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George Marshall

George Marshall
George Catlett Marshall December 31, 1880 (1880-12-31) – October 16, 1959 (1959-10-17) (aged 78)

of the Allied victory in World War II,[1] Marshall served as the U.S. Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State his name was given to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.[2]

Early life
George C. Marshall was born into a middleclass family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George C. Marshall, Sr. and Laura Bradford Marshall.[3] Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall. Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI),[4] where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901.

Place of birth Place of death Place of burial Allegiance Years of service Rank Commands held

Uniontown, Pennsylvania Washington, D.C. Arlington National Cemetery United States of America 1902–1945

World War I
Following graduation from VMI, Marshall was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army. Until World War I, he was posted to various positions in the US and the Philippines, and was trained in modern warfare. During the war, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in mid-1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Infantry Division. In mid-1918, he was promoted to American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, where he worked closely with his mentor General John J. Pershing and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the design and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front.

General of the Army

Chief of Staff of the United States Army Philippine–American War World War I • Western Front • Meuse-Argonne Offensive World War II Distinguished Service Medal (2) Silver Star Nobel Peace Prize Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense

Battles/ wars


Other work

George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership

Between World War I and II
In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the US Army, focusing on training


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George Marshall

Marshall with Secretary of War Henry Stimson and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between WWI and World War II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, spent three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer at Fort Screven, Savannah Beach, Georgia, now named Tybee Island. In 1934, Col. Marshall put Edwin F. Harding in charge of the Infantry School’s publications, and Harding became editor[5]:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer’s training manual in the Infantry Officer’s Course, and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II. Marshall was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. He commanded the Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington from 1936-1938. Nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be Army Chief of Staff, Marshall was promoted to full General and sworn in on September 1, 1939, the day German forces invaded Poland, which began World War II. He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945.

Cover to the book Infantry in Battle, the World War II officer’s guide to infantry combat operations. Marshall directed production of the book, which is still used as a reference today. troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers.[6] Many of the American generals that were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight Eisenhower, Lloyd Fredendall, Leslie McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.[7] Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Leslie McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair’s concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regards to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.[8][9] At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had

World War II
As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly-equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at the Army War College, coordinated the largescale expansion and modernization of the U. S. Army. Though he had never actually led


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little or no combat experience of any kind; without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many of them resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly largescale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads.[10] In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass and other major battles.[11] Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in the ETO (European theater) were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics currently being employed there.[12] Originally, Marshall had planned a 200-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.[13] By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat.[14] The individual replacement system (IRS) devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly-trained soldiers and officers.[15][16] In the ETO, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944.[17] Hastily-trained replacements or service personnel re-assigned as infantry were given six weeks’ refresher training and thrown into battle with Army divisions locked in frontline combat. Often, the new men were not even proficient in the use of their own individual rifle or weapons system, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days.[18][19][20] Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.[21].[22][23] As one

George Marshall
historian later concluded, "Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system for the ETO, one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job."[24][25] Marshall’s abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as "one of the best" and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, "I like that man; you can see determination all over his face." Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would later come to regret that decision after the U.S. Army debacle at Kasserine Pass.[26] During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander, for many reasons. First, it was due to Marshall’s success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, along with his refusal to lobby for the position. At the time, the President told him: "I didn’t feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington."[27] Additionally, when rumors arose that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on the Combined Chiefs of Staff. On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American general to be promoted to 5 star rank, the newly created General of the Army. He was the second American to be promoted to a 5 star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to Fleet Admiral the previous day. This position is the American equivalent rank to Field Marshal. Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall


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coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time Magazine named Marshall Man of the Year in 1944. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.

George Marshall
interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved. On his return in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department’s ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech[31] at Harvard University, he outlined the American plan. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan.[32][33] The Marshall plan would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. The Soviet Union forbade its satellites to participate. Marshall was again named TIME’s Man of the Year in 1948, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the State of Israel, telling President Truman, "If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you."[34][35][36] In 1949, he resigned from the State Department and was named president of the American National Red Cross.

Post War: China and Secretary of State
George C. Marshall 50th United States Secretary of State In office January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949 President Preceded by Succeeded by Harry S. Truman James F. Byrnes Dean Acheson

3rd Secretary of Defense In office September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951 President Preceded by Succeeded by Born Died Political party Religion Harry S. Truman Louis A. Johnson Robert A. Lovett December 31, 1880 (1880-12-31) October 16, 1959 Democratic Episcopalian[28]

Secretary of Defense; attacked by McCarthy
When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. His main role was to restore confidence and rebuild the armed forces from the post-war state of demobilization. He served in that post for less than one year, retiring from public office for good in September 1951. In 1953, he represented America at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. On June 15, 1951, as the war stalemated in heavy fighting between American and Chinese forces, Republican Senator Joe McCarthy attacked. He charged that Marshall was directly responsible for the "loss of China," as China turned from friend to foe.[37] McCarthy said the only way to explain why the U.S. "fell from our position as the most powerful Nation on earth at the end of World War II to a position of declared

In December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947.[29][30] As Secretary of State in 1947-48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State department that Chiang’s success was vital to American


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weakness by our leadership" was because of "a conspiracy so immense and an infamy so black as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man."[38] McCarthy said that "If Marshall were merely stupid, the laws of probability would dictate that part of his decisions would serve this country’s interest." McCarthy argued that General Albert Coady Wedemeyer had prepared a wise plan that would keep China a valued ally, but that it had been sabotaged; "only in treason can we find why evil genius thwarted and frustrated it."[39] McCarthy suggested that Marshall was old and feeble and easily duped; he did not charge Marshall with treason. Specifically McCarthy alleged angrily at Marshall: "When Marshall was sent to China with secret State Department orders, the Communists at that time were bottled up in two areas and were fighting a losing battle, but that because of those orders the situation was radically changed in favor of the Communists. Under those orders, as we know, Marshall embargoed all arms and ammunition to our allies in China. He forced the opening of the Nationalist-held Kalgan Mountain pass into Manchuria, to the end that the Chinese Communists gained access to the mountains of captured Japanese equipment. No need to tell the country about how Marshall tried to force Chiang Kai-shek to form a partnership government with the Communists."[40][41] Public opinion became bitterly divided along party lines on Marshall’s record. In 1952, Eisenhower while campaigning for president denounced the Truman administration’s failures in Korea, campaigned alongside McCarthy, and refused to defend Marshall’s policies. In 1953 Marshall was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the Marshall Plan. He is the only United States Army general ever to receive this honor. Marshall died on Friday October 16, 1959. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

George Marshall
• Marshall was played by Harve Presnell in the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan. • Marshall was played by Scott Wilson in the 2001 film Pearl Harbor • Marshall was played by Keith Andes in the 1970 film "Tora! Tora! Tora!".

Family life
He married Elizabeth Carter Cole of Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927. In 1930, he married Katherine Boyce Tupper. Marshall’s stepson with Tupper, Army Lt. Allen Tupper Brown, was killed by a German sniper in Italy in 1944. George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia. Actress Kitty Winn is his step-granddaughter.

Dates of rank Awards and decorations
U.S. military honors
Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster Silver Star Philippine Campaign Medal World War I Victory Medal with four battle clasps

Army of Occupation of Germany Medal American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal

Foreign military honors
• • • • Brazilian Order of Military Merit British Order of the Bath Chilean Order del Merito Colombian Grand Cross of the Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference) • Cuban Order of Military Merit, First Class • Ecuadorian Star of Abdon Calderon, First Class

Fictional Portrayals
• Marshall was played by Harris Yulin in the television drama "Truman".


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No pin insignia in 1902

George Marshall

Second Lieutenant, United States Army: February 2, 1902 First Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907 Captain, United States Army: July 1, 1916 Major, National Army: August 5, 1917 Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918 Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918 Captain, Regular Army (reverted to peacetime rank): June 30, 1920 Major, Regular Army : July 1, 1920 Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923 Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933 Brigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936 Major General, Regular Army: September 1, 1939 General, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939 General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 16, 1944 General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946

• French Croix de Guerre • French Legion of Honor • Greek Grand Cross Order of George I with swords • Liberian Centennial Medal • Montenegro Silver Medal for Bravery • Netherlands Grand Cross with Swords in the Order of Orange Nassau • Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy) • Order of the Crown of Italy • Moroccan Grand Cross of Ouissam Alaouite • Soviet Grand Cross Order of Military Merit • Soviet Order of Suvorov • Panamanian Medal of La Solidaridad, Second Class • Peruvian Gran Official del Sol del Peru

Civilian honors
• In 1948, he was awarded the Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.

• Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan. • 1959 Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen). • The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall’s contributions to AngloAmerican relations. • Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor. • George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order. • George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school -- "The Statesmen" -- appropriately reflects his life and contributions.


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George Marshall

• Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. Norton, 1990. 847 pp. • Harold I. Gullan; "Expectations of Infamy: Roosevelt and Marshall Prepare for War, 1938-41." Presidential Studies Quarterly Volume: 28#3 1998. pp 510+ online edition • May, Ernest R. "1947-48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. out of War in China." Journal of Military History 2002 66(4): 1001-1010. Issn: 0899-3718 Fulltext: in Swetswise and in Jstor • Levine, Steven I. "A New Look at American Mediation in the Chinese Civil War: the Marshall Mission and Manchuria." Diplomatic History 1979 3(4): 349-375. Issn: 0145-2096 • Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. 1989. 608 pp. • Steele, Richard W. The First Offensive, 1942: Roosevelt, Marshall, and the Making of American Strategy. 1973. 239 pp. • Mark C. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. (1989) 252pp • Forrest Pogue, Viking, (1963–87) Fourvolume authorized biography: complete text is online • George C. Marshall: Education of a General, 1880-1939 • George C Marshall: Ordeal and Hope, 1939-1943 • George C. Marshall: Organizer of Victory 1943-1945 • George C. Marshall: Statesman 1945-1959

[1] "George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State" (HTML). CNN. SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/ marshall/. Retrieved on 2007-12-12. [2] W. Del Testa, David; Florence Lemoine and John Strickland (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. pp. 120. [3] George Marshall Childhood [4] Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons From George C. Marshall. pp. 14–15. [5] Campbell, James (September 30, 2008) (in English). The Ghost Mountain Boys: Their Epic March and the Terrifying Battle for New Guinea—The Forgotten War of the South Pacific. Three Rivers Press. pp. 400. ISBN 978-0307335975. [6] Bland, Larry I., George C. Marshall and the Education of Army Leaders, Military Review 68 (October 1988) 27-51, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas [7] Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall, Army Magazine, March 2003 [8] Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany June 7, 1944 - May 7, 1945, New York: Simon & Schuster (1997), pp. 271-284 [9] Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements, Army Ground Forces Study No. 7, Washington, D.C.: Historical Section - Headquarters Army Ground Forces, 314.7(1 Sept 1946)GNHIS 1 September 1945 [10] George, John B. (Lt. Col), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), ISBN 093599842X, pp. 13-21 [11] Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements [12] Hanford, William B., A Dangerous Assignment, Stackpole Books, ISBN 9780811734851, p. viii [13] Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article [14] Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article [15] Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 277-284 [16] Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements

See also
• German Marshall Fund • George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies • George C. Marshall High School • Marshall Scholarship • Marshall Mission to China • Marshall Space Flight Center • Task Force Marshall a training organization of the South Carolina Army National Guard, was named in his honor • The George C. Marshall Foundation • USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)


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George Marshall

[17] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World Affairs. May/June 1991. 17. War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1841760862, 9105017.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. 9781841760865, pp. 12-14 [36] "Recognition of Israel". The Truman [18] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World Library. War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey hst/h.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. Publishing (2001), ISBN 1841760862, [37] The speech was published as a 169-page 9781841760865, pp. 12-14 booklet, America’s Retreat from Victory: [19] Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. The Story of George Catlett Marshall 271-284 (1951). [20] Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of [38] McCarthy, Joe (1951). Major Speeches Enlisted Replacements and Debates. pp. 215. [21] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World [39] McCarthy, Joe (1951). Major Speeches War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey and Debates. pp. 264. Publishing (2001), ISBN 1841760862, [40] McCarthy, Joe (1951). Major Speeches 9781841760865, pp. 12-14 and Debates. pp. 191, from speech of [22] Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. March 14, 1951. 277-284 [41] Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and [23] Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Times of Joe McCarthy. pp. 371–374. Enlisted Replacements [24] Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, p. Primary sources 277 • The Papers of George Catlett Marshall: [25] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World (Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Stevens, eds.) Publishing (2001), ISBN 1841760862, • Vol. 1: The Soldierly Spirit," December 9781841760865, pp. 12-14 1880-June 1939. (1981) [26] Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: • Vol. 2: "We Cannot Delay," July 1, Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. 1939-December 6, 1941. (1986) Fredendall, Army Magazine, March 2003 • Vol. 3: The Right Man for the Job, [27] Buell, Thomas B.; John H. Bradley. The December 7, 1941-May 31, 1943. Second World War: Europe and the (1991) Mediterranean. pp. 258. • Vol. 4: "Aggressive and Determined [28] Entry at Leadership," June 1, 1943-December [29] Stoler, Mark A. (1989). George C. 31, 1944. (1996) Marshall. pp. 145–51. • Vol. 5: "The Finest Soldier," January 1, [30] Tsou, Tang (1963). America’s Failure in 1945-January 7, 1947. (2003) China, 1941-50. • Bland, Larry; Jeans, Roger B.; and [31] "The Marshall Plan". Wilkinson, Mark, ed. George C. Marshall’s Mediation Mission to China, December index.asp?L=17. Retrieved on 1945-January 1947. Lexington, Va.: 2009-02-17. George C. Marshall Found., 1998. 661 pp. [32] McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New • Marshall, George C. George C. Marshall: York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 717. ISBN Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest 0-671-86920-5. C. Pogue. Lexington, Va.: George C. [33] Behrman, Greg (2007). The Most Noble Marshall Found., 1991. 698 pp. online Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the edition Time When America Helped Save • George Catlett Marshall. Memoirs of My Europe. Free Press. ISBN 0743282639. Services in the World War, 1917-1918 [34] "President Truman’s Decision to (1976) Recognize Israel". • Greg Behrman. The Most Noble JCPA/Templates/ Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=376&PID=0&IID=2203. Europe Time When America Helped Save Retrieved on 2009-02-17. Free Press, 2007. [35] "Truman Adviser Recalls May 14,1948 US Decision to Recognize Israel". Washington Report on Middle East


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Military offices Preceded by Malin Craig Political offices Preceded by James F. Byrnes Preceded by Louis A. Johnson United States Secretary of State
Served Under: Harry S. Truman

George Marshall

Chief of Staff of the United States Army 1939 – 1945

Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower

Succeeded by Dean Acheson Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett

1947 – 1949 United States Secretary of Defense
Served Under: Harry S. Truman

1950 – 1951

External links
• Brief biography at the official Nobel Prize site • The Marshall Foundation • George C. Marshall Center, Garmisch Germany • The Marshall Plan Speech MP3 • The Marshall Films Collection • Marshall Scholarships • The Marshall Plan Speech • Dodona Manor • "George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace" (Smithsonian Institution) • Annotated bibliography for George Marshall from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues • The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921-1969, CHAPTER XIX, General of the Army George C. Marshall, Special Military Funeral, 16-October 20, 1959 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark • City of Vancouver, Washington’s "General George C. Marshall and Vancouver" page • Task Force Marshall Information Page

Further reading
• The Infantry Journal Incorporated (1939). Infantry in Battle. Washington, DC: Garrett and Massey. ISBN 0940328046. csipubs/infantry/inf_intro_cvii.pdf. Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT Politician and United DESCRIPTION States Army general DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH Marshall, George

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George Marshall

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