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Humboldt County, California

Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County, California

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Location in the state of California

California’s location in the U.S. Statistics Founded Seat Largest city Area - Total - Land - Water Population - (2000) - Density Time zone May 12, 1853[1] Eureka Eureka 4,052 sq mi (10,495 km²) 3,572 sq mi (9,251 km²) 480 sq mi (1,243 km²), 11.84% 126,518 36/sq mi (14/km²) Pacific: UTC-8/-7

Humboldt County is located on the far North Coast of California. In the 2000 census, the county had a population of 126,518. The two largest population centers are Eureka, the county seat, and the smaller college town of Arcata, home to Humboldt State University. Both cities are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay, California’s second largest natural bay.[2] Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture. Humboldt County is also widely known for its cultural attributes associated with the cultivation and proliferation of marijuana. Growers of relatively small amounts around 99 plants and up to 3 pounds are protected under county guidelines for medicinal use under the auspices of California Proposition 215 (1996). David Samuels of The New Yorker describes the county as "the heartland of highgrade marijuana farming in California."[10] The 2008 independent film Humboldt County centers on the county’s marijuana cultivation subculture. Humboldt is a densely forested, rural county situated in Northern California’s rugged Coast (Mountain) Ranges. With nearly 1,500,000 acres (6,100 km2) of combined public and private forest in production, Humboldt County accounts for twenty percent of the total forest production for all of California.[3] The county contains over forty percent of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests,[4] the vast majority of which is protected or strictly conserved within dozens of national, state, and local forests and parks, totaling approximately 680,000 acres (over 1,000 square miles).[5]

History
The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Yurok, Hupa, Karuk, Chilula, Whilkut, and the southern Athabascans, including the Mattole and Nongatl.[6] Andrés de Urdaneta hit the coast near Cape Mendocino, California, then followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565. Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila

Website: www.co.humboldt.ca.us

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Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County. The first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775.[6] The county derived its name from Humboldt Bay. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company.[6] The hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, and some Aleut hunters.[6][7] The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg’s party visited.[7] In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Baron Alexander von Humboldt. The area around Humboldt Bay was once solely inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, Tolowot, was located on Gunther Island (AKA Indian Island and AKA Bloody Island) in Humboldt Bay. Founded circa 900, it contains a shell midden 6 acres (24,000 m²) in size and 14 feet (4 m) deep. It was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people that was recorded by Bret Harte, then living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men, women, and children were murdered that night. In 1998, musician Frank Black wrote and recorded a song about this event, called "Humboldt County Massacre." Tolowot is now an archaeological site, designated Gunther Island Site 67, and is a National Historic Landmark.[7] State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Trinidad Head, Fort Humboldt, The Old Arrow Tree, Centerville Beach Cross, Camp Curtis, the Town of Trinidad, the City of Eureka, California’s first drilled oil wells in Petrolia, the Jacoby Building, the Old Indian Village of Tsurai in Trinidad, the Arcata and Mad River Railroad Company, the Humboldt Harbor Historical District, and the town of Ferndale.[7] On February 5 and February 6, 1885, Eureka’s entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs (tongs) resulted in the wounding of a 12 year old boy and the death of 56 year old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eurekans met and then

Humboldt County, California
informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were put on two steamships and shipped to San Francisco. No-one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after local loggers objected to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s.[8]

Climate
The coastal areas of the county experience wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers. Winter highs usually range from the low 40s to the upper 50s, and winter lows on the coast usually range from the 40s into the 30s. The immediate coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with coastal areas averaging from 30 to 100 inches (2,500 mm) a year based on elevation. Summers on the coast are cool to mild, with highs typically in the 60’s accompanied by periods of fog. Yet just 10 or 20 miles (32 km) inland one can find abundant sunshine and warmth. Thus coastal residents often head eastward in the summer to escape the gloomy cold summer fog. Summer highs range from the mid-50s to upper 60s, with lows in the upper 40s to mid-50s. Record highs at Woodley Island for most summer days are in the low to mid-70s. Inland areas of the county also experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft (910 m) throughout the winter months. The main climatic difference between inland areas and the coast takes place in the summer months. Inland parts of Humboldt County experience average highs from the 80s to 90s depending on the elevation and distance from the ocean. 100 degree days are also common in eastern parts of the county including Orleans, Hoopa, and Willow Creek during the summer.

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Humboldt County, California
Forests • Headwaters Forest Reserve • Six Rivers National Forest • Trinity National Forest Wildlife refuge • Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge

Geography
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,052 square miles (10,495 km²), of which, 3,572 square miles (9,253 km²) of it is land and 480 square miles (1,243 km²) of it (11.84%) is water. Located in Humboldt County is Cape Mendocino, the westernmost point in California, with a longitude of 124 degrees, 24 minutes and 30 seconds.

California State Parks
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Azalea State Reserve Benbow Lake State Recreation Area Fort Humboldt State Historic Park Grizzly Creek Redwoods State Park Harry A. Merlo State Recreation Area Humboldt Lagoons State Park Humboldt Redwoods State Park John B. Dewitt Redwoods State Reserve Little River State Beach Patrick’s Point State Park Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park Richardson Grove State Park Sinkyone Wilderness State Park Trinidad State Beach

Bay
Humboldt Bay, the only deep water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, Oregon, is located on the coast at the midpoint of the county.

Rivers

Cities and towns
The majority of residents live in the EurekaArcata-Fortuna micropolitan area, located on a coastal plain adjacent to or near Humboldt Bay.[9]

Incorporated cities
Mouth of Humboldt County’s Little River on the Pacific Coast. Humboldt County’s major rivers include (in order of flow-cubic meters per second-from largest to smallest): • Klamath • Eel • Trinity • Mad The list of other smaller rivers and at least one large creek include the following: Van Duzen, Mattole, Salmon, Elk, Bear, and Little rivers, and Redwood Creek. • • • • • • • Arcata Blue Lake Eureka Ferndale Fortuna Rio Dell Trinidad

Unincorporated towns and areas
• • • • • • • • • • Alderpoint Alton Bayside Bayview Briceland Blocksburg Bridgeville Carlotta Cutten Fernbridge • • • • • • • • • • Fieldbrook Garberville Harris Honeydew Hoopa Humboldt Hill Hydesville Loleta Manila McKinleyville • • • • • • • • • • Miranda Myrtletown Myers Flat Orick Orleans Pepperwood Petrolia Phillipsville Pine Hills Redcrest • • • • • • • • •

Parks and other protected areas
National
Park • Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) Conservation area • King Range National Conservation Area

Red Sam Scot Shel Cove Tabl Wes Moo Weo Whi Will Cree

Adjacent counties
• Del Norte County, California - north

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• Mendocino County, California - south • Siskiyou County, California - northeast • Trinity County, California - east

Humboldt County, California
route between the Valley West Neighborhood and the university when classes are in session. • The city of Blue Lake and the Blue Lake Rancheria operates the Blue Lake Rancheria Transit Authority. Blue Lake Rancheria Transit provides fixed route intercity transit bus service (one hour headway) between Arcata and the Blue Lake Rancheria Indian Reservation and casino and local service within the city of Blue Lake. • Del Norte County’s Redwood Coast Transit operates fixed route intercity transit bus service between Arcata and Crescent City or Smith River. • Amtrak Thruway bus has stops in many towns in the region, including Eureka, Arcata, and Fortuna. These stops are not managed by Amtrak and therefore have no services beyond serving passengers. Full service is only provided at the train station in Martinez, near San Francisco.

Transportation infrastructure
Major highways
• • • • • • • • • • • U.S. Route 101 State Route 36 State Route 96 State Route 169 State Route 200 (unsigned) State Route 211 (maybe unsigned (?)) State Route 254 (Avenue of the Giants - the old U.S. 101) State Route 255 State Route 271 State Route 283 (the old U.S. 101) State Route 299

Airports
Arcata-Eureka Airport is located in McKinleyville (north of Arcata). Commercial flights are available. Other (general aviation) airports are located at Dinsmore, Garberville, Kneeland, Murray Field (Eureka) and Rohnerville (Fortuna).

Public transportation
• Humboldt Transit Authority operates two fixed route transit bus systems: • Redwood Transit System provides intercity service to and within communities between Trinidad and Scotia, with occasional service to Manila and Loleta. HTA also offers service between McKinleyville or Arcata and Willow Creek and an express bus between Arcata and College of the Redwoods when classes are in session. • Eureka Transit Service, operated in the City of Eureka, provides local service on four scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Eureka and its adjacent unincorporated communities. Connections can be made to the Redwood Transit System at several places in Eureka. • Arcata and Mad River Transit System, operated by the City of Arcata with funding from Humboldt State University. A&MRTS provides fixed route local bus service on two scheduled routes (one hour headway) in Arcata and an additional

Seaport
Port of Humboldt Bay - on Humboldt Bay, California’s second largest natural bay.

Agriculture
Humboldt County is known for its impressive redwood trees, and many acres of private redwood timberland make Humboldt the top timber producer in California. The lush river bottoms adjacent to the ocean are renowned for producing rich, high-quality dairy products. Somewhat more inland the warmer valleys have historically produced abundant apples and other fruit. More recently vineyards have been planted in the Trinity, Klamath, and upper Eel river valleys.

Dairy
Humboldt County is known for its quality family operated dairy farms. The Humboldt Creamery, a significant producer of high grade ice cream and other dairy products,

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still operates from the original headquarters located at Fernbridge adjacent to the Eel River.

Humboldt County, California
county was Ronald Reagan, a Californian, in 1984 Humboldt is part of California’s 1st congressional district, which is held by Democrat Mike Thompson. In the state legislature, Humboldt is part of the 1st Assembly district, which is held by Democrat Wes Chesbro, and the 2nd Senate district, which is held by Democrat Pat Wiggins. On Nov. 4, 2008 Humboldt County voted 60.1% against Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.

Marijuana
Humboldt County is also widely known for its cultural attributes associated with the cultivation and proliferation of marijuana. Growers of relatively small amounts are protected under county guidelines for medicinal use under the auspices of California Proposition 215. David Samuels of The New Yorker describes the county as "the heartland of highgrade marijuana farming in California."[10] The 2008 independent film Humboldt County centers on the county’s marijuana cultivation subculture.

Area organizations
• Arcata and Eureka Community Recycling Centers • Humboldt County Convention and Visitor’s Bureau • Greater Eureka Chamber of Commerce • Arcata Chamber of Commerce • Fortuna Chamber of Commerce • Ferndale Chamber of Commerce • Trinidad Chamber of Commerce • Trinidad Chamber of Commerce • Garberville & Redway (Southern Humboldt) Chamber of Commerce

Politics
Presidential election results Year DEM 2008 62.8% 30,807 2004 57.7% 37,988 2000 44.4% 24,851 1996 44.2% 24,628 1992 48.1% 28,854 1988 57.1% 29,781 1984 46.8% 25,217 1980 35.2% 17,113 1976 54.2% 23,500 1972 46.2% 21,132 1968 45.5% 16,476 1964 66.3% 25,515 1960 52.7% 20,391 GOP 34.0% 10,704 39.0% 25,714 41.5% 23,219 35.5% 19,803 30.5% 18,299 41.2% 21,460 51.6% 27,832 49.4% 24,047 41.6% 18,034 48.8% 22,345 46.2% 16,719 33.5% 12,909 46.7% 18,074 Others 3.2% 1,558 3.3% 2,184 14.1% 7,902 20.3% 11,326 21.4% 12,868 1.7% 905 1.6% 842 15.5% 7,532 4.2% 1,838 5.0% 2,286 8.3% 3,019 0.2% 75 0.6% 226

Demographics
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 126,518 people and 51,238 households in Humboldt County, and the population density was 35 people per square mile (14/ km²). By 2006, the population was projected to have increased to 131,361 by the California Department of Finance.[11] There were 55,912 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.71% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 5.72% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 2.45% from other races, and 4.39% from two or more races. 6.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.3% were of German, 10.7% Irish, 10.3% English, 7.4% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 92.1% spoke English and 4.6% Spanish as their first language. There were 51,238 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and

Humboldt is a strongly Democratic county in Presidential and congressional elections. The last Republican to win a majority in the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
40.2% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,226, and the median income for a family was $39,370. Males had a median income of $32,210 versus $23,942 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,203. About 12.9% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Humboldt County, California
there are extensive amounts of redwood forests.[12] A prominent understory shrub is the toyon, whose northern range limit is in Humboldt County.[13]

Media
The longest-running paper is the TimesStandard, owned now by Media News Group, which has been in daily publication since 1854. The Eureka Reporter, founded in 2003, which briefly became a daily in 2006, was owned by local resident Robin Arkley, Jr. and became a five day per week publication at the beginning of 2008. Publication ceased entirely by November 2008 with some elements of the operation absorbed into the TimesStandard. Regional weekly and bi-weekly publications include the North Coast Journal, the McKinleyville Press, the Independent, The Lumberjack out of Humboldt State University, Arcata Eye the Humboldt Beacon, and the Bigfoot Valley News. Last is the Hoopa People Newspaper, distributed weekly in the Klamath Trinity region and available by subscription to tribal members and other interested people. Online readers can browse over 170 Humboldt County blogs, each with varying opinions, topics, and viewpoints from behind the Redwood Curtain. There are also a number of tabloid circulars both on-line and in print which have a narrower focus than traditional print media. Humboldt County also has numerous zines and on-line blogs. All of Humboldt County’s television stations (KIEM, KVIQ, KAEF, KEET) are based in Eureka, although only KIEM continues to produce nightly news broadcasts originating locally. Commercial, community and public radio continues to thrive in Humboldt County, with some stations bucking the national trend to produce local content and program a smattering of local music. For-profit stations include (KFMI, KRED, KXGO, KHUM, KSLG, KWPT and KATA). Non-profit stations include the Hoopa Tribe’s KIDE, Redway’s KMUD, Humboldt State University-based KHSU and KRFHand Jefferson Public Radio’s KNHM and KNHT. On August 26, 2006 the Blue Ox Millworks and School of the Traditional Arts launched KKDS, a low power FM station focused on youth and community issues. On

Educational and cultural institutions
• Humboldt State University • College of the Redwoods • Heartwood Institute • Dell’Arte School The County is served by many school districts, including charter and private schools. All school districts are listed in a separate article.

The Lanphere Dunes, a protected coastal environment

Environment
Humboldt County contains a diversity of plant and animal species, with significant forest and coastal habitats. In coastal areas

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November 3, 2008 a low power part 15 AM radio station went on the air. Old Glory Radio 1650 AM is based in the Myrtletown neighborhood of Eureka. The radio station airs the areas only daily live local call in program in the morning. There have also been a number of pirate radio stations such as Free Arcata Radio and Humboldt Free Radio, although none of these have broadcast on a consistent basis or frequency for many years.

Humboldt County, California
• World-Championship Kinetic Sculpture Race (Memorial Day Weekend - Late May)

See also
• Arcata - Jacoby Creek Community Forests • Arcata and Eureka Community Recycling Centers • Arcata Marsh and Wildlife Sanctuary • Avenue of the Giants • Fort Humboldt State Historic Park • Headwaters Forest • Humboldt Arts Council • Humboldt Botanical Garden • Humboldt Crabs - semi-professional baseball team • Humboldt County Historical Society • Humboldt County parks and beaches • Humboldt Redwoods State Park • Lanphere Dunes • Lost Coast • Redwood National and State Parks • Samoa Dunes

Events
• Arcata Bay Oyster Festival on the Arcata Plaza (June) • Azalea Festival in Mckinleyville (June) • Avenue of The Giants Marathon (May) • Blues by the bay in Eureka (July) • Craftsman’s Days in Eureka (November) • College of the Redwoods Wood Fair (Summer) • Fourth of July Festival in Eureka (July) • Gay Pride in Arcata (September) • Godwit Days (Birding festival) in Arcata (April) • Humboldt County Fair in Ferndale (August) • Apple Harvest Festival in Fortuna (October) • Humboldt Film Festival (March-April) • Humboldt Redwoods Marathon (October) • Mushroom Fair in Eureka (November) • North Country Fair in Arcata (September) • Organic Planet Festival in Eureka (September) • Redwood Acres Fair in Eureka (June) • Redwood Coast Jazz Festival in Eureka (Last Weekend of March) • Redwood Run in Southern Humboldt (June) • Reggae on the River on the Eel in Southern Humboldt (August) • Rhododendron Festival (and parade) in Eureka (April) • Roll on the Mattole at the Mattole Grange in Southern Humboldt (Summer) • Summer Arts Festival at Benbow in Southern Humboldt (June) • Trinidad to Clam Beach Run (February) • Trinidad Fish Festival (June) • Tour of the Unknown Coast (by Bicycle) in Southern Humboldt (May) • Trucker’s Parade around Humboldt Bay (December) • Westhaven Blackberry Festival (Last Sunday in July)

References
[1] Kerr, J.M. - The Codes of California. 1905. - p.1043. [2] Discover Humboldt Bay. - Humboldt Bay Harbor, Recreation and Conservation District. - Retrieved: 2008-07-13 [3] Forestry, Forest Industry, and Forest Products Consumption in California. University of California, Davis: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). Retrieved: 2008-03-30 [4] Area of Old-Growth Forests in California, Oregon, and Washington. - United States Forest Service - USDA. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2007-11-18 [5] Humboldt County Public Lands. Humboldt County Community Development Services. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2007-11-19 [6] ^ Van Kirk, Susie. - "Humboldt County: A Briefest of Histories". - Humboldt County Library. - (c/o Humboldt County Historical Society). - May 1999 [7] ^ Humboldt County State Designated Historical Landmarks. - California Historical Landmarks [8] Easthouse, Keith. - "The Chinese Expulsion: Looking Back on a Dark

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Episode". - North Coast Journal. February 27, 2003. - Retrieved: 2006-11-26 [9] US Census Micropolitan Areas. [10] Samuels, David. - A Reporter at Large: "Dr. Kush: How medical marijuana is transforming the pot industry". - The New Yorker. - July 28, [11] California State Statistical Abstract 2007. [12] Neil G. Sugihara, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Kevin E. Shaffer, JoAnn Fites-Kaufman, Andrea E. Thode (2006) Fire in California’s Ecosystems,

Humboldt County, California
University of California Press, 596 pages ISBN 0520246055 [13] C. Michael Hogan (2008) Toyon: Heteromeles arbutifolia, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg [1]

External links
• Humboldt County website • Humboldt Economic Index • Humboldt County Biography Project • General Guide to Humboldt County 40°48′N 123°48′W / 40.8°N 123.8°W / 40.8; -123.8

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humboldt_County,_California" Categories: California counties, Humboldt County, California, Metropolitan areas of California This page was last modified on 19 May 2009, at 00:30 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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