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Homelessness in the United States

Homelessness in the United States
Overview
Observers of modern homelessness often cite some of the following potential causes of homelessness: • The movement in the 1950s in state mental health systems to shift towards community-based treatment as opposed to long-term commitment in institutions. Many patients ultimately lost their rooms, didn’t get proper community health support, and ended up in the streets. • Redevelopment and gentrification activities instituted by cities across the country through which low-income neighborhoods are declared blighted and demolished to make way for projects that generate higher property taxes and other revenue, creating a shortage of housing affordable to low-income working families, the elderly poor, and the disabled. • The failure of urban housing projects to provide safe, secure, and affordable housing to the poor. • The economic crises and "stagflation" of the 1980s, which caused high unemployment. Unlike European countries, US unemployment insurance does not allow unemployed insurance recipients to obtain job training/education while receiving benefits except under very limited situations. • The failure of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to provide effective mental health care and meaningful job training for many homeless veterans, particularly those of the Vietnam War. Many VA critics think homeless veterans are cycled through ineffective VA 12-step programs, restricting housing programs, and low skilled job training programs that actually keeps them cycling from program to program and back to living on the streets. • Foster home children are not given job training in school or at home. Without a means to make money, nearly half of foster children in the United States become homeless when they are released from foster care at age 18.[1][2] • Natural disasters that destroy homes: hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, etc. Places of employment are often destroyed too, causing unemployment and transience. • People who have served time in prison, have abused drugs and alcohol, or have a history of mental illness find it difficult to impossible to find employment for years at a time because of the use of computer background checks by potential employers. According to the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the demand for emergency shelter in 270 U.S. cities increased 13% in 2001 and 25% in 2005. 22 percent of those requesting emergency shelter were turned away. With budgets squeezed dry, cities across the U.S. adopted a closed-door attitude toward the displaced. For example: • The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey banned panhandling in PATH subway stations and bus terminals; • In Atlanta, Georgia, Mayor Maynard Jackson proposed a policy of licensing panhandlers, it was not adopted. • The University of California, Berkeley ordered repeated police sweeps of People’s Park and evicted the People’s Cafe soup kitchen. • In Santa Cruz, California, dozens of homeless were repeatedly arrested for sleeping outside the local United States Post Office. Traditionally single men have constituted the overwhelming majority of the homeless. In the 1980s there was a sharp rise in the number of homeless families in certain parts of the United States; notably New York City. Most homeless families consist of a single mother and children. A significant number of homeless people are teenagers and young adults, mostly runaways or street children. A 1960 survey by Temple University of Philadelphia’s poor neighborhoods found that 75% of the homeless were over 45 years old, and 87% were white. In 1986, 86% were under age 45, and 87% were minorities.

Definition
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Homelessness in the United States
increasingly residing in cheap (and often ill-maintained) motels.[5] • Individuals living in their automobiles. Often the vehicles used in such a manner do not even operate but simply provide shelter from the elements. • Exclusive "couch-surfers." Instead of sleeping on the streets or in a shelter, otherwise homeless persons are forced to rely on the hospitality of willing friends or family for a place to sleep. Patience for such arrangements often runs dry, and many soon find themselves without a place to stay. Lastly, there is discrepancy over which defined segments of the homeless population are most in need. The federal government is currently promoting a 10-year plan approach to end homelessness which targets those who are "chronically" homeless—defined as, "An unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or has had at least four (4) episodes of homelessness in the past three (3) years."[6] Many direct service providers are concerned that such a definition will exclude the majority of those who experience homelessness from receiving needed services. This definition is not satisfactory to many providers, researchers and advocates, because it misses the population of "hidden homeless" who are currently doubling-up with family or friends. Some advocates also want "homelessness" to include those at serious risk of homelessness, but not yet experiencing it.

Homeless man in the East Village, New York City. While there is no one agreed upon definition, one definition originally developed as part of the McKinney-Vento Act of 1987 federal legislation,[3] describes a "homeless" person as being: 1. an individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; 2. and an individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is-1. a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations (including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill); 2. an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or 3. a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. Critics argue that such a definition does not account for all of those who are in-effect homeless, and therefore excludes many needy individuals from certain federal assistance programs who do not meet eligibility requirements. Proponents of an expanded definition of homelessness cite certain at-risk living situations which some believe should be included: • Multiple families (or individuals) doubling or tripling up in insufficient living space. One of many documented incidents reports 25 individuals sharing a single house.[4] • Weekly "rental" of economy motel rooms. With a growing lack of affordable housing across the country, low-wage earners are

Statistics and demographics
Completely accurate and comprehensive statistics are difficult to acquire for any social study, but especially so when measuring the ambiguous hidden, and erratic reality of homelessness. All figures given are estimates. In addition, these estimates represent overall national averages; the proportions of specific homeless communities can vary substantially depending on local geography. The mobile and often hidden nature of homelessness makes this group difficult to accurately survey. The last rigorous attempt at estimating annual homeless prevalence in the United States was undertaken by the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC).[7] Annual

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homeless prevalence was estimated at between 1.58 million (based on October/ November four-week count) to 3.49 million (based on February seven day count).[8] Most, though not all, advocates use the higher estimate of over 3 million, especially since homelessness is thought to have risen since 1996. Lifetime homeless prevalence measured in 1990 by Bruce Link and colleagues found 7.4% or 13.5 million people reported experiencing literal homelessness.[9] These estimates were tabulated from telephone interviews and thus most likely excluded all currently homeless individuals. Some estimates from various sources on the characteristics and number of homeless people: Total Number • As many as 3.5 million people experience homelessness in a given year (1% of the entire U.S. population or 10% of its poor), and about 842,000 people in any given week.[10] Most were homeless temporarily. The chronically homeless population (those with repeated episodes or who have been homeless for long periods) fell from 175,914 in 2005 to 123,833 in 2007.[11] Familial composition[12] • 40% are families with children—the fastest growing segment. • 41% are single males. • 14% are single females. • 5% are minors unaccompanied by adults. 1.37 million (or 39%) of the total homeless population are children under the age of 18.[12] Ethnicity[12] • 49% are African American (compared to 11% of general population). • 35% are Caucasian (under-represented compared to 75% of general population). • 13% are Hispanic (compared to 10% of general population). • 2% are Native American (compared to 1% of general population). • 1% are Asian-American (underrepresented compared to 4% of general population). Health-concerns.[10] • 22% are considered to have serious mental illnesses, or are disabled. • 30% have substance abuse problems. • 3% report having HIV/AIDS.

Homelessness in the United States
• 26% report acute health problems other than HIV/AIDS such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, or sexually transmitted infections. • 46% report chronic health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or cancer. • 55% report having no health insurance (compared to 16% of general population). • 58% report having trouble getting enough food to eat. Backgrounds.[10] • 23% are veterans (compared to 13% of general population). • 25% were physically or sexually abused as children. • 27% were in foster care or similar institutions as children. • 21% were homeless at some point during their childhood. • 54% were incarcerated at some point in their lives. Education[13] • 38% have less than a High School diploma. • 34% have a High School diploma or equivalent (G.E.D.). • 28% have more than a High School education. Employment[14] • 44% report having worked in the past week. • 13% have regular jobs. • 50% receive less than $300 per month as income. Location.[10] • 71% reside in central cities. • 21% are in suburbs. • 9% are in rural areas. Duration[15] • 80% of those who experience homelessness do so for less than 3 weeks. They typically have more personal, social, or economic resources to draw upon. • 10% are homeless for up to two months. They cite lack of available or affordable housing as responsible for the delay. • 10% are so called "chronic" and remain without housing for extended periods of time on a frequent basis. They typically struggle with mental illness, substance abuse, or both. Somewhat different data seem to be presented in the full demographics reported in the 1996 NSHAPC survey which include:

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Family status • 61% Single men • 15% Single women • 12.2% Women with children • 4.6% Other women • 5.3% Other men • 2.3% Men with children Racial demographics of head of household • 41% White, non-Hispanic • 40% Black, non-Hispanic • 11% Hispanic • 8% Native American • 1% Other Length of current homeless period • 5% Less than one week • 8% Greater than one week, less than one month • 15% One to three months • 11% Four to six months • 15% Seven to twelve months • 16% Thirteen to twenty four months • 10% Twenty-five to sixty months • 20% Five or more years Lifetime self-reported alcohol, drug and mental health problems • 62% Alcohol • 58% Drugs • 57% Mental health • 27% Mental health and alcohol or drug (dual diagnosed)

Homelessness in the United States

Historical background
Pre-1960s
In general, many towns and cities had an area which contained the poor, transients, and afflicted, such as a "skid row". In New York City, for example, there was an area known as "the Bowery", traditionally, where alcoholics were to be found sleeping on the streets, bottle in hand. Rescue missions offering "soup, soap, and salvation", a term introduced by the The Salvation Army,[16] sprang up along the Bowery thoroughfare, including the oldest one, The Bowery Mission. The mission was founded in 1879 by the Rev. and Mrs. A.G. Ruliffson.[17] The mission’s parent organization, Christian Herald, once published Christian Herald And Signs Of Our Times. In relating the formation and origin of the mission in its March 27, 1895 edition a chronology is given: "Fifteen years ago, Rev. A.G. Ruliffson and Mrs. Ruliffson, long engaged in mission work in

The Bowery Mission at 36 Bowery in New York City in the 1880s New York, decided to open an eastside mission for men." Thus, based on this chronology, the time frame is 1880 rather than 1879. At the time the Bowery Mission was established it was located at 36 Bowery, a location that in an earlier time in New York City, played a role in the New York City Draft Riots, when the building was used as a saloon. An examination of the Annual Reports for the first decade of the mission, and period New York City newspapers starting in 1881, suggest that an 1880 date for the mission is more likely than 1879. To cite examples from period newspapers, The New York Tribune’s article, "The Bowery Mission, A Sketch of its Career", dated March 14, 1898 opens with "The Bowery Mission was started in 1880 at No.36 Bowery by a number of men who were interested in mission work." An even earlier

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article appearing in The New York Tribune on November 8, 1880, "A Bright Spot In The Darkness", declared "The Bowery Evangelical Mission, at No.36 Bowery, was opened yesterday afternoon with a prayer-meeting, at which some 150 persons were present." The present location of the Bowery Mission at 227-229 Bowery dates to 1909 when an abandoned coffin factory was converted to a mission. In smaller towns, there were hobos, who temporarily lived near train tracks and hopped onto trains to various destinations. Especially following the American Civil War, a large number of homeless men formed part of a counterculture known as "hobohemia" all over America.[18] Jacob Riis wrote about, documented, and photographed the poor and destitute, although not specifically the homeless, in New York City tenements in the late 1800s. His ground-breaking book, How the Other Half Lives, published in 1890, raised public awareness of living conditions in the slums, causing some changes in building codes and some social conditions.

Homelessness in the United States
The Diggers, a radical community-action group dedicated to the concept of everything being free of charge, established soup kitchens and free health-care facilities in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco in 1965. This also began a movement of people that began to travel for political reasons as well as for personal choices. This is where the beginnings of the American nomadic caravans became popular, living homelessly, but happily. In the summer of 1972 was the first gathering of these nomads and they called it the "rainbow gathering". It was located in Colorado and is a temporary gathering, to be set up every year at the same time in a different state each year, and has grown to include many regionals throughout the year in various states and cities. They are the people, the caravans of North Americas’ only nomadic tribe besides the Native Americans. Gathering to preserve gathering rights of all Americans (the First Amendment), and choosing to live freely. In 1979, a New York City lawyer, Robert Hayes, brought a class action suit before the courts, Callahan v. Carey, against the City and State, arguing for a person’s state constitutional "right to shelter". It was settled as a consent decree in August 1981. The City and State agreed to provide board and shelter to all homeless men who met the need standard for welfare or who were homeless by certain other standards. By 1983 this right was extended to homeless women.

1960s, 1970s
In the United States, during the late 1970s, the deinstitutionalisation of patients from state psychiatric hospitals was a precipitating factor which seeded the homeless population, especially in urban areas such as New York City.[19] The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 was a pre-disposing factor in setting the stage for homelessness in the United States.[20] Long term psychiatric patients were released from state hospitals into Single Room Occupancies and sent to community health centers for treatment and follow-up. It never quite worked out properly and this population largely was found living in the streets soon thereafter with no sustainable support system.[21][22] In 1969, Paul Sullivan, a real estate developer and himself a recovering alcoholic, founded The Pine Street Inn, in Boston, to care for homeless destitute alcoholics, and get them back into society.[23][24] He was awarded The Isaac Hecker Award for Social Justice in 1980 for this work.[25][26] In 2008, Pine Street Inn had a budget of $38,000,000 and 400 staff members serving 1,200 people each day.[27]

1980s
In 1980 federal dollars accounted for 22% of big city budgets, but by 1989 the same such aid composed only 6% of urban revenue (part of a larger 60% decrease in federal spending to support local governments).[28] It is largely (although not exclusively) in these urban areas that homelessness became widespread and reached unprecedented numbers. Critics of President Ronald Reagan identify several main policy shifts as fundamental in the sharp rise of homelessness. Most notable were cuts to federal low-income housing programs. In his first year of office, President Reagan halved the budget for public housing and Section 8 (the government’s housing voucher subsidization program). Between the years of 1980 and 1989 HUD’s budget authority was reduced from $74 billion to $19 billion.[28] Such changes

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resulted in an inadequate supply of affordable housing to meet the growing demand of low-income populations. In 1970 there were 300,000 more low-cost rental units (6.5 million) than low-income renter households (6.2 million). By 1985 the number of low-cost units had fallen to 5.6 million, and the number of low-income renter households had grown to 8.9 million, a disparity of 3.3 million units[29] The 1980s also saw a continuing trend of deinstitutionalizing mental-health hospitals. It is believed that a large percentage of these released patients ended up in the homeless system. In response to the ensuing homelessness crisis of the 1980s, concerned citizens across the country demanded that the federal government provide assistance. After many years of advocacy and numerous revisions, President Reagan signed into law the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act in 1987—this remains the only piece of federal legislation that allocates funding to the direct service of homeless people. By the mid-1980s, there was also a dramatic increase in family homelessness. Tied into this was an increasing number of impoverished and runaway children, teenagers, and young adults, which created a new substratum of the homeless population. In August 1988, a riot erupted in New York City’s Tompkins Square Park when police attempted to enforce a newly-passed curfew for the park, largely in an attempt to evict the homeless who were living in the park. Bystanders, artists, residents, homeless people and political activists were caught up in the police action that took place on the night of August 6 and the early morning of August 7. The event has become known as the Tompkins Square Park Riot.[30] Several organizations in some cities, such as New York and Boston, tried to be inventive about help to the swelling number of homeless people. In New York City, for example, in 1989, the first street newspaper was created called "Street News" which put some homeless to work, some writing, producing, and mostly selling the paper on streets and trains.[31] It was written pro bono by a combination of homeless, celebrities, and established writers.

Homelessness in the United States

1990s
The McKinney-Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained stubbornly high. It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness. However, critics claim that Bill Clinton’s 1996 welfare reforms increased the number of families entering homelessness. At any rate, policies set into motion in the 1980s were never adequately reversed during the Bush Senior or Clinton administrations; conditions, therefore, remained ripe for becoming homeless.

2000s
In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless in America,[32][33] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. Back in the 1990s, a teenager from New York, Liz Murray, was homeless at fifteen years old, and overcame that and went on to study at Harvard University. Her story was made into an Emmy-winning film in 2003, "Homeless to Harvard: The Liz Murray Story". The Interagency Council on Homelessness (ICH), the federal branch responsible for overseeing homeless policy that was created under the McKinney-Vento Act, is now attempting a new approach to combat homelessness. For the first time, government officials are calling for an end to homelessness. To accomplish this goal ICH has adopted a strategy largely devised by the National Alliance to End Homelessness (one of many homeless advocacy organizations), which centers on the production and implementation of local 10-year plans to end chronic homelessness. The idea is to get all of the necessary parties—local/state governmental agencies, businesses, non-profit organizations, service providers, faith-based entities, and homeless (or formally so) individuals—working in collaboration to devise and

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implement a 10-year plan for their respective community.[34] In January, 2008, Governor Deval Patrick of Massachusetts and his Commission To End Homelessness released a report which emphasized preventing homelessness for people on the verge of it, permanent housing for the homeless who are now in emergency shelters, and support services to accomplish this.[35][36][37] But there are many complications of this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term.[38] Rather than channeling funds into direct services that seemingly sustain homeless lifestyles, these result-oriented plans are designed to focus efforts and funds on the creation of permanent supportive housing (PSH) for the most troubled and difficult, "chronic" homeless population. Considering that it is actually cheaper to house someone than it is to fund the otherwise needed myriad services, this approach is being stated as a costeffective solution.[39] On July 29, 2008, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development reported that homelessness in the US had declined by 30% between 2005 and 2007, with chronic homelessness falling from 175,914 to 123,833.[40]

Homelessness in the United States
single jurisdiction in the country where a person working 40 hours a week, 52 weeks a year at the prevailing minimum wage can afford a one-bedroom apartment (assumes minimum wage of $5.15/hr. and 30% of income spent on housing).[42] Aside from just low wage earners, many workers cannot afford to live where they work, and even in moderately priced communities housing costs continually require a larger portion of a household’s annual income.[43] 2. Although residential construction has been robust in recent years, zoning and the implementation of rent controls has reduced the profitability of constructing low income housing. In 2003 there was a supply deficiency of 1.7 million units of housing to meet the demand of 7.7 million extremely low income (ELI) renting households.[43] 3. Government housing-assistance programs are massively over-burdened. Currently, only one-fourth of all eligible families receive any federal housing assistance due to program funding constraints,[44] and the average wait for Section 8 vouchers is 35 months.[45] Health care opportunities In 2004, 45.8 million Americans (or 15.7% of the population) were without health insurance, which was an increase from the year before, and was disproportionately represented by poor households.[46] The U.S. spends 16% of its GDP on health care, more than any other industrialized nation, and those countries provide health insurance to all of their citizens.[47] 1. Health care costs are skyrocketing. In 2004, total national health expenditures rose 7.9 percent—over three times the rate of inflation—and since 2000, employment-based health insurance premiums have increased 73%.[47] 2. People working low wage jobs, even if they work full-time, are less likely to be provided with health insurance. For example, Wal-Mart—the largest employer in the nation—does not provide health coverage for over half of its employees, who on average earn $8.23 an hour.[48] 3. Without health insurance and under increasing medical costs, unexpected health emergencies or serious chronic

Causes
In the simplest terms, a household becomes homeless when its provider(s) can no longer pay for housing, and this phenomenon happens overwhelmingly among the poorest of the nation. Therefore, experts in the field see a direct correlation between recent increases in poverty levels and increases in homelessness. In an attempt to understand why some people in poverty experience homelessness, and why some don’t, both structural and personal dynamics must be considered.

Structural factors
1. Housing costs, particularly for rental housing which disproportionately affect lower income households, are rising drastically. In the five years 1999 through 2004, rental price of primary residences rose by 19% and the consumer price index (CPI-U) rose by only 13%[41]--the price of housing, in other words, is outpacing the rate of wage increase. There is not a

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illnesses can quickly overburden the resources of poor households.

Homelessness in the United States

Other factors
Lastly, it should be mentioned that some people find themselves homeless due to unexpected extenuating circumstances: • Natural disasters: Many people lose their homes to any variety of natural catastrophes including but not limited to: floods, forest fires, storms, and earthquakes. In 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita displaced over 1 million Americans. Tornadoes destroyed entire towns in Tennessee in 2006. • Unexpected emergencies: A variety of people find themselves unable to cope with any number of the following sudden tragedies: being laid off from a long-term place of employment; losing their place of residence to an accidental fire; serious bodily injuries; discovery of terminal illnesses or diseases; loss of family member(s). These situations usually result not only in significant monetary expenses, but also in severe psychological and emotional hardships.

Personal factors

Street sleeper in New York City, 2006. • Untreated mental illness, and disability can cause individuals to become paranoid, anxious, or depressed, making it difficult or impossible to maintain employment, pay bills, or keep supportive social relationships. • Substance abuse can drain financial resources, cause job or housing loss, and erode supportive social relationships. Substance abuse is quite prevalent in the homeless population.[49] • Lack of education, such as dropping out of school which in turn is an obstacle in finding a high paying job and residence. • Co-occurring disorders. Individuals with co-occurring mental illnesses and substance use disorders are among the most susceptible to the above mentioned losses. • Many people (especially women and often with children) who flee from domestic violence often must quickly adapt to massive life changes. Many find it extremely difficult to secure a new place of residence and/or a job. • Institutional release. Most individuals being discharged from prison have few resources to "get back on their feet" and have eroded personal contacts that may provide support. Youths who "age out" of systems such as foster care often find themselves without needed support networks.

Fighting poverty
If homelessness is inextricably linked to poverty, then without alleviation of the most crippling aspects of poverty, homelessness can never be effectively ended. In particular, three main concerns are the focus of both governmental and non-governmental (NGO) efforts to end homelessness: More affordable housing Homeless individuals report a lack of affordable housing as the number one reason for becoming homeless.[50] This inadequacy must be remedied in order to get people off the streets and out of shelters. Many nonprofit organizations are in operation to serve this need—for example, the National Low Income Housing Coalition—but most lack the funding necessary to create enough housing. Several proposed policy measures are designed to secure such funding, such as the National Housing Trust Fund, but these have not been signed into law. Livable wages Homeless individuals report a lack of adequate pay as the number two reason for becoming homeless.[51] As housing costs have continued to rise and the value of wages has either declined or remained stagnant, the poor are increasingly unable to afford whatever housing is available. Many

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campaigns promote a living wage that would increase pay to an amount purported to cover living expenses. Since the cost of living (especially that of housing) varies widely from area-to-area there is discrepancy over how much wages should be increased. One campaign, the Universal Living Wage, offers a unique formula that indexes the base wage of a particular locality with its respective cost of housing. Comprehensive health care Homeless individuals report mental illness as being the number three reason for becoming or staying homeless.[52] Such illnesses are often closely linked with the fourth reason—substance abuse—and therefore it is generally accepted that both of these issues should be treated simultaneously. Although many medical, psychiatric, and counseling services exist to address these needs, it is commonly believed that without the support of reliable and stable housing such treatments remain ineffective. Furthermore, in the absence of a universal health-care plan, many of those in need cannot afford such services. Legislation such as the Bringing America Home Act, if enacted, would provide comprehensive and available treatment for all. Paradigm shift A significant paradigm has occurred in homeless services over the past five years which has begun to shift the emphasis from "managing the problem of homelessness" with emergency shelters, soup kitchens and health clinic to ending homelessness by housing individuals who are experiencing homelessness. In 2001, the National Alliance to End Homelessness [14] released "A Plan to End Homelessness" which encouraged communities to develop and implement a 10 year plan to end or reduce homelessness in their communities. Key effective programs include: • Shelter Plus Care - a federal program that provides housing subsidies and are matched by local funds to provide longterm supportive services (typically case management). Experience demonstrated that many individuals who have been homeless for a significant time often lose their housing shortly after placement. The Shelter Plus Care program provides longterm supports including working with the landlord to keep the individual housed. • Housing First - a service paradigm that assumes that individuals who are

Homelessness in the United States
homeless are "ready" to be housed immediately and with appropriate supports can retain their housing. The Pathways to Housing project in New York demonstrated a five-year housing retention rate of 88 percent among formerly homeless individuals with serious mental illness. Many homeless people are required to participate in year-long plus substance abuse, mental health, and life skills programs when they don’t even have those problems. Many people only need decent housing to get back on their feet. Central City Concern’s (Portland, OR) Shoreline Project allows homeless unemployed men to move into SRO type single person studios and find a job within 70 days; it’s been a great success with expected expansion of the program in 2007. • Assertive Outreach - a form of engagement and outreach that emphasizes building a bond of trust between the case worker and the individual. Engagement is highly individualized with the pace dictated by the individual in need. Case workers do not force rules, regulations or program services until they are requested. Typically used to engage homeless, mentally ill individuals. In Boston, Massachusetts, in September 2007, an outreach to the homeless was initiated in the Boston Common, after some arrests and shootings, and in anticipation of the cold winter ahead. This outreach targets homeless people who would normally spend their sleeping time on the Boston Common, and tries to get them into housing, trying to skip the step of an emergency shelter. Applications for Boston Housing Authority were being handed out and filled out and submitted. This is an attempt to enact by outreach the Housing First initiative, federally mandated. Boston’s Mayor, Thomas Menino, was quoted as saying "The solution to homelessness is permanent housing". Still, this is a very controversial strategy, especially if the people are not able to sustain a house with proper community, health, substance counseling, and mental health supportive programs.[53]

Additional issues
The present difficulty is to address these root issues while at the same time providing for

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the real and immediate needs of people experiencing homelessness. Many service providing organizations (including governmental departments) feel pulled between the need to provide shelter, food, and healthcare, but also ensure that affordable housing and adequate wages are made available. Furthermore, those that provide direct service for the homeless often feel they are forced to "clean-up" the failures and shortcomings of other institutions that are not being held accountable. Most notably, people from this position assert that the discharge policies of both prisons and foster care programs often leave those exiting such institutions with no other option than homelessness. Such topics must be addressed in the fight to end homelessness.

Homelessness in the United States
Act many school districts are struggling to provide the necessary services, such as rising transportation needs and the greater severity of services. One of the biggest challenges our district faces is providing transportation to students who are experiencing homelessness. There are few approaches that our district can utilize to provide transportation for these students. Our city has only one taxi cab service and no public bus system. Our cab company is small and simply can’t fulfill all of our transportation requests. When it’s possible, we add students to existing bus routes or set up a contractual agreement with the student’s parent/guardian. However, there have been many situations where none of these options have worked. Another challenge our district faces is providing proper outer-wear for students who are homeless. Being that we live in central Wisconsin and have long, cold winters, all students need proper outerwear to go outside. Proper outerwear includes snow boots, hat, mittens, snow pants, and a winter jacket that has a working zipper or buttons on it. This expense adds up quickly and is hard to provide to the increasing number of homeless students.[56] This is especially worrisome since homeless students are 1) 1.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in reading; 2)1.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in spelling; and 3) 2.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in math.[56] There are a few worries that there will be false reports of homeless students, but mostly its not a problem.[54]

Effects on education/ Homeless Students
Homelessness has a tremendous effect on a child’s education. Education of homeless youth is essential in breaking the cycle of poverty. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act mandates equal opportunity to a free public education to homeless students. This act is supposed to break down the barriers homeless students have to receiving an education. These barriers include residency restriction, medical record verification, and transportation issues. Once a student surpasses these barriers, they are still subject to the stigma of being homeless, and the humiliation they feel because of their situation. Some families don’t report their homelessness, while others are unaware of the opportunities available to them. Many report that maintaining a stable school environment helps the students because it’s the only thing that remains normal.[54] Many homeless students fall behind their peers in school due to behavioral disorders, and lack of attendance in school.[55] Since the housing market fall out there has been a rise is homeless students. NAEHCY or the National Association for the Education of Homeless for Children and Youth, has reported that there has been a rise in homeless student as much as 99% within a three month period (San Diego). [56] Of 1,636 schools 330 reported no increase, 847 half or more reported cases, and 459 reported an increase of 25% or more. Due to the provisions of the McKinney-Vento

Public attitudes
Many advocates for the homeless contend that a key difficulty is the social stigma surrounding homelessness. There is anecdotal evidence that many Americans complain about the presence of homeless people, blame them for their situation, and feel that their requests for money or support (usually via begging) are unjustified. In the 1990s,

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particularly, many observers and media articles spoke of "compassion fatigue" a belief that the public had grown weary of this seemingly intractable problem. Public opinion surveys show relatively little support for this view, however. A 1995 paper in the American Journal of Community Psychology concluded that "although the homeless are clearly stigmatized, there is little evidence to suggest that the public has lost compassion and is unwilling to support policies to help homeless people."[57] A Penn State study in 2004 concluded that "familiarity breeds sympathy" and greater support for addressing the problem.[58] A 2007 survey of New Yorkers found 67 percent said most homeless people were without shelter because of "circumstances beyond their control." More than one-third (36 percent) said they worried about becoming homeless themselves, with 15 percent saying they were "very worried." The survey by the nonpartisan group Public Agenda found support for investments in prevention, rental assistance and permanent housing.[59] Public Agenda has also concluded, however, that the public’s sympathy has limits. In a 2002 national survey, the organization found 74 percent say the police should leave a homeless person alone if he or she isn’t bothering anyone. Yet 71 percent say the police should move the homeless if they are keeping customers away from a shopping area and 51 percent say the homeless should be moved if they are driving other people away from a public park.[60]

Homelessness in the United States
problem of homelessness, provide help to the homeless, and prevent further growth of the homeless population.

Programs
Many programs that are designed to assist the homeless population have incorporated some type of housing program for their clients. Whether it is a transitional, permanent or even emergency housing program, the assistance is often provided for a very low cost and maybe even free. Volunteers of America is an agency that believes preventing family homelessness is a critical part of their organization. Through Volunteers of America, transitional housing and emergency shelters are available to those who are in desperate need. In the United States each year, there are around 3.5 million people who live their lives without shelter or a stable occupation. For 2006 alone, $28.5 billion is being allotted to homeless programs ran through HUD (Housing and Urban Development). $1 billion is being given for Section 8 housing, and $1.4 billion is being used for Homeless Assistance Grants. The two main types of housing programs provided for homeless people are: • Transitional Transitional housing programs are operated with one goal in mind – to help individuals and families obtain permanent housing as quickly as possible. Transitional housing programs assist homeless for a fixed amount of time or until they are able to obtain housing on their own and function successfully in the community, or whichever comes first. • Permanent For a significant number of homeless Americans with mental or physical impairments, often coupled with drug and/or alcohol use issues, long-term homelessness can only be ended by providing permanent housing coupled with intensive supportive services. Permanent housing provides a "base" for people to move out of poverty. Some shelters and associated charitable foundations have bought buildings and real estate to develop into permanent housing for the homeless in lieu of transitional Housing.[61]

Homeless assistance programs
On any given night, as of 2006, nearly a million people will be homeless, despite a two billion dollar a year infrastructure designed to deal with the problem. Even in the face of 1990s economic prosperity, homeless statistics show the number of homeless has remained high. Homelessness in America persists in part because many urban areas remain economically depressed. Housing costs are rising and wages remain the same. The most proximate cause of homelessness is poverty. The homeless spend more time in hospitals and jails but are usually reluctant to accept help and transitional housing. The following programs and policies attack the

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Substance abuse prevention Without supportive services, housing is not often enough to end homelessness. Various agencies, in fact all homeless prevention agencies and programs include substance abuse recovery and prevention programs. Objectives are to provide substance abuse counseling and access to treatment centers. Self-sufficiency For a significant number of homeless Americans with mental or physical impairments, often coupled with drug and/or alcohol use issues, long-term homelessness can only be ended by providing permanent housing coupled with intensive supportive services. Communications Most homeless people have no means of communications with the outside world. Few have access to a phone to make or receive calls, get voice messages, send or receive email. Many support organizations provide some limited local phone access, voice mail, and internet computers with email. This is critical in the modern world for medical appointment verification, job and services searches.[62]

Homelessness in the United States
HUD’s commitment to ending chronic homelessness at the NAEH annual conference. In 2002, as a part of his FY2003 budget, President Bush made "ending chronic homelessness in the next decade a top objective." The bipartisan, congressionally-mandated, Millennial Housing Commission, in its Report to Congress in 2002, included ending chronic homelessness in 10 years among its principal recommendations. By 2003, the Interagency Council on Homelessness had been re-engaged and charged with pursuing the President’s 10-year plan. The Administration has recently undertaken some collaborative efforts to reach its goal of ending chronic homelessness in 10 years. On October 1, 2003, the Administration announced the award of over $48 million in grants aimed at serving the needs of the chronically homeless through two initiatives. The Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing [15] initiative was a collaborative grant offered jointly by HUD [16] and the Department of Labor (DOL) [17]. The initiative offered $10 million from HUD and $3.5 million from DOL to help the chronically homeless in five communities gain access to employment and permanent housing. Section 8 is the core housing program that helps extremely low-income families accommodate the gap between their incomes below 30 percent of the median income for each community. The government assists homeless families by awarding grants and vouchers. Vouchers are available to the families who are most needy and they are used to pay for housing found in the private market. Currently there are policy changes in who receives vouchers and there will be a reduction in the amount of vouchers granted to the homeless population.

Policies
There are several policies dealing with homelessness. In 1980 the government decided to start sending funding to the homeless, but it was not until 1984 that shelters were built to accommodate and feed them. As it was shown though seventy percent required the homeless to attend a religious ceremony and spend only a couple of nights there. In the 1987 McKinney Act the problem with homelessness became known as a huge social problem. Later on, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110) amended the program explicitly to prohibit states that receive McKinney-Vento funds from segregating homeless students from non-homeless students, except for short periods of time for health and safety emergencies or to provide temporary, special, supplementary services. The Chronic Homelessness Initiative. The Bush Administration has established a national goal of ending chronic homelessness in 10 years, by 2012. The idea of a 10-year plan to end chronic homelessness began as a part of a 10-year plan to end homelessness in general adopted by the National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH) in 2000. The following year, then-Secretary Martinez announced

Housing First
Housing first is a relatively recent innovation that has met with success in providing housing to homeless people with substance abuse problems or mental health issues. Housing First allows homeless men and women to be taken directly off the street into private community-based apartments, without requiring treatment first. This allows the homeless to return to some sense of normalcy, from which it is believed that they are betterpoised to tackle their addictions or sicknesses. The relapse rate through these types

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of programs is lower than that of conventional homeless programs. It was initiated by the federal government’s Interagency Council on Homelessness. It asks cities to come up with a plan to end chronic homelessness. In this direction, there is the belief that if homeless people are given independent housing to start off with, with some proper social supports, then there would be no need for emergency homeless shelters, which it considers a good outcome. This is a very controversial position.[63][64] There are many complications of this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term.[38]

Homelessness in the United States
Each homeless client is an adult representing a homeless household. 15 percent of these are family households (that is, the clients have one or more of their own children under age 18 with them). On average, each homeless family household includes 2.2 minor children of the client.

Criminalization of homelessness
Directly related to the above-mentioned stigmatization is a growing trend in the United States towards criminalizing the state of being homeless.[65] Proponents of this approach believe that punitive measures will deter people from "choosing" to be homeless. To this end, cities across the country increasingly outlaw life-sustaining activities—such as sleeping, eating, sitting, and begging—in public spaces, and selectively enforce more neutral laws—such as those prohibiting open containers or loitering—against homeless populations.[65] Violators of such laws typically incur criminal penalties, which result in fines and/or incarceration. Many believe this trend is a manifestation of so-called NIMBYism, or Not In My Back Yard syndrome—an unofficial policy that tolerates social nuisances (like homelessness) as long as they are not visible or intrusive in a particular community. Homeless people with new "criminal charges" have very restrictive housing and employment options, if either, for years. In April, 2006 the U.S. 9th District Court ruled that "making it a crime to be homeless by charging them with a crime is in violation of the 8th and 14th Amendments." [18] The following are pertinent excerpts of that transcript vs corresponding illegal laws:
L.A., Cal., Mun. Code ss 41.18(d) (2005). A violation of section 41.18(d) is punishable by a fine of up to $1000 and/or imprisonment of up to six months. Id. ss 11.00(m).

Target
• Women Due to the increase of homeless women with children, there is growing interest in providing shelter and rehabilitaion for this group of individuals. One of the primary sources of funding for women (almost always including children) is TANF-Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Funds are allocated for programs that enforce child-support, education, domestic abuse and housing most importantly. • Children Unaccompanied homeless youth between the ages of 16 and 24 have been estimated to make up as much as 12 percent of the homeless population. Numerous studies of homeless youth have found experiences of physical and sexual abuse, parental drug or alcohol use, childhood homelessness, foster care, and juvenile detention. Critics contend mainstream homeless programs fail to meet the unique needs of homeless youth. Ending youth homelessness requires a coordinated effort involving a variety of services including support for youth discharged from foster care and the juvenile justice system, access to education for youth at risk of becoming homeless, and additional research to help advocates better understand the needs of homeless youth. • Families

The City could not expressly criminalize the status of homelessness by making it a crime to be homeless without violating the Eighth Amendment, nor can it criminalize acts that are an integral aspect of that status. Because there is substantial and undisputed evidence that the number

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of homeless persons in Los Angeles far exceeds the number of available shelter beds at all times, including on the nights of their arrest or citation, Los Angeles has encroached upon Appellants’ Eighth Amendment protections by criminalizing the unavoidable act of sitting, lying or sleeping at night while being involuntarily homeless. The defense encompasses the very difficulties that Jones posits here: sleeping on the streets because alternatives were inadequate and economic forces were primarily to blame for his predicament. Id. at 390. Jones argues that he and other homeless people are not willing or able to pursue such a defense because the costs of pleading guilty are so low and the risks and challenges of pleading innocent are substantial.
- id. at 568 n.31 (Fortas, J., dissenting); the Eighth Amendment prohibits the City from punishing involuntary sitting, lying, or sleeping on public sidewalks that is an unavoidable consequence of being human and homeless without shelter in the City of Los Angeles.

Homelessness in the United States
worse. Homeless people find it harder to secure employment, housing, or federal benefits with a criminal record, and therefore penalizing the act of being homeless makes exiting such a situation much more difficult. In fact, a recent federal appeals court ruled an anti-homeless policy in Los Angeles as unconstitutional.[67] Similarly, in response to growing reports of hate crimes, some state governments have proposed the addition of "people experiencing homelessness" to their hate-crimes statutes. Many credit the advocacy work of organizations such as the National Coalition for the Homeless—which publishes annual reports documenting both hate crimes[68] and criminalization[69] trends—for shedding light on these largely neglected issues.

Crimes against homeless people
Recent years have seen a growing number of violent acts committed upon people experiencing homelessness—the rate of such documented crimes in 2005 was 30% higher than of those in 1999.[65] 75% of all perpetrators are under the age of 25. In recent years, largely due to the efforts of the National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH) and academic researchers, the problem of violence against the homeless has gained national attention. In Hate, Violence, and Death on Mainstreet USA, the NCH reported 386 violent acts committed against homeless persons over the period, among which 156 were lethal. The NCH called those acts hate crimes (they retain the definition of the American Congress). They insist that so called bumfight videos disseminate hate against the homeless and dehumanize them. The Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism (CSHE) at California State University, San Bernardino in conjunction with the NCH found that while 155 homeless people were killed by domiciled people in "hate killings" from, only 76 people were killed in all the other traditional hate crime homicide categories, such as race and religion, combined. The CSHE contends that negative and degrading portrayals of the homeless contribute to a climate where violence takes place. Various studies and surveys indicate that homeless people have a much higher criminal victimization rate than domiciled people, but

By our decision, we in no way dictate to the City that it must provide sufficient shelter for the homeless, or allow anyone who wishes to sit, lie, or sleep on the streets of Los Angeles at any time and at any place within the City. All we hold is that, so long as there is a greater number of homeless individuals in Los Angeles than the number of available beds, the City may not enforce section 41.18(d) at all times and places throughout the City against homeless individuals for involuntarily sitting, lying, and sleeping in public. In August 2007, in Boston, Massachusetts, the city took action to keep loiterers, including the homeless, off the Boston Common overnight, after a series of violent crimes and drug arrests.[66]

Responses
Critics of homeless criminalization claim that such measures do nothing to actually solve homelessness and in fact make matters

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that most incidents never get reported to authorities. On October 1, 2006 CBS News 60 Minutes telecast a story on "thrill" violence against the homeless and "Bumfights" videos. A recent study in 2007 found that the number of violent crimes against the homeless is increasing.[70][71]

Homelessness in the United States
Los Angeles and New York, although no statistical data has backed this up. The reputation stems primarily from the subjective number of beggars found on the streets rather than any sort of objective statistical census data. Indeed, from statistical data, Chicago has far less homeless per capita than peers New York, and Los Angeles, or other major cities Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Boston, among others. In Denver, Colorado, Mayor John Hickenlooper has made dealing with the issues that underlie homelessness a top priority on his Mayoral agenda, speaking heavily on the issue during his first "State of the City" address in 2003. While Denver’s homeless population is much lower than other major cities, the homeless residents have often suffered when without shelter during Denver’s infamously cold winters.[20] In [21] Indianapolis, Indiana, as many as 2,200 people are homeless on any given night, and as many as 15,000 individuals over the course of a year. Indianapolis is notable among cities of similar size for having only faith-based shelters, such as the century-old [22]Wheeler Mission. In 2001, Mayor Bart Peterson endorsed a 10-year plan, called the [23]Blueprint to End Homelessness, and made it one of his administration’s top priorities. The plan’s main goals are for more affordable housing units, employment opportunities, and support services. The Blueprint notwithstanding, Indianapolis has criminalized aspects of homelessness, such as making panhandling a misdemeanor; and the [24]City-County Council has twice (in April, 2002, and August, 2005) denied the zoning necessary to open a new shelter for homeless women. The city of San Antonio, Texas also has an abundance of homeless people. This was spoofed in the South Park episode, Night of the Living Homeless, saying that homeless people came from San Antonio. In the episode, they were eventually sent to California, citing that Californians are "good to the homeless". In December 2007, Mayor Thomas Menino of Boston announced that the one night homeless count had revealed that the actual number of homeless living in the streets was down.[76] In October 2008, Connie Paige of The Boston Globe reported that the number of homeless in Massachusetts had reached an

Situations in specific U.S. cities
The Los Angeles region is thought to have the largest concentration of homeless persons in the country and is considered one of if not the homelessness capital of the USA.[72][73] In its biannual census of 2005, the County counted nearly 90,000 homeless persons living in the county at any given night. A quarter of a million are expected to be homeless at any time of the year. A 50-block area in downtown Los Angeles called Skid Row has a homeless population as large as the homeless population of San Francisco. Hollywood and the city of Santa Monica also suffer from visible homelessness. To combat homelessness, public and private service providers launched a new initiative called Bring LA Home, a program that would build 50,000 housing units for homeless persons and end homelessness within 10 years. The city of San Francisco, California, due to its mild climate and its social programs that have provided cash payments for homeless individuals, is often considered the homelessness capital of the United States.[74] The city’s homeless population has been estimated at 7,000-10,000 people, of which approximately 3,000-5,000 refuse shelter. The city spends $200 million a year on homelessness related programs.[75] It is believed that New York, which is 10 times as large in population, has only few hundred more chronically homeless individuals.[74] On May 3, 2004 [19], San Francisco officially began an attempt to scale back the scope of its homelessness problem by changing its strategy from cash payments to the "Care Not Cash" plan. At the same time, grassroots organizations within the Bay Area such as the Suitcase Clinic work to provide referrals for housing and employment to the homeless population. The city of Chicago, Illinois is also noted for its number of homeless people. Over the years, Chicago has gained a reputation as the city with the most homeless people, rivaling

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all-time high, mostly due to mortgage foreclosures and the national economic crisis.[77] Homeless advocate and urban designer Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007.[78][79][80] As of 2009, Arth was still working toward trying to consolidate most of the scattered 19 local agencies into an attractive community that would be designed to more effectively address the needs of the chronically adult homeless and the temporarily adult homeless, as well as others who may be having difficulty fitting into the pervasive, automobile-dominated culture. He writes that the current "piecemeal approach" inefficiently spreads out services and work opportunities, and aggravates the problem by polarizing citizens who might otherwise be inclined to help. In response to critics who say that such a village would be like a concentration camp, Arth points out that the U.S. already concentrates their citizens into prisons at 7-8 times the rate of Canada or Europe. "There should be alternative between living on the street and being locked up that addresses the needs of the chronically and temporarily adult homeless." His proposed "Tiger Bay Village" would have a community garden and orchard, a place to hire certified workers, and a work crew to help build and maintain the village. "Little shops in the village center could process and rehabilitate donated clothes and furnishings to be sold to the public." Housing would range from multi-bed barracks to small Katrina cottages depending on a person’s contributions to the village, special needs, and income. Arth claims that this would cost less and be far more effective than any of the other solutions tried elsewhere.[81]

Homelessness in the United States

A woman sleeping in Rockefeller Center’s subway station. women continued to grow.[84] In 2008 in one sample, women represented 26% of the respondents surveyed, compared to 24% in 2007.[85] Homeless women between the ages of 18 and 44 are between 5 and 31 times more at risk of dying than those women who have homes. Homeless women over the age of 44, however, are healthier than homeless men of the same age, and are negligibly more at risk of dying than housed women.[86][87] Psychologically, however, homeless women in their fifties suffer from troubles and chronic diseases from which their housed counterparts only begin to suffer in their seventies. Despite their comparable psychological condition, elderly housing assistance is not available to these homeless women.[84] Between 3.1 and 4.4 % of homeless women in the United States are veterans of the armed services. 57% of these have availed of the Veterans Affairs’ healthcare services.[88] Adult partner abuse, foster care, and childhood sexual abuse are all more likely to have been experienced by homeless women than by their male counterparts.[89] Domestic violence is the direct cause of homelessness for over half of all homeless women in the United States.[90] Approximately three quarters of the women who attempt to avail of domestic violence shelter beds are turned away in major American cities.[91] These victims of domestic violence are often excluded from homelessness studies, despite the lack of livable conditions in their homes.[92][93][94][95] It Was a Wonderful Life, a 1993 documentary film narrated by Jodie Foster, chronicles the lives of six articulate, educated,

Health concerns
There has been concern about the transmission of diseases in the homeless population housed in shelters, and the people who work there, especially with tuberculosis.[82]

Women
In the last decades of the twentieth century, the number of women in the homeless population had increased dramatically and grown faster than the number of men.[83] In the early 21st century, the numbers of homeless

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otherwise hidden homeless women as they struggle from day to day.

Homelessness in the United States
[15] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: How many are homeless? Why?. [16] Salvation Army, "History of The Salvation Army Social Services of Greater New York" [17] The Bowery Mission [3] For a history see [4] [18] Depastino, Todd, "Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America" [5] [19] Scherl D.J., Macht L.B., "Deinstitutionalization in the absence of consensus", Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1979 Sep;30(9):599-604 [6] [20] Rochefort, D.A., "Origins of the ’Third psychiatric revolution’: the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963", Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 1984 Spring;9(1):1-30. [7] [21] Feldman, S., "Out of the hospital, onto the streets: the overselling of benevolence", Hastings Center Report, 1983 Jun;13(3):5-7. [8] [22] Borus J.F., "Sounding Board. Deinstitutionalization of the chronically mentally ill", New England Journal of Medicine, 1981 6 August;305(6):339-42. [9] [23] On The Pine Street Inn [24] "No Angels Here: The Closing of the Pine Street Inn Nurses Clinic, 1972–2003", by Grace Elizabeth Moore, Harvard Divinity School, Center for the Study of World Religions [25] Paulist Center, Boston, awards profiles [26] Issac Hecker Award for Social Justice [27] Pine Street Inn FAQ [28] ^ Common Dreams: Urban Suffering Grew Under Reagan. [29] National Housing Institute: Reagan’s Legacy: Homelessness in America. [30] "Melee in Tompkins Sq. Park: Violence and Its Provocation," by Todd Purdham, The New York Times, August 14, 1988, Section 1; Part 1, Page 1, Column 4; Metropolitan Desk [31] Harman, Dana, "Read all about it: street papers flourish across the US", The Christian Science Monitor, November 17, 2003. [10] [32] FACS, "Homeless Children, Poverty, Faith and Community: Understanding and Reporting the Local Story", March 26, 2002 Akron, Ohio. [11]

See also
• • • • • • • • Dignity Village Frontline Foundation Guaranteed minimum income Homelessness Mole People Poverty in the United States Vagrancy (people) Wage slavery

Footnotes
[1] Piasecki, Joe."Throwaway kids: Thousands of area foster children leave county care for a dangerous and desperate life on the streets", Pasadena Weekly, June 22, 2006. [2] Fagan, Kevin, "Saving foster kids from the streets", San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, April 11, 2004. [3] Department of Housing and Urban Development: General Definition of Homeless Individual. [4] New York Times: Despite City Crackdown.... [5] see Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich [6] Health and Human Services: Defining Chronic Homelessness. [7] United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Homelessness:Programs and the People They Serve", a summary of the NSHAPC survey. [1] [8] Burt, Aaron, Lee & Valente. 2001. Helping America’s Homeless. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute [9] Link et al.,. 1994. Lifetime and Five-Year Prevalence of Homelessness in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol 84:12:1907-1912. [10] ^ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Who is homeless?. [11] U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: [2]. [12] ^ National Coalition for the Homeless Who is homeless?. [13] Urban Institute: Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. [14] Urban Institute. Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve

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[33] National Coalition for the Homeless, "Homeless Youth" 2005 [12] [34] Interagency Council on the Homeless, "10-Year Plans to End Chronic Homelessness", [13] [35] Massachusetts Commission To End Homelessness, "Commission Recommends Focus On Permanent Housing Options", press release, January 11, 2008. [36] Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Report of the SPECIAL COMMISSION RELATIVE TO ENDING HOMELESSNESS IN THE COMMONWEALTH", December 2007. [37] Le Blanc, Steve, "Patrick’s budget aims to end homelessness: Goal is to identify families in danger", Boston Globe and Associated Press, January 21, 2008 [38] ^ Abel, David, "For the homeless, keys to a home: Large-scale effort to keep many off street faces hurdles", Boston Globe, February 24, 2008. [39] The New Yorker: Million-Dollar Murray. [40] Swarns, Rachel L. (2008-07-30). "U.S. Reports Drop in Homeless Population". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/30/us/ 30homeless.html. [41] zFacts: Housing Costs Rising Faster than Inflation. [42] National Low Income Housing Coalition: Facts Sheet. [43] ^ Center for Housing Policy: Paycheck to Paycheck. [44] Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: President’s budget would slash major housing program by 30% by 2009. [45] National Coalition for the Homeless: Why are people homeless?. [46] U.S. Census Bureau: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004. [47] ^ National Coalition on Health Care: Health Insurance Cost. [48] United Food and Commercial Workers: Wal-Martization of Health Care. [49] cf. Booth, Koegel, et al. "Vulnerability Factors for Homelessness Associated with Substance Dependence in a Community Sample of Homeless Adults", 2002. [50] City Mayors Society: Big U.S. Cities Report Steep Rise in Hunger and Homelessness.

Homelessness in the United States
[51] City Mayors Society: Big U.S. Cities Report Steep Rise in Hunger and Homelessness. [52] City Mayors Society: Big U.S. Cities Report Steep Rise in Hunger and Homelessness. [53] St. Martin, Greg, "Seeking help for homeless on Common: Program hopes to offer housing", Boston Metro newspaper, Monday, September 17, 2007. [54] ^ Abramson, Larry, "Amid Foreclosures, A Rise In Homeless Students", All Things Considered program, NPR, September 30, 2008. [55] Nieves, Evelyn, "In Tough Times, Ranks of Homeless Students Rising: School districts find unprecedented increase in numbers of homeless students across US", Associated Press, December 19, 2008 [56] ^ Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip, "The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness", National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY), December, 2008 [57] American Journal of Community Psychology: "Public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about homeless people: evidence for compassion fatigue.",23 August 1995. [58] American Sociological Association: "Exposure to the Homeless Increases Sympathetic Public Attitudes", press release, 22 March 2004. [59] Public Agenda: "Compassion, Concern and Conflicted Feelings: New Yorkers on Homelessness and Housing", 2007. [60] Public Agenda: "The Homeless: As Long as They Don’t Bother Anybody... ", Red Flags on Poverty, retrieved 25 July 2008. [61] Kooker, Naomi R., "Pine St. adds to permanent housing holdings", Boston Business Journal, November 3, 2006. [62] Allis, Sam (May 14, 2006). "A port in the storm Center gives homeless a phone and a chance". The Boston Globe (Globe Newspaper Company). http://www.boston.com/news/local/ articles/2006/05/14/a_port_in_the_storm/ ?page=full. [63] Graves, Florence; Sayfan, Hadar, "First things first: ’Housing first,’ a radical new approach to ending chronic homelessness, is gaining ground in

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Boston", Boston Globe, Sunday, June 24, 2007. [64] Roncarati, Jill, "Homeless, housed, and homeless again", Journal of the American Academy of Physician’s Assistants, June 2008. [65] ^ National Coalition for the Homeless: A Dream Denied. [66] St. Martin, Greg, "Night watch: Police removing overnight loiterers on Common", Boston Metro newspaper, Wednesday, August 29, 2007. [67] L.A. Times: Justices Hand L.A.’s Homeless a Victory. [68] National Coalition for the Homeless: Hate, Violence, and Death on Main Street USA. [69] National Coalition for the Homeless: A Dream Denied. [70] Lewan, Todd, "Unprovoked Beatings of Homeless Soaring", Associated Press, April 8, 2007. [71] National Coalition for the Homeless, Hate, "Violence, and Death on Main Street USA: A report on Hate Crimes and Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness, 2006", February 2007. [72] "Los Angeles Still Homeless Capital Of United States", Imperial Valley News, Wednesday, 25 June 2008 [73] Wolch, Jennifer; Blasi, Gary; and Dear, Michael, "L.A.’s homeless: A progress report", USC Center for Sustainable Cities, June 22, 2008 [74] ^ San Francisco Ten Year Planning Council, "The San Francisco Plan to Abolish Chronic Homelessness", c.2004, submitted to the federal ICH. Quoting from the report: "San Francisco is Everyone’s Favorite City. But San Francisco also has the dubious distinction of being the homeless capital of the United States" [75] SF Gate: Chronicle Homeless Special [76] Loh, Christopher, "City experts predict drop in homeless numbers", Boston Now newspaper, December 20, 2007. [77] Paige, Connie, Homelessness hits record high: Advocates expect numbers to grow amid economic downturn and ask for state aid, The Boston Globe, October 6, 2008 [78] Tom Leonard, "Daytona may give vagrants their own resort." Telegraph.co.uk, January 24, 2007 link to article

Homelessness in the United States
[79] Etan Horowitz, "Developer defends homeless-village concept", Orlando Sentinel, January 27, 2007 [80] Rebbecca Mahoney, "Homeless village or leper colony?" Orlando Sentinel, January 20, 2007 [81] Arth, Michael, "Why we should build a Pedestrian Village for the homeless in Volusia County." The Daytona beach News-Journal. 1-4-2009. p. 11 A. [82] "Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis" - OSHA notice, 1997. [83] Cf. Levinson, Encyclopedia of Homelessness, article entry on Women by Susan Barrow, pp.598-606. Cited statistic from p.599 [84] ^ Means, Roseanna H., MD, MSc (03/01/ 2001). "A primary care approach to treating women without homes". Medscape General Medicine. Medscape. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/ 408938/. Retrieved on 2008-11-20. "Women constitute the fastest growing subgroup of the millions of Americans who are homeless" [85] WMBB TV News, "Homelessness Up Among Women and Children", via Panama City Rescue Mission, Panama City, Florida, November 19, 2008. "The 20th annual snapshot survey of the Homeless, completed at 137 rescue missions across North America, recorded more women than ever before, 26 percent of those responding, as compared to 24 percent in 2007." [86] Cheung, AM; SW Hwang (2004). "Risk of death among homeless women: A cohort study and review of the literature". Canadian Medical Association Journal (170): 1243-1247. [87] The Women’s and Children’s Health Policy Center (WCHPC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, "The Health of Homeless Women: Information for State Maternal and Child Health Programs" [88] Gamache, G; R Rosencheck, R Tessler (2003). "Overrepresentation of women veterans among homeless women". American Journal of Public Health (93): 1132-1136. [89] Robrecht, LC (1998). "Interpersonal violence and the pregnant homeless woman". Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing (27): 684-691.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[90] Ringwalt, CL; JM Greene, M Robertson, M McPheeters (1998). "The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States". American Journal of Public Health (88): 1325-1329. [91] Jensen, RH (1994). "Domestic violence facts". Ms. 2: 44-51. [92] Donohoe, Martin (2004-07-07). "Homelessness in the United States: History, Epidemiology, Health Issues, Women, and Public Policy". Medscape. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/ 481800. Retrieved on 2008-11-20. [93] "The Continuing Crisis: Synopsis of ’Women’s Reality: Single Homeless Women in the City of Portland’", Transition Projects report, Portland, Oregon. [94] "Women’s Reality: Single Homeless Women in the City of Portland", Transition Projects report, Portland, Oregon. [95] "NEEDS AND RESOURCES: WHAT IS AND WHAT SHOULD BE: A Study of Single Homeless Women in Portland, Oregon". Homeless Women’s Task Force, Transition Projects report, Portland, Oregon, 2004

Homelessness in the United States
• Coalition for the Homeless (New York), "A History of Modern Homelessness in New York City". [25] • Crimaldi, Laura, "Cardinal spends time with homeless", Boston Herald, December 26, 2006. • Crimaldi, Laura, "Homeless Advocates Urge no Diversion of Shelter Funds", Boston Herald, Wednesday, February 14, 2007. • Crimaldi, Laura, "Champion for homeless fights for life", Boston Herald, Sunday, September 21, 2008. About Richard Weintraub, Director of Homeless Services for Boston, Massachusetts. The article has some modern history of homelessness in Boston. • CSPTech, University of Massachusetts, Boston, "Characteristics of Homeless Families Accessing Massachusetts Emergency Shelters 1999-2001", April 2003. • Culhane, Dennis [26], "Responding to Homelessness: Policies and Politics", 2001. [27] • deMause, Neil, "Out of the Shelter, Into the Fire: New city program for homeless: Keep your job or keep your apartment", The Village Voice, New York, June 20, 2006. [28] • DePastino, Todd, "Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America", 2003. ISBN 0-226-14378-3 • Friedman, Donna Haig, et al., "Preventing Homelessness and Promoting Housing Stability : A Comparative Analysis", The Boston Foundation and UMASS/Boston Center for Social Policy, June 2007. • Gatto, Nora, "Vincent", Niagara University, Eagle Alumni Magazine, Fall 2006, p.12. • Institute for Governmental Studies, Berkeley, "Urban Homelessness & Public Policy Solutions: A One-Day Conference", January 22, 2001[29] • Kahn, Ric, "Buried in obscurity: Found dead on Causeway Street in June, his body awaits a nameless final rest", Boston Globe, December 17, 2006. A story about a Beacon Hill church pausing to remember the recently departed homeless. • Koebel, C. Theodore (1998). Shelter and Society: Theory, Research, and Policy for Nonprofit Housing. SUNY Press. ISBN

Bibliography
• Barry, Ellen, "A Refugee’s Triumph Over Desolation", Boston Globe, December 28, 2003. • Baumohl, Jim, (editor), "Homelessness in America", Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1996. ISBN 0897748697 • Booth, Brenda M., Sullivan, J. Greer, Koegel, Paul, Burnam, M. Audrey, "Vulnerability Factors for Homelessness Associated with Substance Dependence in a Community Sample of Homeless Adults", RAND Research Report. Originally published in: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, v. 28, no. 3, 2002, pp. 429–452. • Burke, Kerry, Fox, Alison, Martinez, Jose, "Hobo Madness hits Mad. Ave.: Bizman Sues Homeless for $", New York Daily News, January 18, 2007. • Center for Social Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston, "Hard Numbers, Hard Times: Homeless Individuals in Massachusetts Emergency Shelters 1999-2003", July 2004.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Homelessness in the United States

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0791437892. http://books.google.com/ • Schutt, Russell, K., "Homeless Adults in books?id=kHYjdbfQDNUC&printsec=frontcover. Boston in 1990: A Two-Shelter Profile", Kusmer, Kenneth L. [30], "Down and Out, 1990. On the Road: The Homeless in American • Schutt, Russell K., Garrett, Gerald R., History", Oxford University Press, 2003. "Responding to the Homeless: Policy ISBN 0-19-504778-8 and Practice", Topics in Social Levinson, David, [editor] (2004). Psychiatry, 1992. ISBN 0-306-44076-8 Encyclopedia of Homelessness. Thousand • Schutt, Russell K., Byrne, Francine, et Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN al., "City of Boston Homeless Services: 0761927514. Employment & Training for Homeless Massachusetts Coalition for the Homeless, Persons", 1995. "Down & Out Resource Manual", 2005. • Schutt, Russell K., Feldman, James, et [31] al., "Homeless Persons’ Residential The Massachusetts Commission to End Preferences and Needs: A Pilot Survey Homelessness, "Report of the Special of Persons with Severe Mental Illness Commission Relative to Ending in Boston Mental Health and Generic Homelessness in the Commonwealth", Shelters", 2004. Boston, Massachusetts, December 28, • Sommer, Heidi, "Homelessness in Urban 2007 (January 2008). America: a Review of the Literature", 2001 Massachusetts, Commonwealth of, • St. Mungo’s organisation (UK), "A Brief "Housing the Homeless: a more effective History of Homelessness" approach", Governor’s Executive • Vissing, Yvonne "Out of Sight, Out of Commission for Homeless Services Mind: Homeless Children and Families in Coordination, November 2003. Small-Town America", 1996. Morton, Margaret, "The Tunnel: The • Vissing, Yvonne, "The $ubtle War Against Underground Homeless of New York Children", Fellowship, March/April 2003 City", Yale University Press, 1995. ISBN • Vladeck, Bruce, R., and the Committee on 0-300-06559-0 Health Care for Homeless People, Nieto G., Gittelman M., Abad A. (2008). Institute of Medicine, "Homelessness, "Homeless Mentally Ill Persons: A Health, and Human needs", National bibliography review", International Academies Press, 1988 Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. • Toth, Jennifer, The Mole People: Life in 12(2) the Tunnels Beneath New York City, 1993. Radin, Charles A., "On the street, a quiet ISBN 1-55652-190-1 outreach of kindness: Little Brothers lift • United States Conference of Mayors, the less fortunate", Boston Globe, "Hunger and Homelessness Survery", December 18, 2006. December 2005. [32] Riis, Jacob, How the Other Half Lives, • United States Department of Health and 1890. Human Services, "Ending Chronic Rossi, Peter H., Down and Out in America: Homelessness: Strategies for Action", The Origins of Homelessness], University Report from the Secretary’s Work Group of Chicago Press, 1991. on Ending Chronic Homelessness, March Ryan, Charles V., "Homes Within Reach: 2003. Springfield’s 10-year plan to end long • University of Vermont, "It starts With a term homelessness", City of Springfield, Bed: UVM alums Richard Weintraub & Massachusetts, Mayor Charles V. Ryan, Lyndia Downie lead fight to break cycle of January 2007. homelessness in Boston, Vermont Schutt, Russell K., Ph.D., Professor, Quarterly, Fall 2002. University of Massachusetts Boston. • Woolhouse, Megan, "Homes for the • Schutt, Russell K., et al., "Boston’s holiday: Housing agency, nonprofit team Homeless, 1986-87: Change and up to help the homeless", Boston Globe, Continuity", 1987. December 25, 2007. • Schutt, Russell K., Working with the Homeless: the Backgrounds, Activities and Beliefs of Shelter Staff, 1988. • Homeless Forums United States

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Survival Guide to Homelessness • Homelessness restrictions in Top 20 "meanest" U.S. cities. (Information for all U.S. cities) • "Of No Fixed Address: A Collection of Voices from the Streets of Chicago" • Resources for People on the Street (San Francisco Bay Area) 2006 • City Mayors Society - "Hunger and homelessness continues to rise in US cities" • City Mayors Society - "Report accuses US cities of criminalising the homeless" • City Mayors Society - "Big US cities report steep rise in hunger and homelessness" • National Coalition for the Homeless • National Alliance to End Homelessness • Corporation for Supportive Housing • National Coalition for Homeless Veterans • L.A.’s Homeless Blog • the 13th juror • Fotolog of the homeless in New York City and Wilkes-Barre, PA • Blog on homelessness in Los Angeles • To The Streets National Sleep Out • Universal Living Wage • National Low Income Housing Coalition • Economic Policy Institute • Urban Institute • Interagency Council on Homeless - US Government • City of Boston Homeless census reports • Coalition for the Homeless (New York) • Bowery Rescue Mission, New York City • St. Francis House, Boston, Massachusetts [33] • United States Conference of Mayors: Human Services • United States Department of Housing and Urban Development site on Homelessness • United States Department of Health and Human Services site on Homelessness • Friends of Boston’s Homeless

Homelessness in the United States
• Homeless Hero • The Doe Fund (Ready, Willing, and Able), New York City • History of Homeless Services - Boston Public Health Commission • Pine Street Inn, Boston • National Housing Institute - resources, information, and publisher of "Shelterforce", The Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Building. • National Center on Family Homelessness • "Homelessness in the City of Boston Winter 2003-2004" - Annual Census and Mayor’s Report, Boston, Thomas M. Menino, Mayor • State Auditor’s Report on Public Housing in Massachusetts, 2006 • Center for the Homeless - Community Programs (South Bend, IN) • Teen Living Programs helps homeless teens in the Chicago area • United Coalition East Prevention Project Los Angeles Skid Row Nonprofit • TODAY show: More homeless families in LA • KCET-TV Segment on "Skid Row Kids" • Toxic Playground: Growing Up In Skid Row • Children Left Behind: The Plight of Homeless Students in Los Angeles • BRC (Bowery Residents Committee) New York City • Pictorial of San Francisco’s Tenderloin District - Warning: Images portray the truth and may offend those with liberal sensibilities • National Policy and Advocacy Council on Homelessness (USA)

Resources
• FirstStep Guide to getting help for the homeless - US Government HHS, HUD, et al.

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