6Th Grade Main Idea Worksheets

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					 Function-Based
Behavior Support:
   Big Ideas
       George Sugai
  University of Connecticut
      Center on PBIS

                    www.PBIS.org
              “Lemon Drop Kid”
• Problem contexts
  – Multiple task demands
  – Pending timelines
  – Halt in engaging activities
  – Adult directives

• Verbal & physical noncompliance
• Leaving classroom -> principal’s office
• Disruptive behavior = throwing school materials
  & furniture
 LDK – requested “intervention”
• At first sign of problem behavior,
  immediately provide lemon drop
  candy
• Provide shoulder rubs & pressure
• If escalation/crisis, enclose in “body
  sock”
              “LDK” - logic
“Body sock”
• Create secure environment
• Re-create maternal “womb-like”
  conditions
            “LDK” – Logic!
Repetitious tactile & sensory stimulation
    Re-training & realigning neural
 pathways
         Improvement in neurological &
 physiological functioning
            Improvement in social
 competence & academic achievement
         “LDK” – Outcomes
At home….
• Decrease in problem behavior chain
• Increase in frequency of problem behavior
  episodes
At school….
• Modification in intervention
• Decrease in problem behavior chain &
  behavior episodes
• Increase in time in classroom & academic
  engagement
    Non-validated Interventions for
               students
         Examples                         Concerns

• Sensory re-integration or   • Poor ecological (school)
                                validity
  stimulation
                              • Redirected specification of
• Facilitated                   actual causal factors
  communication               • Adverse side effects
• Introspective               • False hopes & expectations
  psychoanalytic therapies    • Inefficient use of resources &
• Rebirthing therapy            opportunities
                              •   Lack of empirical support
•
                              •
            Purpose

Provide overview of critical features
of function-based approach to
addressing problem behavior



       Function Matters!
   “How many of you have….”
• Participated in behavior intervention
  planning meeting?
• Used functional assessment information to
  develop behavior intervention plan?
• Conducted functional
  assessment….Informally? Formally?
• Know why functional assessments are
  conducted?
       Outcomes (“Answers”)
• Features & requirements of function-based
  approach to behavior support
  – Process

• Behavioral description of “function”
  – Get or escape/avoid

• Steps in function-based approach to
  behavior intervention planning
  – Behaviorally competent team
                                            Tertiary Prevention:
  CONTINUUM OF                                  Specialized
   SCHOOL-WIDE                                 Individualized
 INSTRUCTIONAL &                           Systems for Students
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR           ~5%           with High-Risk Behavior
     SUPPORT
                                          Secondary Prevention:
                            ~15%
                                            Specialized Group
                                          Systems for Students
                                          with At-Risk Behavior
 Primary Prevention:
 School-/Classroom-
  Wide Systems for
    All Students,
  Staff, & Settings




                       ~80% of Students
                  Social Competence &
Positive         Academic Achievement
Behavior
Support             OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
 Supporting
                                         Decision
Staff Behavior
                                         Making


                    PRACTICES



                     Supporting
                  Student Behavior
                           Behavior Support Elements
 *Response class
 *Routine analysis
 *Hypothesis statement     *Alternative behaviors
                           *Competing behavior analysis
Problem
                           *Contextual fit
Behavior                   *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes
                           *Evidence-based interventions
           Functional
           Assessment
                                          *Implementation support
                                          *Data plan
                         Intervention
                         & Support
                                                        *Continuous improvement
                         Plan
                                                        *Sustainability plan
                                         Fidelity of
                                         Implementation
      • Team-based
                                                              Impact on
      • Behavior competence                                   Behavior &
                                                              Lifestyle
          What is FBA?
A systematic process for
developing statements about
factors that
– contribute to occurrence & maintenance of
  problem behavior, &
– more importantly, serve as basis for
  developing proactive & comprehensive
  behavior support plans.
Function-based support is all
          about…

Re-design & improvement of
learning & teaching environments
– Attention to environment & function
– Not re-design of individuals
– Change in behavior of implementers of
  plan
   Logic of functional approach

• Behaviors are maintained by consequence
  events (function)
  – Positive or negative reinforcement

• Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events
  – Relate antecedent to emission of behavior &
    likelihood of consequence event

• Changing behaviors requires consideration of
  maintaining consequences
                  Functions
                              Problem
                              Behavior




                                          Escape/
                 Obtain/Get
Pos Reinf        Something
                                           Avoid                 Neg Reinf
                                         Something




       Stimulation/                                  Tangible/
                               Social
        Sensory                                       Activity




                      Adult                Peer
     When has FBA been done?
1.   Clear & measurable definition of problem
     behaviors.
2.   Complete testable hypothesis or summary
     statement is provided.
      •   Statement of function (purpose) of behavior

3.   Data (direct observation) to confirm
     testable hypothesis.
4.   Behavior intervention plan based on
     testable hypothesis
      •   Contextually appropriate supports for accurate
          implementation
         Defining behavior
Must result in clear, measurable, &
objective descriptions of individual, groups,
or sequences of related behaviors
 •   Any observable or measurable action or act.
 •   Observable beginning & end
 •   Has measurable dimension(s)
     •   Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus
          Non- v. Observable

(-)   hyperactivity
(+) initiates 5 different tasks within 2
  minutes
(+) leaves room at least 3 times during
  a 30 minute lesson
(+)….
Which is described in
 observable terms?


  Hits with his fist
         OR
    Aggressive
Which is described in
 observable terms?


  Hits with his fist
         OR
    Aggressive
      Delinquent
         OR
Takes money from peers
      Delinquent
         OR
Takes money from peers
      Psychotic
        OR
Says she hears voices
      Psychotic
        OR
Says she hears voices
Arrives 10 minutes late
         OR
     Irresponsible
Arrives 10 minutes late
         OR
     Irresponsible
Out of seat 55% of time
         OR
     Hyperactive
Out of seat 55% of time
         OR
     Hyperactive
Consider response class
                                                 ‫٭‬
   Set of topographically different behaviors
   with similar or related purpose or function
– Hit, spit, runaway, yell…
   •   Escape difficult task request

– Cry, hit, whine, raise hand, spit…..
   •   Obtain adult attention
Consider response chains
  •   Predictable sequence of behaviors
  •   Possibly different functions at beginning
      & end of chains
    Ex1. Behavior Chain
Given a task, student…
1. Whispers that work is stupid,
2. Writes on papers,
3. Says work is stupid,
4. Throws paper in waste basket, &
5. Leaves room.


    What is function of behavior? (Test)
                    Ex2.
Given difficult task, student…
  1. Says this work is stupid,
  2. Pokes student at next table,
  3. Argues with student,
  4. Tells teacher to butt out,
  5. Threatens teacher
  6. Runs away from teacher who chases.


      What is function of behavior? (Test)
                 Testable Hypothesis
                            “Basic Unit”
Setting Events      Triggering       Problem          Maintaining
                   Antecedents       Behavior        Consequences




        • “Best guess” about behavior & conditions
          under which it is observed

        • Represents basic working unit of FBA

        • Directly guides development of BIP
                 Testable Hypothesis
                            “Basic Unit”


Setting Events      Triggering       Problem       Maintaining
                   Antecedents       Behavior     Consequences
 Infrequent                                        Following
events that        Preceding            Set of
                                                  events that
affect value       events that         related
                                                    maintain
  of maint.         trigger or       behaviors
                                                   behaviors
  conseq.           occasion         of concern
                                                  of concern
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication &
teachers present multiple task demands, she
makes negative self-statements & writes profane
language on her assignments. Teaching staff
typically send her to the office with a discipline
referral for being disrespectful.
                                               What function?
                                             Avoid difficult tasks
 Setting event   Antecedent       Response        Consequence

  Misses 12:30     Teachers     Sequoia makes     Teacher sends
   medication        make        negative self-     Sequoia to
                    multiple     statements &     office for being
                 task demands   writes profane     disrespectful
                                   language
Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased
several times by his friends before class. When he
enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair.
Caesar immediately says “what are you staring
at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-
school detention.
                                                    Escape adult &
                                                    What function?
                                                     peer attention
    Setting event     Antecedent       Response        Consequence
        Caesar is      His teacher    Caesar asks      His teacher
     teased several   stares at his   his teacher      sends him to
    times about his   hair in class    what she’s       in-school
       hair by his                     staring at        detention
     friends before
          class
Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her
second language. When another student
approaches & says something to her in
English, Cleo turns away. The other student
walks away. This happens several times during
the day.
                                              What function?
                                            Escape peer attention
Setting event   Antecedent      Response       Consequence

New student        Student     Cleo turns          Other
                approaches &     away          student walks
                  speaks in                        away
                   English
When his teacher asks him what the capitol city
of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct
answers. His teacher praises his correct answer,
& tells him he may work by himself or a friend
on the rest of the assignment.

                                                  Access peer &
                                                  What function?
 Setting event   Antecedent         Response
                                                  adult attention
                                                    Consequence

     None        Teacher asks      Napoleon          Teacher gives
                 what capitol      give correct      verbal praise
                 city of country   answer            & time to work
                 is                                  with a friend
As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him &
say “what’s up?” He looks back and says:
“Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!”
“Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads &
all him “weirdo.”
                                            Access OR escape
                                             What function?
                                             peer attention?
 Setting event   Antecedent      Response        Consequence
                                            How do you know?
                                            How do you know?
 ??              Look at him.   “Who ya         Assess?
                                                Kids shake
                 “What’s up!”   lookin’ at?”     heads &
                                “Ya want         call him
                                Some?” “Ya       “weirdo”
                                talkin’ to me?
         TE is “best guess.”
    What if testable hypothesis is
     incomplete or inaccurate?

• Review what you know
• Collect more information
• Change hypothesis statement
• Test/confirm new hypothesis
  statement
           TE1 for Hillary:
 "When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary
   whispers in his ear. Bill laughs."


• Test manipulation?
  – Put Al in Bill’s seat.

• Effect:
  – Hillary whispers in Al’s ear.
                  Develop new TE!
                TE2:
 “When Hillary sits next to boys, she
  whispers in their ears. The boys
               laugh.”

• Test manipulation?
  – Put Tipper in Bill’s seat.

• Effect:
  – Hillary does not whisper.
 Avoid explanatory fictions

Restatement of problem & not
measurable
(-) She’s aggressive because she’s angry
(+) When she is teased about her looks &
  family, she uses profanity & hits until the
  teasing stops.
  Avoid explanatory fictions


Not measurable or testable
  (-) He’s emotionally disturbed
  (+) When he is with peers, he talks about
    hurting them & himself.
                  “Petunia”
• Problem: Petunia is in 9th grade & very
  inattentive. In class, she is forever inattentive,
  distractible, off-task, & bothering others.
• Explanatory fiction: Petunia has ADHD &
  conduct disorders
• Testable hypothesis: Petunia works on each
  assignment for about 2 minutes, answers
  before presentation of questions are
  completed, asks other students for help, &
  gets out of her seat 12 times per 30 min.
  period.
                  “Rhus”
• Problem: Rhus is an 11th grader with autism.
  He’s high functioning but is hated by his
  peers. When he gets frustrated, he screams
  & bites his hand.
• Explanatory fiction: Rhus has Fragile X & is
  emotionally disturbed
• Testable hypothesis: Rhus has verbal skills to
  describe his situation, but if presented with
  difficult academic work & short timelines, he
  screams until teachers help him. If peers
  tease him, he bites his hand, & the teasing
  stops.
             “Catoneaster”
• Problem: Catoneaster is a 7th grader who
  resists going to school each morning.
• Explanatory fiction: Catoneaster has parent
  separation anxiety
• Testable hypothesis: Catoneaster finds
  attention from his Dad to be very rewarding.
  His mother died when he was 5 years old.
  When he argues with his Dad in the parking
  lot, his Dad takes him out for breakfast &
  brings him back during 2nd period.
                 “Azalea”
• Problem: Azalea is an 8th grader who skips
  most of her morning classes.
• Explanatory fiction: Azalea is a school phobic.
• Testable hypothesis: On days she misses
  breakfast, Azalea goes to the cafeteria to eat
  instead of going to class. When she gets to
  the cafeteria, she visits with her friends until a
  teacher tells her to go class. Her friends tell
  her she is cool the way she talks to teachers
  & skips 1st period.
Example 1: Different behaviors
   with different functions

• Kirsten’s teachers agree that she
  has two behaviors that interfere
  with her social success at school, &
  develop two testable hypotheses:
Setting       Antecedent                         Consequence
                                Behavior
 Event          Event                               Event


                                                    Teacher
                                Verbal     
               Teacher                              repeats
                                 protest,
               presents                          request 4 to
                                   non-
 None          multiple                            5 times &
                               compliance,
                 step                              threatens
                                   foot
               request.                          after school
                                stomping.
                                                  suspension.




Setting       Antecedent                         Consequence
                                Behavior
 Event          Event                               Event


                               Pushes      
              Peers play       peers away,
                                                  Peers stop
                game &             uses
 None                                            playing with
                 have           profanity,
                                                   Kirsten.
               conflict.         throws
                                  rocks.
Example 2: Same behaviors with
      different functions


• Amy teachers have noticed two
  different conditions when Amy
  displays same problem behaviors.
  They developed following two
  testable hypotheses:
Setting       Antecedent                           Consequence
                                  Behavior
 Event          Event                                 Event


                                 Turns eyes
                               away, does   
              Peers try to
                                 not comply
              engage Amy                           Peers move
 None                             verbally,
                 in con-                              away.
                                    pulls
               versations.
                                  sweater
                                  over his
                                   head.



Setting       Antecedent                           Consequence
                                  Behavior
 Event          Event                                 Event



                                 Turns eyes
             Teachers                           Teachers sit
                                 away, does
               give Amy                            down next to
                                 not comply
              corrective                           her, rub her
 None                             verbally,
              feedback                             shoulders, &
                                    pulls
              about her                           say comforting
                                  sweater
                 work.                                words.
                                  over his
                                   head.
       Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS”


STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____              Date: ____January
   11___________
Interviewer: ___________Sugai________                  Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____


STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the
   student brings to school.
    C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and
    sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and
    successfully through the school curriculum.


STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors
    ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX
    Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__
    Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally
    Inappropriate___ Self-injury
    Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little
    tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral
    sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild
    protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and
    even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he
    gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his
    aggressiveness.
 STEP 4: Routine Analysis


Schedule    Activity                    Likelihood of Problem Behavior   Specific Problem Behavior
(Times)

                                        Low                      High    See escalation described
8:00        Waiting to enter building
                                        1   2      3     4     5   6          above
                                                                         Mostly teasing and touching
                                                                             property of others.
8:15        Advisory & Planning         1    2     3     4     5    6
                                                                             Doesn’t escalate much
                                                                             further
                                                                         Occasional name
9:15        Language Arts               1    2     3     4     5    6
                                                                             calling/teasing
                                                                         See escalation described
10:15       Recess                      1    2     3     4    5     6
                                                                              above
11:30       Math                        1    2     3     4     5    6    Occasional teasing
                                                                         See escalation described
12:00       Lunch                       1    2     3     4    5     6
                                                                              above
12:35       Earth Science               1    2     3     4     5    6    Minor verbal harassment
                                                                         See escalation described
1:15        Art or Phy Ed               1    2     3     4     5    6
                                                                              above
2:00        Reading                     1    2     3     4     5    6    Rarely a problem
                                                                         See escalation described
2:50        Waiting for bus             1    2     3     4     5    6
                                                                              above
             Fundamental Rule

“You should not propose to reduce a
problem behavior without also
identifying alternative, desired
behaviors person should perform
instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et
al., 1997, p. 71).
                                Desired        Typical
                               Alternative   Consequence
Summary Statement



Setting Events    Triggering    Problem       Maintaining
                 Antecedents    Behavior     Consequences




                               Acceptable
                               Alternative
Competing Behavior                          Desired Alternative         Desired
                                                                      Maintaining
                                                                      Consequence
    Pathway                                 Comply
                                             with                    Request
                                            request                 completed

 Setting Events   Triggering Antecedents     Problem Behavior         Maintaining
                                                                      Consequence

 Peer             Teacher/                 Escalated
                                           profanity                  Avoid
conflict            peer                                             request
                  request                   physical
                                           aggression
                                           Acceptable Alternative




Caesar                                         Walk
                                               away
Competing Behavior                         Desired Alternative         Desired
    Pathway                                                          Maintaining
                                                                     Consequence
                                          Normal
                                                                      Praise
                                           volume
                                                                     for task
                                          response
                                                                   completion
Setting Events   Triggering Antecedents     Problem Behavior         Maintaining
                                                                     Consequence

                                          Eyes/head                 Teacher
 None             Teacher                                            directs
                  Request                  down on
                                            arms                   request to
                                                                    another
                                          Acceptable Alternative



 Lisa                                     Whisper
                                          response
                                         Desired           Typical
    Summary Statement                   Alternative      Consequence

                                       Do work           Points,
                                         w/o             grades,
                                      complaints.       questions,
                                                        more work.


    Setting Events     Triggering       Problem          Maintaining
                      Antecedents       Behavior        Consequences

   Lack of peer       Do difficult   Noncompliance,      Avoid task,
   contact in 30        math            profanity,      remove from
     minutes.        assignment.        physical           class.
                                      aggression,
                                                        Function
                                          Acceptable
Why is function important?                Alternative

                                           Ask for
Because consequences                       break,
compete!!                                  ask for
                                            help.
Setting Event       Antecedent          Behavior           Consequence
Manipulations      Manipulations      Manipulations        Manipulations
                                                          Immediately
Arrange for peer   Introduce review   Teach options to    reinforce
interaction        type problem       problem behavior:   entering class.
before math        before difficult   1. Ask for break
class              tasks              2. Ask for help     Provide
                                      3. Turn in          reinforcer w/in 1
Provide positive   Remind of          assignment as is.   min. of starting
adult contact      alternative                            task (3 min., 5
                   behaviors          Teach missing       min., 10
Sit with                              math skills         minutes)
preferred peer     Do first problem
                   together                               Give break &
                                                          help

                                                          Sit with
                                                          preferred peer
                                                          when done
COMPETING PATHWAYS                             Do quiz without           Discussion about
                                                complaints.            answers & homework.




On Mondays and/or     Daily nongraded quiz   Verbal protests, slump     Avoids doing quiz &
 when up all of the    on previous night’s    in chair, walks out of
                                                                       homework discussion.
   night before.            homework                  room.



 BEHAVIOR SUPPORT                             Turn in with name &
                                                 sit quietly w/o
    PLANNING                                      interrupting.




+ Give time to         + Give easy “warm-                               + With first sign of
                                               Teach options to
review                 up” task before                                  problem behaviors,
                                               problem behavior:
homework.              doing quiz.                                      remove task, or
                                               1. Turn in blank
+ Give quiet time      + Precorrect                                     request completion
                                               2. Turn in w/ name
before starting.       behavior options &                               of task next period.
                                               3. Turn in w/ name
                       consequences.                                    + Remove task
                                               & first item done.
                                               4. Turn in w/ name       based on step in task
                                                                        analysis (STO).
                                               & 50% of items
                                                                        + Provide effective
                                               done.
                                                                        verbal praise &
                                                                        other reinforcers.
COMPETING PATHWAYS




BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
   PLANNING




 Neutralize/   Add relevant      Teach       Add effective &
 eliminate      & remove       alternative      & remove
  setting       irrelevant    that is more     ineffective
   events        triggers       efficient      reinforcers
                         Start



                        Conduct
                          FA.



  Develop                 High
  behavior      Yes   confidence in
support plan.          hypothesis?

                           No

 Satisfactory           Conduct
improvement     No       full FA.
 in behavior?

    Yes

 Monitor &              Develop
modify BSP              behavior
 regularly.           support plan.
     FBA Team Process Steps
1.   Collect information.
2.   Develop testable hypothesis or summary
     statement.
3.   Collect direct observation data to confirm summary
     statement.
4.   Develop “competing pathways” summary
     statement.
5.   Develop BIP.
6.   Develop details & routines for full implementation of
     BSP.
7.   Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating
     implementation of BSP.
           Process Guidelines
1. Conducted by team
                                           ‫٭‬
  •   Behaviorally competent
  •   Student-knowledgeable

2. Led by behavior specialist
3. Link behavioral strategies to summary
   statement
4. Ensure that implementers are fluent
5. Monitor continuously & evaluate early
                  6 FBA Misrules
1. Only one way to conduct FBA….
 –       FA process is basically same           NO
 –       Methods for collecting data may vary
     •     Observe
     •     Ask
     •     Review records
     •     Test
2. Must do everything every
   time….NO

 •   Base FBA activity on what you know
 •   FBA is systematic planning process
3. Everyone has to know how
   to do a full FBA…. NO
 •   Small number of people must have high
     fluency
 •   All people must know process & what to
     expect
 •   Some individuals must work on
     sustainability
4. FBA is it….. NO
 •   One component of comprehensive plan of
     behavior support
       academic, medical, vocational, mental health,
       etc.
5. FBA is only for students with
   disabilities… NO
  •   Process for behavior of all individuals
      across multiple settings
6. “Power,” “authority,”
   “control,” etc. are
   functions…. NO

 2 research validated functions
           Pos. & Neg. Reinf.
                           Behavior Support Elements
 *Response class
 *Routine analysis
 *Hypothesis statement     *Alternative behaviors
                           *Competing behavior analysis
Problem
                           *Contextual fit
Behavior                   *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes
                           *Evidence-based interventions
           Functional
           Assessment
                                          *Implementation support
                                          *Data plan
                         Intervention
                         & Support
                                                        *Continuous improvement
                         Plan
                                                        *Sustainability plan
                                         Fidelity of
                                         Implementation
      • Team-based
                                                              Impact on
      • Behavior competence                                   Behavior &
                                                              Lifestyle

				
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Description: 6Th Grade Main Idea Worksheets document sample