinners to honor the service of John McCain, Colin Powell and Joe Biden.[66][68]

Inaugural events
See also: United inauguration States presidential

Ceremony: "A New Birth of Freedom"

Obama takes the oath of office on January 20, 2009 at the U.S. Capitol. The inaugural ceremony took place at the West Front of the United States Capitol on January 20, 2009. The ceremony opened with the playing pre‑recorded music and a live performance by the "The President’s Own" United States Marine Band, followed by live performances by the San Francisco Boys Chorus and San Francisco Girls Chorus.[72][73][74] Senator Dianne Feinstein, chair of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the first woman to preside over a U.S. presidential inauguration, acted as the day’s Master of Ceremonies.[75][76][77] Evangelical pastor Rick Warren delivered the invocation for the inaugural ceremony,[78][79] followed by a performance by vocalist Aretha Franklin, who sang "My Country, ’Tis of Thee." The program featured a performance of John Williams’[6] composition "Air and Simple Gifts," which was both pre‑recorded and performed live synched with the recording by cellist Yo‑Yo Ma, violinist Itzhak Perlman, pianist Gabriela Montero and clarinetist Anthony McGill.[80][81] National Public Radio described the

Kids’ Inaugural: "We Are the Future"
On the evening of January 19, 2009, Michelle Obama and Jill Biden hosted the "Kids’ Inaugural: We Are the Future" event at the Verizon Center. Miley Cyrus and the Jonas Brothers honored military families in concert.[71] The show was broadcast live on the Disney Channel and on Radio Disney.[62] Other celebrity participants included Demi Lovato, Bow Wow, Corbin Bleu, Queen Latifah, Billy Ray Cyrus, Shaquille O’Neal and Jamie Foxx.[71] In keeping with the service theme of the day, Michelle Obama issued a call for children to become engaged in public service by


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Inauguration of Barack Obama
chorus concluded the ceremony with a performance of the United States national anthem, The Star‑Spangled Banner.[81]

Oath of office
Chief Justice John Roberts administered the oath of office of the President of the United States to Obama. Michelle Obama held the Bible used by Abraham Lincoln at his 1861 inauguration as Barack Obama, placing his hand on the Bible, recited the presidential oath.[90][91]

From left to right: Itzhak Perlman, Gabriela Montero, Yo‑Yo Ma and Anthony McGill performing "Air and Simple Gifts" at the inauguration performance by the quartet as "a transporting moment that moved many with its beauty and calm," while The New York Times called it the "classical‑music equivalent of lip‑syncing."[82] Aretha Franklin made a fashion statement by wearing a hat with a distinctive Swarovski crystal-studded bow.[83][84] Vice President‑elect Biden took his oath from Associate Justice John Paul Stevens,[81] and the oath for Biden was followed by the first playing of four ruffles and flourishes and the anthem "Hail, Columbia."[73] After the performance of "Air and Simple Gifts," Chief Justice John Roberts administered the oath of office to President‑elect Obama shortly after noon. Although the inaugural ceremony ran longer than scheduled, which delayed the administering of the oath that finished around 12:05 p.m. EST (17:05 UTC),[85][86] Obama assumed the presidency at the expiration of President Bush’s term at noon under the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The oath for Obama as the new President was followed by a 21‑gun salute by members of the armed forces, along with the first playing of four ruffles and flourishes and the march "Hail to the Chief." Obama delivered his inaugural address to the crowds as the President of the United States following his swearing‑in ceremony.[87] Poet Elizabeth Alexander then delivered the inaugural poem, "Praise Song for the Day,"[81][88] and civil rights activist Joseph Lowery, minister of the United Methodist Church, delivered the benediction.[89] The United States Navy Band "Sea Chanters"

Obama retakes the oath of office at the White House on January 21, 2009. During the swearing‑in ceremony, Obama did not recite, and Roberts as the administering official did not execute, the 35‑word oath of office exactly as prescribed by the United States Constitution. The first misstep occurred during the first part of the oath. Roberts had not yet completed the first phrase when Obama began reciting the oath. After the correct recitation of the first phrase of the presidential oath, Roberts recited incorrectly the next part of the oath by saying "that I will execute the Office of President to the United States faithfully", rather than "that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States". Obama recited the words "I will execute", and then paused.[92] Roberts then tried to correct his mistake in administering the oath by reciting "faithfully the Office of President of the United States", followed by Obama repeating Roberts’ first incorrect phrase.[93][94][95][96] Roberts ended the presidential oath by appending the phrase "so help you God" to the end of the constitutionally prescribed oath, and Obama responded "so help me God" when he was prompted. Obama had asked previously to include "so help me God" after


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the oath.[97] Roberts then congratulated Obama as the new President.[93] Much public discussion arose about the missteps in administering and reciting the oath, with one constitutional scholar observing that "it’s an open question whether [Obama is] president until he takes the proper oath."[98] Although Robert Gibbs, White House press secretary, indicated at first that President Obama did not plan to retake the oath,[99] Chief Justice Roberts agreed to re‑administer the oath at the request of White House counsel. The second oath ceremony took place on the evening of January 21, 2009 in the Map Room of the White House before a small audience of presidential aides, reporters and a White House photographer.[92] According to White House counsel Greg Craig, the presidential oath was re‑administered out of an abundance of caution over concerns about the legality of the oath as it was administered by Roberts on Inauguration Day. Craig added that "the oath of office was administered effectively and ... the President was sworn in appropriately ... But the oath appears in the Constitution itself."[100]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
to meet [it]." Because Obama’s campaign message focused on the need for change, Mackin noted that Obama sought to reassure Americans that he would operate as President within the margins of the nation’s traditions.[103] As part of Obama’s call for responsibility, he said "what is required of us now is a new era of responsibility—a recognition, on the part of every American" and "those of us who manage the public’s dollars will be held to account." Obama quoted the lyrics of the Jerome Kern and Dorothy Fields song "Pick Yourself Up" from the musical comedy Swing Time, saying that "starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America."[104] In an article for the The New York Times, columnist and former drama critic Frank Rich noted the link to the lyric in Field’s song from the movie, writing that Obama offered in his address "one subtle whiff of the Great Depression."[105] Obama’s inaugural address received mixed reviews, with some describing the tone of the speech a praiseworthy one of restraint and plain speaking,[106] while others described the speech as low-brow and cliched.[107] Despite his optimism, Obama was critical of former Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton.[106] David E. Sanger, chief Washington correspondent for The New York Times, described the speech as the harshest rebuke of an outgoing President during an inaugural address since Franklin Roosevelt’s call for restoration of American values.[108] The Bush administration was upset about the tone of the speech, saying that the speech veered from that of a ritualistic but respectful thanks to that of a public diatribe.[109] Members of the Republican party viewed the speech as a missed chance to seek unity, while Rahm Emanuel, Obama’s White House Chief of Staff, described the speech as a reflection of the mandate of the people.[110] In an analysis of the inaugural address, one reporter described the speech as one that emphasized the burdens of the moment and the cloudy future whose challenges may be met with the resolve that is part of our American heritage.[111]

Inaugural address
A central theme of President Obama’s inaugural address was a call to restore responsibility—both in terms of accountability in Washington and the responsibility of ordinary people to get involved.[101][102] Obama’s address did not have memorable sound bite phrases. Instead, he used traditional references to connect his new administration with the nation’s history in a speech that was understated deliberately, according to rhetoric expert James Mackin.[103] Obama concluded the second paragraph of his address by saying, "we the people have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears and true to our founding documents." The speech reinforced words such as "legacy" and "heritage," as well as values such as "honesty," "courage" and "patriotism," which "are old" values. Near the end of the speech, Obama referred to words written by Thomas Paine in The American Crisis, which were ordered by George Washington to be read to his troops: "Let it be told to the future world ... that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive ... that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth

Spiritual observances
Obama’s selections of Warren and Lowery to deliver prayers for the inaugural ceremony were controversial. Warren had a history of


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vocal opposition to gay marriage,[112] and Lowery had a background as a civil rights activist.[113] Conservatives, including Rush Limbaugh decried Lowery’s benediction, which opened with a quote from the Black National Anthem, as racist, in part do to its final phrase anticipating when "white would embrace what is right,"[86][114] while democrats disagreed.[115] Neither Obama nor Warren made references during the inaugural program to issues of direct concern to the gay community. In the invocation, Warren asked for "forgiveness for Americans ’when we fight each other’ and ’civility in our attitudes even when we differ.’"[116] Warren mentioned Dr. Martin Luther King and Jesus in the invocation, and he concluded the invocation with The Lord’s Prayer.[86] Lowery used both humor and sincerity as he delivered the benediction. One of his sincere messages was the statement that "as we leave this mountaintop, help us to hold on to the spirit of fellowship and the oneness of our family." Lowery concluded the benediction with a humorous message of anticipation for the day "when brown can stick around, when yellow will be mellow, when the red man can get ahead man and when white would embrace what is right."[86] Another of Lowery’s rhymes, "When black will not be asked to get in back," particularly offended the likes of Limbaugh who felt that Obama’s ascension on that day symbolized the fact that we had come to that point already.[114]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
sub‑Cabinet officials to the U.S. Congress for its approval.[117] The Obamas and Bidens then attended an inaugural luncheon at the U.S. Capitol before traveling from there to the presidential reviewing stand at the White House to watch the parade.

As former President and Mrs. Bush began their journey to their Texas home, the Obamas and Bidens joined several congressional guests for the inaugural luncheon in National Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol. Guests included top Washington lawmakers as well as former Presidents and Vice Presidents. Commemorating the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial, the red and white china used during the luncheon were replicas of those used in the Lincoln White House.[120]

Obama addresses the luncheon attendees in National Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol. A luncheon at the U.S. Capitol has been part of the inaugural program since 1953 (before that time, the luncheon was usually held at the White House and hosted by the outgoing President and First Lady). The menu for the 2009 inaugural luncheon, which often features dishes representative of the home states of the new President and Vice President, included seafood stew, duck and pheasant entrees with Pinot noir wine, and a dessert of apple cinnamon sponge cake with sweet cream glacé. Since 1985, a painting has served as a backdrop for the head table. For the 2009 inaugural luncheon, the featured painting was Thomas Hill’s 1865 View of the Yosemite Valley, a painting that commemorated Abraham Lincoln’s 1864 signing of the Yosemite Grant, which was the first time the federal government protected park lands for public use.[121][122][123]

Post-ceremony traditions
After the inaugural ceremony, President Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, Vice President Joe Biden and Dr. Jill Biden escorted former President George W. Bush and former First Lady Laura Bush to a departure ceremony on the east side of the U.S. Capitol. Before the luncheon and in keeping with tradition, President Obama signed his first presidential orders in the President’s Room at the Capitol,[117] and then signed the guest book for the luncheon.[86] The first order signed by Obama was a proclamation declaring his Inauguration Day a "National Day of Renewal and Reconciliation,"[118] in which he called "upon all of our citizens to serve one another and the common purpose of remaking this Nation for our new century."[119] Obama signed orders to officially present the nominations for his Cabinet and several


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During the luncheon, Senator Ted Kennedy collapsed after suffering a seizure, and he was transported to a hospital for medical treatment and recovery.[124][125] Early reports about the medical emergency suggested erroneously that Senator Robert Byrd also fell ill during the luncheon.[126] These reports were later denied,[125] and Byrd eventually explained that the Kennedy incident disturbed him and caused him to leave.[127]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
Corps from Dubuque, Iowa. Obama invited the marching band from Punahou School, his high school in Hawaii, to perform in the parade along with the marching unit of its Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps.[134] Vice President Joe Biden invited several groups from Delaware to march in the parade. The Delaware section was led by the Delaware Volunteer Firemen’s Association of which Biden is an honorary member, the Fightin’ Blue Hen Marching Band, The Pride of Delaware, from Biden’s alma mater, the University of Delaware,[135] and the Delaware State University Hornets Approaching Storm marching band.[136]

Further information: 2009 Inaugural parade route The inaugural parade route ran along Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. from the U.S. Capitol, ending at the north face of the White House. During most of the parade, President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama traveled in the new armored limousine because of potential security threats.[128] The President and First Lady twice exited their limousine, walking on Pennsylvania Avenue for portions of the parade.[129] Vice President Biden and his wife Jill walked the parade route at several points with their children Beau, Hunter and Ashley.[130]

Inaugural balls
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama attended 10 official inaugural balls during the evening of January 20, 2009.[137][138] Barack Obama wore a new tuxedo made by Hart Schaffner Marx, a Chicago-based menswear company.[134] Michelle Obama wore a white, oneshouldered, sleeveless gown designed by 26 year-old New York‑based designer Jason Wu, breaking with the recent practice set by former first ladies Laura Bush and Hillary Clinton, who showcased designers from their hometowns.[139] The Neighborhood Inaugural Ball, one of six balls held at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, was the first stop of the evening for the President and First Lady. The Obamas danced their first song as Beyoncé serenaded them with her rendition of the Etta James classic, At Last.[140] According to the Presidential Inaugural Committee, the Neighborhood Inaugural Ball was the first ball ever with free or affordable tickets, a contrast to recent history in which "inaugural balls generally have been closed to everyday Americans, populated instead by an exclusive circle of dignitaries and donors."[141] A portion of the tickets for the ball was reserved for Washington D.C. residents.[142] The nine other official inaugural balls attended by the Obamas that evening included:[138] • , National Building Museum, held only for the second time, included active and reserve duty members of the United States military, the families of American service members currently deployed overseas, the families of military

President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama walking the inaugural parade route The parade lasted more than two hours during the afternoon and early evening following the inaugural ceremony. Parade participants included 15,000 people, 240 horses, dozens of marching bands, two drum and bugle corps and a mariachi band.[131][132][133] President Obama invited the the Virginia Military Institute corps of cadets, Drum Corps International, Cadets Drum and Bugle Corps, Colts Drum and Bugle


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Obamas and Bidens at the President Obama Home States Inaugural Ball

Inauguration of Barack Obama
the Mid‑Atlantic states of Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Virginia and West Virginia. This ball featured the first 2009 appearance by The Dead.[138] • , Washington Convention Center, held for guests from the Midwestern states of Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin.[138] • , Washington Convention Center, for guests from Barack Obama’s home states of Hawaii and Illinois.[138] • , D.C. Armory, held for guests from the Southern states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas.[138] • , Washington Convention Center, for guests from Joe Biden’s home states of Delaware and Pennsylvania.[138] • , Washington Convention Center, for guests from the Western states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Colorado, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Washington and Wyoming, and the Pacific territories of American Samoa and Guam.[138] • , Washington Hilton and Towers, an event held specifically for guests between the ages of 18 and 35 years old.[138] President Obama and the First Lady also attended one inaugural ball during the evening of January 21, 2009. • , D.C. Armory, held for staff members of President Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign. The ball featured speeches by David Plouffe, Joe Biden and Barack Obama, as well as a performance by JayZ.[146] After they made their rounds at the January 20 inaugural balls, the Obamas hosted an after‑midnight gathering at the White House for 70 of their earliest supporters, close friends and family, including Oprah Winfrey, Valerie Jarrett, David Axelrod, Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, Representatives Artur Davis of the state of Alabama and Neil Abercrombie of the state of Hawaii, in addition to Michelle Obama’s brother Craig Robinson. Members of the Illinois congressional delegation attended the after hours White House celebration, including Senator Dick Durbin and Representatives Melissa Bean, Jan Schakowsky, Luis Gutierrez and Jerry Costello.[147][148]

The Obamas (left) and Bidens (right) dance during the President Obama Home States Ball at the Washington Convention Center. personnel killed in action and recipients of the Purple Heart.[138][143][144] • , Union Station, held for guests from the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont and the Atlantic territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. James Taylor performed for guests attending the ball.[138][145] • , Washington Convention Center, held for guests from the District of Columbia and


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Inauguration of Barack Obama
including phrases such as "with malice toward none, with charity for all."[152] The featured sermon for the inaugural prayer service was delivered by Reverend Sharon E. Watkins, general minister and president of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the first woman to deliver the sermon for the inaugural prayer service.[153] In her sermon, Watkins integrated passages from a variety of sources, such as passages summoned from sources rooted in the Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Cherokee faiths.[152]

National prayer service
On January 21, 2009, President Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, Vice President Biden and his wife, Dr. Jill Biden, gathered at the Washington National Cathedral for a national day of prayer.[149] At the prayer service, the Obamas and Bidens were joined in front pew by former President Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary Clinton, who was sworn in as Secretary of State later that day.[149][150][151] The prayer service was attended by about 3,200 other invited guests, including members of the U.S. Congress, diplomats and other dignitaries.[152]

Dignitaries, family and celebrity guests
Former Presidents Jimmy Carter, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and former Vice Presidents Walter Mondale, Dan Quayle, Al Gore and Dick Cheney, along with their wives, attended the inauguration.[154][155] Cheney was wheelchair-bound because of an injury that he suffered while moving boxes.[155][156] John Lewis, the only living speaker from the historic 1963 rally at the March on Washington, was present on the stage during the inauguration.[157] More than 180 of the Tuskegee Airmen attended as invited guests for the inauguration.[158][159] The five-person crew of US Airways Flight 1549 attended the swearing‑in ceremony, including Chesley Sullenberger, the pilot who landed the aircraft in the Hudson River near Manhattan after losing both engines due to a bird strike just after departing LaGuardia Airport.[160] Eighty-seven year old Sarah Obama led a group of Obama’s Kenyan relatives from his father’s home village of Kogelo.[161] Other relatives who traveled from Kenya as guests included Obama’s aunt, Maggie Obama, his uncle, Said Obama, as well as his half-brother Malik Obama.[161][162] Joe Biden’s son, Beau, Attorney General for the state of Delaware and an officer and Judge Advocate in the Delaware Army National Guard, received a special furlough from serving in Iraq to participate in the ceremonies.[163] Celebrity guests included the actors Dustin Hoffman, Samuel L. Jackson and Denzel Washington, talk show host Oprah Winfrey and director Steven Spielberg.[154]

From left to right: the Obamas, Bidens and the Clintons in front pew at the Washington National Cathedral on January 21, 2009 The theme of the interfaith worship service reflected inclusiveness and religious diversity, with a mix of Protestant pastors, female Hindu and Muslim religious leaders, rabbis and Catholic bishops who delivered scripture readings and prayers throughout the service. Prayers for the service drew from passages from the 1789 inauguration prayer service of George Washington and the 1865 inaugural address of Abraham Lincoln,


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Inauguration of Barack Obama
crowd."[164] Approximately 1.2 million people had attended the Lyndon B. Johnson 1965 presidential inauguration.[168] Amid the massive crowds that arrived at the U.S. Capitol for the inauguration, about 4,000 ticket holders were unable to gain entry to reserved areas on the Capitol grounds after security personnel closed the gates at the start of the formal ceremony. Many ticket holders were stuck in underground tunnels where pedestrian traffic was directed to and from the National Mall, while others remained stuck in long lines as they waited to gain entry to the reserved areas.[169][170][171][172] Senator Dianne Feinstein, in her capacity as chair of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, launched an investigation to address complaints by the affected ticket holders.[173] The committee later announced that ticket holders who were unable to enter the Capitol grounds to view the ceremony would receive a copy of the swearing‑in invitation and program, photos of President Obama and Vice President Biden, and a color print of the inaugural ceremony.[174]

Crowds and general ticket holders

Crowds watch the inauguration at the National Mall. The Washington Monument, and the Lincoln Memorial behind it, are in the background. No official count was taken of the number of people attending the inaugural ceremony, although multiple sources concluded that the ceremony had the largest audience of an event ever held in Washington, D.C. Government agencies and federal officials, who coordinated security and traffic management, determined the attendance count to be 1.8 million people based on information collected by several cameras and individuals on the ground. The Washington Post reported the estimated crowd size for the inaugural ceremony, and the National Park Service said it did "not contest" the estimate.[164][165] Satellite analyst Allison Puccioni of Jane’s Information Group estimated a crowd size between 1.031 and 1.411 million people using an image acquired by the GeoEye‑1 satellite at 11:19 a.m. EST (16:19 UTC).[166] This estimate did not include an estimated 240,000 people in designated reserved areas for ticket holders or in federal buildings open to the public. Stephen Doig, a professor at Arizona State University, estimated that 800,000 people attended the inauguration ceremony using the same satellite image. Although the image was taken a little less than 45 minutes before Obama’s swearing‑in ceremony, Doig adjusted his estimate to include people who were still arriving in the area before the event.[167] In spite of his crowd estimate, Doig stated that "if I had to bet, I would say the [Barack] Obama crowd is in fact bigger than those that showed up for [Johnson] or any of the other things" ... "I’m wholly prepared to think it was the largest

The inauguration took place in an era of enhanced security in the years following the September 11 attacks. Because of the size of the crowds expected in Washington, D.C. for the inaugural activities, planners raised concerns about public safety and security. Army General Richard Rowe, head of the joint military task force for the Washington, D.C. area, explained that security forces had to stretch their imagination to anticipate previously unthinkable security threats, especially in light of the Mumbai attacks in India that occurred in November 2008.[175]

U.S. National Guard troops on K Street, N.W. in Washington, D.C. during the inauguration


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The police presence in the District of Columbia temporarily doubled, augmented by the addition of 8,000 police officers from around the United States. The police force was assisted by 1,000 FBI agents to provide security for the event,[18][133] and the Secret Service Countersniper team was assigned to hidden locations throughout the area.[176] The Transportation Security Administration had over 300 officers from its National Deployment Force on hand to assist the Secret Service with security inspections of attendees entering the National Mall.[177] Ten thousand National Guard troops were on site, with 5,000 troops providing security duty in a ceremonial capacity and 1,300 unarmed troops aiding Park Police in crowd control at the National Mall. C Company of the 1-175 Infantry provided security between the first and second public viewing areas of the National Mall at the 7th Street, N.W. intersection, while the remaining members performed other security functions.[45] Because the the Secret Service declared the Obama inauguration a special national security event, the Federal Aviation Administration implemented additional airspace restrictions over Washington, D.C. between 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. on January 20, 2009.[178][179] Secretary of Defense Robert Gates was chosen as the designated survivor to ensure continuity of government in case of catastrophe, and he spent Inauguration Day at a U.S. military installation outside of the Washington, D.C. area.[180] No one from the crowds at the swearing‑in ceremony and parade was arrested as of 6:00 p.m. EST on Inauguration Day. According to a senior federal agent associated with managing security, the fact that no arrests were made by any agency during the inaugural events was unheard of for a record crowd of nearly two million gathering in Washington, D.C. for the Obama inauguration.[164][181]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
inauguration of George W. Bush.[182][183] The Raleigh-Durham market had the largest TV audience with more than 51% of households tuned in to the day’s events, a number attributed in part to a snowstorm that kept people inside and in part to the large African American population in that community.[184][185] Of the top 10 media markets in terms of viewership, four were in North Carolina, two were in Virginia and one was in Maryland, with the Washington D.C. market ranking second highest in television viewership.[186] In addition, schools and workplaces across the country allowed viewing of the inauguration because the event occurred on a weekday.[187][188] As measured between 10:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. EST, U.S. television viewership for the Obama inaugural events achieved an average of 37.8 million across 17 broadcast and cable channels, not including online viewers who watched live streaming video of the events. Although the Obama inaugural events achieved an average U.S. television viewership of 37.8 million across both broadcast networks and cable channels, viewership for the events was lower than the U.S. television viewership for the 1981 Reagan inaugural festivities, which averaged 41.8 million across the ABC, CBS and NBC broadcast networks alone.[189] Measurements of television viewership in Europe showed that Germany drew the largest audience for the Obama inauguration at 11 million viewers, followed by France at 7 million viewers and the United Kingdom at 5.1 million viewers.[190][191] According to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 6.5 million viewers in the United Kingdom watched highlights of the inauguration during its early evening news program.[192]

Internet traffic
The Obama inauguration resulted in a surge of Internet traffic to news and social networking websites and a record number of video streams. CNN reported that it generated more than 21 million video streams by 3:30 p.m. EST that day—an all-time record, in addition to receiving 136 million page views that day.[193] At one point during the surge of traffic to view the Obama inauguration, the BBC reported downtime during its own live video feed at its website. The heavy website traffic caused the BBC video feed to cut

Television audience
Nielson television ratings indicated that 29.2% of televisions in the 56 largest media markets in the United States were tuned to the inauguration, the largest audience since Ronald Reagan’s first inauguration in 1981 and nearly double the viewership of the 2005


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out for 30 minutes, with web visitors seeing the message "Please come back later" instead of the live video footage.[194] The technology company Akamai reported that 5,401,250 web users logged on news sites in less than one minute, the fifth highest peak among news websites since the company started tracking data in 2005.[193] During at-peak usage, news websites served seven million simultaneous video streams, which was the highest number of simultaneous video streams in Akamai’s history.[195] The Obama inaugural ceremony not only achieved the highest Internet viewership for a U.S. presidential inauguration, the inaugural event was the first to feature a live audio description of a swearing‑in ceremony and the first to include closed captioning in the live webcast of the event.[77]

Inauguration of Barack Obama

Kenyans observing the inauguration from the United States embassy in Nairobi, Kenya Celebrations, praise and congratulations to Obama on his inauguration poured in from across the world. In Kenya, the home country of Obama’s father, people celebrated the inauguration as a public holiday.[201] Indonesians and Americans in Jakarta watched the inauguration at a free midnight ball featuring performances by students from State Elementary School Menteng 01, the school that Obama attended as a child.[202] The city of Obama in Japan celebrated the event with fireworks, bell-ringing and hula-dancing at the Hagaji Temple.[203][204] Governor General Michaëlle Jean and Prime Minister Stephen Harper of Canada extended heartfelt congratulations on behalf of Canadians,[205] while Mexican President Felipe Calderón wished Obama "great success in the work as the new President of the United States."[206] Israeli President Shimon Peres described Obama’s inauguration as a "great day" for the United States,[207] and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown heralded the inauguration, noting that "The whole world is watching the inauguration of President Obama, witnessing a new chapter in both American history and the world’s history."[208] Leaders of others countries reserved enthusiasm for the Obama inauguration, with coverage of the inauguration even muted in some places. Cuban President Raúl Castro, brother of former Cuban president Fidel Castro, declared that "[Obama] looks like a good man, I hope he is lucky,"[209] while Ricardo Alarcón, president of the Cuban legislature, admitted in his comments about Obama that "the incoming [U.S.] president ’is a big question mark.’"[209] Iranian Foreign MinisterManouchehr Mottaki expressed hope for openness for a new direction, noting that "if Obama chooses the right path,

Unofficial events
In addition to the official events, groups and supporters held an array of gatherings and celebrations throughout Washington, D.C. and the surrounding region in the days before and the evening following the inauguration.[196] One such event, a newly created "People’s Inaugural Ball" was held for economically and physically disadvantaged people from across the United States who otherwise would be unable to afford to attend the inaugural festivities.[197] Earl W. Stafford, a businessman from Fairfax County, Virginia, spent an estimated $1.6 million dollars through his family’s foundation to bring approximately 300 guests to Washington, D.C., hosting the ball on January 19, 2009 for a total of about 450 people.[197][198] Clothing, shoes, tuxedos and hotel rooms for attendees were provided as part of the invitation.[199]

International attention
The international community paid unprecedented attention to the inauguration of Barack Obama. Millions of people, including citizens of the respective countries and American expatriates living in those countries, watched the Obama inauguration live on television and the on Internet. In some countries, the Obama inauguration garnered as much viewership as the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics.[200]


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compensates the past, lifts hostility and U.S. hegemony, and revises the previous political mistakes, we will have no hostility."[207] State-owned Channel One Russia, Russia’s flagship early evening news show, covered Obama’s presidential inauguration as a minor news story, devoting much of the day’s airtime instead to the gas war with Ukraine.[210] China covered the Obama inauguration live on its state‑controlled China Central Television, providing simultaneous translation into Mandarin Chinese with a brief delay to allow censoring of Obama’s comments. When President Obama mentioned "earlier generations faced down fascism and communism," Chinese state television officials cut away abruptly from the televised speech and switched to a discussion in the studio.[211][212] State-controlled print, radio and television media in North Korea provided no coverage or mention of the Obama inauguration in the hours after the event, opting instead to cover news about Equatorial Guinea welcoming the North Korean ambassador.[213] Ordinary citizens in Iraq even offered comments about the new president with cautious optimism. One Iraqi citizen opined that "If [Obama] can do as well as he talks, then all our problems are over," adding a belief that "[Obama] is a good man, but many people in Iraq believe all American presidents are the same and that we are a playground for their interests."[214] Another citizen noted that "Obama won’t get the same treatment,’ ... ’But he won’t have too long to prove himself to us.’"[214]

Inauguration of Barack Obama
release-11052008-inauguralwebsite.cfm. Retrieved on 2009-01-15. Lisi, Clemente (2009-01-13). "O to arrive in a ’Lincoln’: Inaugural themes will harken back to great emancipator". The New York Post. seven/01132009/news/politics/ o_to_arrive_in_a_lincoln_149979.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. Boritt, Gabor (2006). The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows. Simon & Schuster. p. 432. ISBN 0743288203. "’A New Birth of Freedom’—2009 Inaugural Theme". United States Congress Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. 2008. chronology/bhobama2009/theme.cfm. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. Walsh, Kenneth, T. (2009-01-20). "Barack Obama’s Inauguration Is One for the History Books". U.S. News & World Report. news/obama/2009/01/20/barack-obamasinauguration-is-one-for-the-historybooks.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. ^ Akers, Mary Beth (2008-12-18). "I Barack Hussein Obama Do Solemnly Swear...". The Washington Post. 2008/12/presidentelect_obama_has_said.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-09. "Obama to Resurrect Middle Name for Inauguration Day". Fox News. 2008-12-16. story/0,2933,467607,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-21. ^ DeLong, Matthew (2008-12-04). "National Mall Will Open to Public for Inauguration". The Washington Independent. 20933/national-mall-will-open-to-publicfor-inauguration. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. Ruggeri, Amanda (2008-12-17). "A Visitor’s Guide to the Presidential Inauguration of Barack Obama". U.S. News & World Report. obama/2008/12/17/a-visitors-guide-tothe-presidential-inauguration-of-barackobama.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-19.







See also
• Presidential transition of Barack Obama • First 100 days of Barack Obama’s presidency • Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama • Presidency of Barack Obama


[1] ^ "Senator Feinstein Announces 2009 Inaugural Theme". Press Release (United States Congress Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies). 2008-11-05. media/releases/



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[10] Shear, Michael D. and Kornblut, Anne E. (2009-01-21). "A historic inauguration draws throngs to the Mall.". The Washington Post. content/article/2009/01/20/ AR2009012004497.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22.. [11] ^ Zongker, Brett (2008-12-04). "National Mall will be open for Obama inauguration". Fox News. 2008Dec04/ 0,4670,InaugurationMall,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [12] Yager, Jordy (2008-01-13). "Green carpet won’t quite cover Inaugural footprint". The Hill. Retrieved on 2009-04-21. [13] Miller, Sunlen (2008-01-14). "Obama Team Aims to Go Green This Inaugural". ABC News. politicalpunch/2009/01/obama-teamaims.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-21. [14] Keyes, Allison (2008-12-21). "Inauguration: Expect Nonstop Drink, Crowds". National Public Radio. story.php?storyId=98280231. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [15] "Inauguration raises bar: 5 a.m. last call". Seattle Times. 2008-12-04. nationworld/ 2008466909_inaugbars04.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. [16] "D.C. Council Extends Bar Hours For Inauguration". National Public Radio. 2008-12-05. templates/story/ story.php?storyId=97843640. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. [17] Nakamura, David (2008-12-03). "District raises a glass to history". The Washington Post. content/article/2008/12/02/ AR2008120203063.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. [18] ^ "D.C. bars won’t stay open quite so late for inauguration". Salon. 2008-12-17. politics/war_room/2008/12/17/dc_bars/. Retrieved on 2009-02-16.

Inauguration of Barack Obama
[19] "Senators Feinstein and Bennett Urge DC Government To Reverse Emergency Alcohol Law". United States Congress Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. 2008-12-09. releases/ release-12102008-fentygray.cfm. Retrieved on 2009-01-24. [20] Nakamura, David A (2009-01-13). "Metro Extends Service on Inaugural Eve Until 2 a.m.". The Washington Post. inauguration-watch/2009/01/ metro_extends_service_on_inaug.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. [21] Muir, David (2008-12-30). "Printer Crafts 1 Million Inaugural Invitations: Under Deadline, Excited Workers Make Product of a Lifetime for Obama’s Inauguration". ABC News. Inauguration/story?id=6551979. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. [22] Dominello, Amy (2008-11-10). "Obama’s inauguration will be tough ticket". Media General News Service. index.php/news/article/obamasinauguration-will-be-tough-ticket/2119/. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. [23] "Congress to receive inaugural tickets today". WRC-TV (Washington, D.C.). 2009-01-13. local/Congress-to-Distribute-InauguralTickets-Starting-Monday.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. [24] Pergram, C. (2009-01-12). "Tickets to Obama inauguration create stir on Capitol Hill". Fox News. 01/12/tickets-obama-inauguration-createstir-capitol-hill. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. [25] "Senate votes to ban inauguration ticket scalping". Reuters. 2009-01-14. reutersComService_2_MOLT/ idUSTRE50D7O220090115. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [26] ^ Kravitz, Derek (2009-01-14). "$20K Inaugural Tickets for Sale as Congress Debates Ban". The Washington Post. washingtonpostinvestigations/2009/01/


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Inauguration of Barack Obama

inaugural_tickets_still_sellin.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. articles/2009/01/30/ [27] Akers, Mary Ann (2009-01-13). "Senate inaugural_fund_raising_exceeds_53m/. Cracks Down On Inaugural Scalping Retrieved on 2009-02-01. After GOP Aide Nabbed". [35] ^ Akers, Mary Ann (2008-12-15). The Washington Post. "Hollywood Coughs Up Cash for Obama Inaugural". The Washington Post. 2009/01/ selling_inauguration_tickets_i.html. 2008/12/ Retrieved on 2009-05-12. despite_concerns_about_donor_f.html. [28] ^ "EBay removes offers of Obama Retrieved on 2009-03-02. inauguration tickets". Los Angeles Times. [36] Seelye, Katherine Q. (2008-11-25). 2008-11-14. "Obama Places Stringent Limits on business/la-fiInaugural Contributions". The New York obamatix14-2008nov14,0,6959444.story. Times. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. 26/us/politics/26inaug.html?fta=y. [29] Harder, Amy (2008-11-21). "Ban On Retrieved on 2009-05-10. Scalping Inaugural Tickets Stalls In [37] "Inauguration committee limits Senate". National Journal. donations to $50,000". International Business Times. 2008-11-26. 2008/11/ban-on-scalping-inaugural tickets-stalls.php. Retrieved on 20081126/inauguration-committee2009-05-05. limits-donations-to-50-000.htm. [30] Yager, Jordy (2008-11-13). "Feinstein Retrieved on 2008-01-09. lauds eBay for ticket ban". The Hill. [38] ^ Mayerowitz, Scott (2009-01-19). "What Recession? The $170 million feinstein-praises-ebay-for-banningInauguration". ABC News. inauguration-ticket sales-2008-11-13.html. Retrieved on Inauguration/ 2009-05-04. story?id=6665946&page=1. Retrieved [31] Harder, Amy (2009-01-07). "Feinstein on 2009-01-19. Releases Text Of Scalping Bill". National [39] Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (2009-01-13). "Bush Journal. Declares State of Emergency for Inauguration". The New York Times. mt/mt search.cgi?tag=Legislation&blog_id=49&IncludeBlogs=49. 2009/01/13/bush-declares-state-ofRetrieved on 2009-05-05. emergency-for-inauguration/. Retrieved [32] Harder, Amy (2008-12-15). "Ban On on 2009-04-28. Scalping Inaugural Tickets Dies In [40] McKinnon, John D. (2009-01-13). Senate". National Journal. "Inauguration Watch: A State of Emergency?". Wall Street Journal. 2008/12/inaugural-scalping-ban-dies-in senate.php. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. 13/inauguration-watch-a-state-of[33] ^ MacAskill, Ewen (2009-01-14). emergency/. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. "Obama’s inauguration set to be the [41] Nakamura, David A. (2009-01-13). "Bush most expensive in US history: The $150m Declares State of Emergency for (£102m) cost of the celebration will Inauguration". The Washington Post. dwarf the amount spent on George Bush’s inauguration in 2005". The inauguration-watch/2009/01/ Guardian (United Kingdom). bush_declares_state_of_emergen.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-28. jan/14/barack-obama-inauguration-cost. [42] Jackson, David (2008-12-15). "Obama’s Retrieved on 2009-01-16. inaugural train to start in Philly". USA [34] ^ Mooney, Brian C. (2009-01-30). Today. "Inaugural fund-raising exceeds $53m". politics/ The Boston Globe.


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2008-12-15-obamatrain_N.htm?csp=34. washington/ Retrieved on 2008-12-19. 2009-01-15-obamasupporters_N.htm. [43] ^ West, Paul (2009-01-18). "Crowds Retrieved on 2009-03-05. jubilant as train rolls through". The [51] "Ledbetter to ride on Obama’s train Baltimore Sun. tour". Gadsden Times (Gadsden, AL). 2009-01-08. nation/bal te.train18jan18,0,665753.story. 20090108/NEWS/901070283. Retrieved Retrieved on 2009-04-23. on 2009-03-05. [44] ^ Gray, Kathleen (2009-01-17). "Obama [52] ^ "Obama invites ’Everyday Americans’ Train Ride To D.C. Is A Tribute To to join Whistle Stop Tour to DC for Lincoln". Detroit Free Press (NewsBank). inaugural festivities". Star Tribune (Minnesota). 2009-01-07. we/ InfoWeb?p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=NewsBank&p_ national/president/ Retrieved on 2009-04-12. 37200584.html?elr=KArksi8D3PE7_8yc+D3aiUo8D3 [45] ^ "Obama set to ride rails to historic Retrieved on 2009-04-27. inauguration". Cable News Network. [53] Bellantoni, Christina (2009-01-29). 2009-01-17. "Obama signs Ledbetter fair-pay act". POLITICS/01/17/obama.train/. Retrieved The Washington Times. on 2009-01-17. [46] ^ Sweet, Lynn (2009-01-17). "Aboard the 2009/jan/29/obama-signs-ledbetter-fairObama express". Chicago Sun Times. pay-act. Retrieved on 2009-04-30. [54] ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2009-01-17). "Obama 01/aboard_the_obama_express.html. arrives in Washington after train trip". Retrieved on 2009-04-27. The New York Times. [47] "Obama Takes Train Ride To History: President‑Elect Retraces Lincoln’s Route politics/18obama.html?ref=politics. From Philadelphia To Washington; Next Retrieved on 2009-02-08. Stop: Inauguration". CBS News. [55] ^ "Obama to crowds: ’I love you back’". 2009-01-17. Cable News Network. 2009-02-08. stories/2009/01/17/national/ inauguration09/ 17/obama.train/. Retrieved on main4729489.shtml?source=related_story. 2009-01-17. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. [56] Leibovich, Mark (2008-09-16). "Riding [48] Khan, Huma, Sunlen Miller and Jake the Rails With Amtrak Joe". The New Tapper (2009-01-17). "Obama Express York Times. Pulls Into Home Station: ’You’re Never Too Old to Toot the Horn,’ 2008/09/16/riding-the-rails-with-amtrakPresident‑Elect Jokes". ABC News. joe/. Retrieved on 2000-05-09. [57] Bosman, Julie (2008-11-21). "’Amtrak Inauguration/ Joe’ No More". The New York Times. story?id=6669384&page=1. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. fashion/23biden.html. Retrieved on [49] David, Priya (2009-01-17). "An 2009-05-01. "Everyday" American On Obama’s Train: [58] "Text of Obama’s speech in CBS Evening News: Dover Teacher And Philadelphia". Salon. 2009-01-17. Anti‑Domestic Violence Advocate Among Passengers On Historic Trip". CBS News. 17/ D95P6A8O0_obama_whistle_stop_text/ 01/17/eveningnews/main4731162.shtml. print.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. Retrieved on 2009-03-05. [59] Powell, Michael (2008-10-21). "After a [50] Keily, Kathy (2009-01-16). "Obama’s Year on the Road, Obama Is Changing connections, from campaign trail to His Tempo". The New York Times. inaugural train". USA Today.


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Inauguration of Barack Obama

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Inauguration of Barack Obama

Festivities". U.S. Federal Aviation inaugural-events-viewed-by-292-in-topAdministration. 2009. markets/. Retrieved on 2009-01-25. [187]Workplaces Plan For Inauguration " public_advisory_inauguration_2009.pdf. Viewing". WDSU-TV (New Orleans, LA). Retrieved on 2009-05-01. 2009-01-19. [179]Lockdown set for Obama’s " 18514439/detail.html. Retrieved on inauguration". ABS-CBN News 2009-03-28. (Philipines). 2006-01-19. http://www.abs[188] tout, Cathryn (2009-01-06). "Schools S consider allowing students to watch lockdown-set-obamas-inauguration. Obama inauguration". Memphis Retrieved on 2009-05-01. Commercial Appeal. [180]Defense Secretary Will Skip " Inauguration". The Washington Post. 2009/jan/06/schools-consider-jan-20-tv2009-01-20. time/. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [189] uft, Oliver (January 22, 2009). "Barack L 2009/01/20/ Obama’s inauguration watched by 40m defense_secretary_will_skip_in.html?wprss=44. Americans". The Guardian (United Retrieved on 2009-01-21. Kingdom). [181] eek, James Gordon (2009-01-20). M media/2009/jan/22/ustelevision"Security withstands record crowds barackobama. Retrieved on 2009-01-23. during President Obama’s inauguration [190] edraza, Rick (2009-01-22). "Obama P parade, swearing‑in ceremony". The New inaugural ratings fall short of Reagan’s". York Daily News. Newsmax Media. politics/2009/01/20/ obama_inaugural_reagan/2009/01/22/ 2009-01-20_security_withstands_record_crowds_during.html. 174132.html?s=al&promo_code=785C-1. Retrieved on 2009-01-23. Retrieved on 2009-04-17. [182] ensinger, Greg (2009-01-21). "Obama B [191] ank, Melissa (2009-01-22). "Obama a H gets highest TV ratings since Reagan, huge TV success". TV Guide (Canada). sets web records". Deseret News (Salt Lake City, UT). Obama+a+huge+TV+success/TVNews/ article/1,5143,705279305,00.html. Articles/ Retrieved on 2009-02-13. 090122_obama_inauguration_record_MH.htm?isfa=1 [183]Obama Inaugural Events Viewed By " Retrieved on 2009-04-17. 29.2% In Top Markets". Nielsen Wire. [192]TV ratings: Barack Obama inauguration " 2009-01-21. draws 5m viewers to BBC1". The nielsenwire/media_entertainment/obamaGuardian. United Kingdom. 2009-01-22. inaugural-events-viewed-by-292-in-top markets/. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. jan/22/tv-ratings-barack-obama[184]Nielsen: Raleigh-Durham has top " inauguration. Retrieved on 2009-04-13. ratings for Obama inauguration". [193] Luft, Oliver (2009-01-23). "Web traffic ^ Triangle Business Journal. 2009-01-21. soars for Obama inauguration". The Guardian (United Kingdom). stories/2009/01/19/daily28.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. jan/22/barack-obama-inauguration-web[185] arofoli, Joe (January 22, 2009). "Nearly G traffic-soars. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. 38 million watched inaugural on TV". [194]rvine, Chris (2009-01-20). "Barack I San Francisco Chronicle. Obama inauguration: record demand crashes BBC’s live internet feed". The article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/01/21/ Daily Telegraph (United Kingdom). MNRD15EOH7.DTL. Retrieved on 2009-01-25. worldnews/northamerica/usa/ [186]Obama Inaugural Events Viewed By " barackobama/4301367/Barack-Obama29.2% In Top Markets". Nielson Wire. inauguration-record-demand-crashes2009-0-21. BBCs-live-internet-feed.html. Retrieved nielsenwire/media_entertainment/obamaon 2009-01-25.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Inauguration of Barack Obama

[195] ance, Ashlee (2009-01-20). "News Sites V [204] ta, Kiyoshi (2009-01-21). O Struggle to Stream Obama Video". ""Photo:Obama girls" dance the hula to The New York Times. celebrate the inauguration of President Barack Obama". 20/news-sites-struggle-to-stream obamas-innaguration-speech/. Retrieved 28753038/displaymode/1107/s/2/ on 2009-02-09. framenumber/21/. Retrieved on [196]Obama Inauguration Schedule". The " 2009-03-06. Huffington Post. Associated Press. [205]Statement by Prime Minister Stephen " 2009-01-24. Harper". Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. 2009-01-20. 14/obama-inauguration schedu_0_n_157859.html. Retrieved on media.asp?category=3&id=2391. 2009-01-25. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. [197] Thomas-Lester, Avis (2009-01-01). ^ [206]World congratulates Obama on taking " "Preparing for the Ball of a Lifetime". office". Cable News Network. The Washington Post. 2009-01-21. POLITICS/01/20/ content/story/2009/01/19/ ST2009011900765.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2009-04-27. 2009-01-19. [207] "World Leaders, Adversaries Comment ^ [198] homas-Lester, Avis (2009-01-21). T on Obama Inauguration". Deutsche "Businessman’s gift stirs "platinum-level Welle. 2009-01-20. http://www.dwguests."". The Washington Post.,,3963354,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-21. content/article/2009/01/20/ [208]In quotes:Leaders welcome Obama". " AR2009012004154_2.html?sid=ST2009012003848&s_pos=. 2009-01-20. BBC News. Retrieved on 2009-02-13. [199]Fairy godfather invites disadvantaged to " americas/obama_inauguration/ inaugural ball". Agence France-Presse. 7840565.stm. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. 2009-01-19. [209] "Raul Castro calls Obama "a good ^ hostednews/afp/article/ man," wishes him luck". TopNews ALeqM5g286yHHwAWCcEyaqMWnkqYgOUZOw. Magazine (India). 2009-01-21. Retrieved on 2009-02-13.[200]History made as Obama sworn in". Daily " obama-good-man-wishes-himNation (Kenya). 2009-01-19. luck-2113300. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. [210] homas, Archie (2009-01-20). "World T 517048/-/u1bo54/-/index.html. Retrieved watches Obama inauguration: on 2009-01-19. International audiences have mixed [201]TV row over Kenya Obama ’junket’". " views". Variety. BBC. 2009-01-16. article/ 2/hi/africa/7833101.stm. Retrieved on VR1117998807.html?categoryid=1064&cs=1. 2009-03-13. Retrieved on 2009-03-11. [202] slop, Zoe (2009-01-19). "Kenyans’ A [211] ristow, Michael (2009-01-21). "Obama B inaugural trip to USA riles some at speech censored in China". BBC News. home". USA Today. 7841580.stm. Retrieved on 2009-01-21. 2009-01-19-worldinauguration_N.htm. [212] hang, Anita (2009-01-21). "China C Retrieved on 2009-01-19. Censors Parts Of Obama’s Speech". The [203]nada, Miho (2009-01-21). "Early I Huffington Post. Inauguration Celebration in Obama, Japan". The Wall Street Journal. 21/china-censors-parts-of ob_n_159603.html. Retrieved on 20/early-inauguration-celebration-in2009-03-02. obama-japan/. Retrieved on 2009-01-23. [213]World hopes on Obama". BBC News. " 2009-01-21.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
americas/obama_inauguration/ 7839486.stm. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. [214] Dehghan, Saeed Kamali; Rice, Xan; ^ Harding, Luke; Chulov, Martin; Carroll, Rory and McCarthy, Rory (2009-01-21). "Jubilation and resignation as world reacts to arrival of new US president". The Guardian (United Kingdom). jan/20/obama-inauguration-globalreaction. Retrieved on 2009-04-27.

Inauguration of Barack Obama
• The 56th Presidential Inauguration: Inaugural Media Guide • Biyyaa , Q. (2009-01-21). President Barack Obama’s inaugural speech analysed from African perspective. Jimma Times (Ethiopia). Retrieved on 2009-05-15.

• Transcript of prepared remarks of Barack Obama in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • Transcript of prepared remarks of Barack Obama in Baltimore, Maryland • Dianne Feinstein’s Inaugural Remarks Astound (Video) • Full transcript and video of the inaugural address of President Barack Obama

External links
• Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies • Complete list of inaugural parade participants

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