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Fresno, California

Fresno, California
Coordinates: 36.74778°N -119.7725
City of Fresno

36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 119.7725°W / 36.74778;
- City Manager - City Treasurer / Finance Director - City Clerk Area - City - Land - Water Elevation

Mike Dages Lee Brand Henry T Perea Andrew T. Souza Karen M. Bradley, CPA

Rebecca E. Klisch 104.8 sq mi (271.4 km2) 104.4 sq mi (183.3 km2) 0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2) 296 ft (90 m)

Population (2007)[1][2] 500,017 - City 4,097.9/sq mi (1,582.2/km2) - Density 1,002,846 - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP code PST (UTC-8) PDT (UTC-7) 93650, 93701-93712, 93714-93718, 93720-93730, 93740-93741, 93744-93745, 93747, 93750, 93755, 93760-93761, 93764-93765, 93771-93780, 93784, 93786, 93790-93794, 93844, 93888 559 06-27000[3] 0277606[4] www.fresno.gov

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Nickname(s): Fresno, The All America City, Raisin Capitol of the World, The 559, No-Town, The No, Nickle Nickle Area code(s) Nine, the no-no FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website

Fresno (pronounced /ˈfrɛzno/ "FREZZ-no", Spanish for ash tree) is a city in California, USA, the county seat of Fresno County, and the largest inland city in the state. Fresno is located in Central California between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Fresno had an estimated population of 495,913 as of January 1, 2009, making it the fifth-largest city in Location in the state of California California, and the largest inland (nonCoordinates: 36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 36.74778°N coastal) city the State.[5] It is located in the 119.7725°W / 36.74778; -119.7725 center of the expansive San Joaquin Valley in the Central Valley, approximately 200 miles United States Country (322 km) north of Los Angeles, and 170 miles California State (274 km) south of the state capital, SacraFresno County mento. The city is the cultural and economic Government center of the Fresno-Clovis metropolitan Mayor Ashley Swearengin - City Council area. Fresno is the second-largest metropolitBlong Xiong an area in the Central Valley with a populaAndreas Borgeas Cynthia Sterling tion of 1,002,046, after Sacramento. The Larry Westerlund name Fresno is the Spanish-language word

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for the ash tree and an Ash leaf is featured on its flag.

Fresno, California

City Council
City council is made up of seven members, elected by district: • District 1 (west-central) - Blong Xiong • District 2 (northwest) - Andreas Borgeas • District 3 (southwest) - Cynthia Sterling (Council President) • District 4 (east-central) - Larry Westerlund • District 5 (southeast) - Mike Dages • District 6 (northeast) - Lee Brand • District 7 (central) - Henry T. Perea

Government
Fresno has a modified strong-mayor form of local government and seven City Council members (Legislative branch) elected for no more than two 4-year terms. The City council and the mayor are non-partisan, not affiliated with any political party. Alan Autry was first elected in November 2000, re-elected on March 2, 2004, and served until January 2009. Ashley Swearengin was sworn in as Mayor on the 6th of January, 2009.

Courts

Mayor
See also: List of mayors of Fresno, California • 2009-"present" Ashley Swearengin • 2001-2009 Alan Autry • 1993-2001 Jim Patterson • 1989-1993 Karen Humphrey • 1985-1989 Dale Doig • 1977-1985 Dan Whitehurst • 1969-1977 Ted C. Wills • 1965-1969 Floyd H. Hyde • 1964-1965 Wallace Henderson (acting) • 1958-1964 Arthur L. Selland † • 1957-1958 C. Cal Evans • 1949-1957 Gordan D. Dunn • 1947 Glenn M. Devore (acting) • 1941-1947 Z.S. Leymel † • 1937-1941 Frank A. Homan • 1929-1937 Z.S. Leymel • 1925-1929 A.E. Sunderland • 1921-1925 Truman C. Hart • 1917-1921 William F. Toomey • 1912-1917 Alva E. Snow • 1909-1912 Chester Rowell † • 1908-1909 Ed. F. Bush (acting) • 1905-1908 W. Parker Lyon • 1901-1905 L.O. Stephens † Died in office

The Robert E. Coyle United States Courthouse is the new building housing the Eastern District of California, Fresno Division, Federal Courts.

President, Board of Trustees
Prior to 1901, Fresno was governed by a board of trustees. • October 27, 1895-1901 C.J. Craycroft • April 15, 1889-unknown A.J. Pedlar • October 31, 1887-April 15, 1889 A.M. Clark • April 25, 1887-October 31, 1887 W.L. Graves • October 27, 1885-April 25, 1887 William Faymonville

The California Fifth Appellate District Fresno courthouse. Fresno is the county seat of Fresno County. It maintains the main courthouse in the county for criminal and some civil court cases. There is also a satellite court house that was recently built and judges were moved to the new courthouse to help alleviate some of the overcrowding in the main courthouse. The United States District Court, Eastern District of California, has one of its six

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divisions based in the Robert E. Coyle Courthouse. The new courthouse replaced the outdated B.F. Sisk Federal Building in 2006. The Sisk building did not have enough space for the growing Fresno Division and it is currently undergoing renovation for future use. Fresno is also the seat of the Fifth Appellate District of the State of California Court of Appeal where a new courthouse was build in the old Armenian Town section of downtown Fresno in 2007 across from Selland Arena and the Fresno Convention Center. The Fifth District Court of Appeal Courthouse is named after the distinguished George N. Zenovich, the former Senator and Associate Justice of the Fifth District.

Fresno, California

Geography
Fresno is located at 36°44′52″N 119°46′21″W / 36.74778°N 119.7725°W / 36.74778; -119.7725.[8] The United States Census Bureau reports Fresno as having a total area of 104.8 square miles (271.4 km²) with 99.58% land covering 104.4 square miles (270.3 km²), and .42% water, 0.4 square miles (1.1 km²). Fresno’s location, very near the geographical center of California, places the city a comfortable distance from several of the major recreation areas and urban centers in the state. Just 60 mi (100 km) south of Yosemite National Park, it is the nearest major city to the park. Likewise, Sierra National Forest is 40 mi (65 km), Kings Canyon National Park is 60 mi (100 km) and Sequoia National Park is 75 mi (120 km). Because it sits at the junction of Highways 41 and 99 (41 is the park’s southern access road, and 99 branches east from Interstate 5 to serve the urban centers of the San Joaquin Valley), the city is a major gateway for visitors coming from Los Angeles. The city also serves as an entrance into Sierra National Forest via highway 168 Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks via Highway 180. Fresno has three large public parks, two located in the city limits and one in county land to the southwest. Woodward Park, which features the Shinzen Japanese Gardens, numerous picnic areas and several miles of trails, is located in North Fresno and is adjacent to the San Joaquin River Parkway. Roeding Park, located near Downtown Fresno, is home to the Chaffee Zoological Gardens, and Rotary Playland and Storyland. Kearney Park is the largest of the Fresno region’s park system and is home to historic Kearney Mansion and plays host to the annual Civil War Revisited, the largest reenactment of the Civil War in the west coast of the U.S.[9][10]

Politics
The city of Fresno is closely split between Democrats and Republicans. Mirroring the nationwide vote, George Bush won 48.41% of the vote in 2000[6] and 51.77% in 2004.[7] The citizens of Fresno are represented in the California State Senate by Dave Cogdill (R) and Dean Florez (D) and in the California State Assembly by Michael Villines (R) and Juan Arambula (D). Representation in the United States Congress by George Radanovich (R) in (California’s 19th congressional district), Jim Costa (D) in (California’s 20th congressional district) and Devin Nunes (R) in (California’s 21st congressional district).

Economy
Fresno serves as the economic hub of Fresno County and California’s Central Valley. The unincorporated area and rural cities surrounding Fresno remain predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. Fresno is unique in that it is home to many business incubators that serve as a resource hub for business entrepreneurs and new companies. Some of these incubators are found at California State University, Fresno. Many of the businesses formed at the incubators have gone on to become internationally known in the business world. Some of the businesses involved range from environmental engineering to fashion designers.

Climate
Fresno has relatively mild winters and hot dry summers. Some what like a Mediterranean Climate but more like a semi-arid climate[11] December low temperatures average 37.0 °F (2.4 °C) with July high temperatures averaging 100.6 °F (38.9 °C), though summer temperatures can occasionally soar to highs of 112 °F (43.56 °C) or more.

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Fresno Population by year 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007 2009 1,112 10,818 12,470 24,892 45,086 52,513 60,685 91,669 133,929 165,655 217,129 354,202 427,652 486,171 500,017 ( As of 2/27/2009)

Fresno, California

Summers provide considerable sunshine, with July peaking at 97 percent of the total possible sunlight hours; conversely, January is the lowest with only 46 percent of the daylight time in sunlight because of thick tule fog. Average annual precipitation is 11.23 in (28.52 cm); rainfall is concentrated in the winter and spring seasons, with the summers typically being very dry. Most of the wind rose direction occurrences derive from the northwest, as winds are driven downward along the axis of the California Central Valley; in December, January and February there is an increased presence of southeastern wind directions in the wind rose statistics.[12] Fresno meteorology was selected in a national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study for analysis of equilibrium temperature for use of ten-year meteorological data to represent a warm, dry western United States locale.[13] The highest temperature recorded at the Fresno air terminal was 113°F on July 23, 2006; the lowest temperature recorded was 18°F on January 10, 1949, and December 23, 1990. These temperatures have been exceeded at other locations within the city limits. Temperatures reach 90°F (32°C) or higher on an average of 106.4 days annually and drop to 32°F (0°C) or lower on an average of

21.2 days annually. The wettest year at the airport was 1983 with 21.61 inches and the dryest year was 1966 with 6.07 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 8.56 inches in January 1969 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.38 inches on March 10, 1995. Measurable precipitation falls on an average of 46 days annually. Snow is a rarity; the heaviest snowfall at the airport was 2.2 inches on January 21, 1962.[14]

Demographics
Fresno is the larger principal city of the Fresno-Madera CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Fresno (Fresno County) and Madera (Madera County) metropolitan areas,[15][16] which had a combined population of 922,516 at the 2000 census.[3] At the 2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates the city’s population was 56.3% White (34.0% non-Hispanic White alone), 9.2%Black or African American, 2.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.5% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 23.4% from some other race and 3.6% from two or more races. 44.0% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. [2] As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 427,652 people, 140,079 households, and

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Fresno, California
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,236, and the median income for a family was $35,892. Males had a median income of $32,279 versus $26,551 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,010. About 20.5% of families and 26.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.5% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. The population as of July 1, 2007 was estimated to be 470,508 by the US Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program.[17] The Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area population was estimated at 899,348.[2]

Education
Four-year institutions
Location of the Fresno-Madera CSA and its components: Fresno Metropolitan Statistical Area Madera Metropolitan Statistical Area 97,915 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,097.9 people per square mile (1,582.2/km²). There were 149,025 housing units at an average density of 1,427.9 square miles (551.3 km²). The racial makeup of the city was 50.17% White, 8.36% Black or African American, 1.58% Native American, 11.23% Asian (mostly Hmong), 0.14% Pacific Islander, 23.36% from other races, and 5.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39.87% of the population. There were 140,079 households out of which 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.57. In the city the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. • Alliant International University (Private) • California Christian College (Private/ Freewill Baptist) • California State University, Fresno • Fresno Pacific University (Private/ Mennonite Brethren) • Maric College - Fresno • Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary • National University of California • San Joaquin College of Law (Private) • University of California, San Francisco Fresno Medical Education Program • University of Phoenix

Two-year institutions
• Fresno City College

Career colleges
• Heald College • Institute of Technology • San Joaquin Valley College

High Schools (Public)
• Design Science High School (Fresno, California) • Bullard High School • Central High School, East Campus • Central High School, West Campus • Clovis High School • Clovis East High School • Clovis North High School • Clovis West High School • Buchanan High School • Edison High School

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• • • • • • • • • • Duncan Polytechnical High School Fresno High School Herbert Hoover High School McLane High School Roosevelt High School San Joaquin Memorial High School Sunnyside High School University High School Washington Union High School Crescent View Charter High Schools

Fresno, California
In 1867, Anthony Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont, Clovis and California avenues. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired Moses J. Church in 1871 to build an irrigation canal. Church then formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby’s farm for its new Southern Pacific line. Soon there was a store. Around the station and the store grew the town of Fresno Station, later called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885.

K-12, Districts
• • • • Central Unified School District (Public) Clovis Unified School District (Public) Fresno Unified School District (Public) West Fresno Elementary School District (Public)

Private Schools
• • • • • • • • • • • Our Lady of Victory School Fresno Christian Schools Fresno Christian High School Fresno Adventist Academy Carden School Of Fresno St. Helen’s Catholic School San Joaquin Memorial High School Sacred Heart School St. Anthony’s School Fairmont Private School Acsof Armenian community school of fresno

Origins and history
The County of Fresno was formed in 1856. It was named for the abundant mountain ash trees lining the San Joaquin River. Fresno is the Spanish word for white ash trees. The county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings, Inyo, and Mono counties. Millerton, then on the banks of the freeflowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh’s Ferry, Scottsburg and Elkhorn Springs. The San Joaquin River flooded on Christmas Eve, 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding also destroyed the town of Scottsburg that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville.

An 1897 photo of K Street High School, which was replaced by Fresno High School in 1896. The school later became Emerson Elementary School and was demolished ca. 1930. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno. When the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed.

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In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires often ravaged American frontier towns. The greatest of Fresno’s early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. The Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, and incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching, compacting, and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund Site.[18] Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, and China Town. During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps.[19] The Fresno Fairgrounds was also utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development particularly in the period after World War II; this transition was particularly vividly demonstrated in locations such as the Blackstone Avenue corridor. The dance style commonly known as popping evolved in Fresno in the 1970s[20]. Fictional residents of the town were portrayed in a 1986 comedic mini series titled "Fresno", featuring Carol Burnett, Dabney Coleman, Teri Garr and Charles Grodin, along with numerous other celebrities. The mini series was presented as a parody of the prime time soap operas popular in the 1980s. In 1995, the FBI’s Operation Rezone sting resulted in several prominent Fresno and Clovis politicians being charged in connection with taking bribes in return for rezoning farmland for housing developments. Before the sting brought a halt to it, housing developers could buy farmland cheaply, pay off council members to have it rezoned, and make a large profit building and selling inexpensive housing. Sixteen people were eventually convicted as a result of the sting.[21]

Fresno, California

Fresno County Courthouse Through the 1990s, downtown was one of the last remaining examples of untouched architecture in California, but it has recently been subjected to a mixed revitalization effort. While many of the buildings that were once abandoned for many years have been remodeled, many have been demolished or are under threat of being demolished to be replaced with new structures. Recently added new structures such as Grizzlies Stadium, now Chukchansi Park and the Federal Courthouse, and plans to eventually erect new high-rise buildings, threaten the unique and increasingly rare twentieth century architecture. A victim of this redevelopment was the Vagabond Hotel, unique in its relevance in popular culture. The Vagabond, which had a pool that was an important location in modern skateboarding history and a prime example of mid-century modern googie "roadside" architecture, was demolished in 2004 and replaced by concrete commercial lots and lofts in 2006. The old Army Induction Center, which was used during the Vietnam War, was also recently destroyed in the next development project on H St and Amador. The historic Fulton Mall and Chinatown are two downtown areas which still retain an exceptional amount of historic buildings and architecture of contextual, associative and memorial value in comparison with other cities of California and the Western United States, and are being considered for preservation as historic districts.

Sunnyside
One of Fresno’s other areas, Sunnyside is located on Fresno’s far east side, bounded by Chestnut Avenue to the West.

Neighborhoods
Downtown
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Fresno, California
well as many independent shops and bookstores. Currently operating on or near Olive Avenue, and all within a few hundred feet of each other. Moreover, the Tower District has gained a reputation for supporting many locally-owned restaurants and businesses. Today, the Tower District serves as the center of Fresno’s LGBT community. In addition, the area is known for its early twentieth century homes, many of which have been lovingly restored. The area includes many California Bungalow and American Craftsman style homes, Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture, Mediterranean Revival Style architecture, Mission Revival Style architecture, and many Storybook houses designed by Fresno architects, Hilliard, Taylor & Wheeler. These homes stand in stark contrast to the uncontrolled urban sprawl that runs north and east of downtown and attracts a diverse group of residents. Moreover, the Tower District remains one of the few walkable neighborhoods in Fresno.

Van Ness Arch

Old Fig Garden
First started as a development known as Forkner-Giffen Fig Garden Estates #1 the now historic community set among mature trees of Old Fig Garden has long been one of Fresno’s most prestigious neighborhoods. Fig Garden is an area of approximately 6 sq mi (16 km2), once on the northern fringe of Fresno, but the city has since incorporated all of the surrounding land, making Fig Garden a county "island." The city’s annual "Christmas Tree Lane" is found on a section of Van Ness Boulevard during the holiday season.

Huntington Boulevard
Homes from the early 20th century line this boulevard in the heart of the historic Alta Vista Tract. The section of Huntington Boulevard between First Street on the west to Cedar Avenue on the east is the home to many large, stately homes. The original development of this area began circa 1910, on 190 acres of what had been an alfalfa field. The Alta Vista Tract, as the land would become known, was mapped by William Stranahan for the Pacific Improvement Corporation, and was officially platted in 1911. The tract’s boundaries were Balch Avenue on the south, Cedar Avenue on the east, the rear property line of Platt Avenue (east of Sixth Street) and Platt Avenue (west of Sixth Street) on the north, and First Street on the west. The subdivision was annexed to the City in January 1912, in an election that was the first in which women voted in the community. At the time of its admission to the City, the Alta Vista Tract was uninhabited but landscaped, although the trees had to be watered by tank wagon. In 1914 developers Billings & Meyering acquired the tract, completed street development, provided the last of the necessary municipal improvements including water service, and began marketing the property with fervor. A mere half decade later the tract had 267 homes. This rapid development was no

Tower District
Centered around the Historic Tower Theatre at Olive and Wishon Avenues, just north of downtown Fresno, this vibrant and culturally diverse area of shops and homes has been restored after a significant decline in the 1980s and early-90s. The initial origin of the Tower District began with small shops and services that flocked to the area shortly after World War II, although the area had been a residential neighborhood long before the War. The neighborhood became known as a district, following the advent of the re-opening of the Tower Theater in the late 1970s showing second and third run movies. The Tower District became a hub for major community events such as Jamaica My Weekend, Mardi Gras in February, Car Shows, A Taste of The Tower, Halloween in the Tower, and the newly opened Farmer’s Market on the North-West Corner of Olive and Van Ness. An array of shows permeates the Tower District annually. The neighborhood features some of Fresno’s best restaurants and nightclubs, as

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doubt hastened by the Fresno Traction Company right-of-way along Huntington Boulevard, which provided streetcar connections between downtown and the County Hospital. The surrounding streets, Kerckhoff and Balch Avenues (which are part of the original Alta Vista tract), have homes from the Arts and Crafts era which, like the downtown, are being renovated and brought back to their historic roots. During Christmas, the homes along the boulevard are adorned with lights and decorations. The nation’s tallest living Christmas Tree, located at Huntington and 6th Street, is the highlight of the event. Huntington Boulevard has been referred to as Fresno’s "anti-gated community."[22]

Fresno, California
Ave was at one time the preferred neighborhood for Fresno’s elite African-American families. Another section, Brookhaven, on the southern edge of the West Side south of Jensen and west of Elm, was given the name by the Fresno City Council in an effort to revitalize the neighborhood’s image. The isolated subdivision was for years known as the "Dogg Pound" in reference to a local gang, and as of late 2008 was still known for high levels of violent crime. While many homes in the neighborhood date back to the 1930s or before, the neighborhood is also home to several public housing developments built between the 1960s and 1990’s by the Fresno Housing Authority. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development has also built small subdivisions of single-family homes in the area for purchase by low-income working families. There have been numerous attempts to revitalize the neighborhood, including the construction of a modern shopping center on the corner of Fresno and B streets, an aborted attempt to build luxury homes and a golf course on the western edge of the neighborhood, and some new section 8 apartments have been built along Church Ave west of Elm St. Cargill Meat Solutions and Foster Farms both have large processing facilities in the neighborhood, and the stench from these (and other small industrial facilities) has long plagued area residents. The Fresno Chandler Executive Airport is also located on the West Side. Due to its position on the edge of the city and years of neglect by developers, is not a true "inner-city" neighborhood, and there are many vacant lots, strawberry fields and vineyards throughout the neighborhood. The neighborhood has very little retail activity, aside from the area near Fresno Street and the 99 Freeway (where the large strip mall was built in the late 1990s) and small corner markets scattered throughout.

Van Ness Extension
North of Shaw Avenue, Van Ness continues as the Van Ness Extension, located between Marks Avenue and West Avenue. The Van Ness Extension could be considered the most prestigious neighborhood in the city, and boasts some of Fresno’s most elaborate homes and most affluent citizens. Unfortunately, aside from the occasional mid-century modern home, the area lacks any real architectural significance.

The West Side
The "West Side" of Fresno, also often called "Southwest Fresno", is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city. The neighborhood lies southwest of the 99 freeway (which divides it from Downtown Fresno), west of the 41 freeway and south of Nielsen Ave (or the newly-constructed 180 Freeway), and extends to the city limits to the west and south. While the neighborhood is traditionally considered to be the center of Fresno’s AfricanAmerican community, it is a diverse neighborhood and includes significant MexicanAmerican and Asian-American (principally Hmong or Laotian) populations. The neighborhood includes Kearney Boulevard, named after early 20th century entrepreneur and millionaire M. Theo Kearney, which extends from Fresno Street in Southwest Fresno about 20 mi (32 km) west to Kerman, California. A small, two-lane rural road for most of its length, Kearney Boulevard is lined with tall palm trees. The roughly half-mile stretch of Kearney Boulevard between Fresno Street and Thorne

Sierra Sky Park
Formed in 1946, Sierra Sky Park Airport is a residential airport community born of a unique agreement in transportation law to allow personal aircraft and automobiles to share certain roads. Sierra Sky Park was the first aviation community to be built and there are now numerous such communities across the nation of the United States and around the world. Developer William Smilie created

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the nation’s first planned aviation community. Still in operation today, the public use airport provides a unique neighborhood which spawned interest and similar communities nationwide.

Fresno, California
Forestiere Underground Gardens The Forestiere Underground Gardens in northwest Fresno near Highway 99, is a subterranean creation built by Baldasare Forestiere over a period of 40 years. It features nearly one hundred chambers, passageways, courts and patios, dug beneath the hard pan soil. Fruit-bearing trees planted below the ground protrude through openings at ground level. Forestiere resided here, benefiting from cooler temperatures during the high heat of the Central Valley in summer as well as warmer conditions within the ground during winter. The Gardens are an example of non-traditional vernacular architecture. Forestiere’s creation and his story offer parallels to Simon Rodia and the Watts Towers, both Italian-immigrants born in 1879, settling in California and creating one-of-a-kind residences by hand and in seclusion. For a fictionalized account of Forestiere and his obsession, see the short story "The Underground Gardens" by T. Coraghessan Boyle, published in The New Yorker, (May 25, 1998). Fresno Arts Council’s monthly Art Hop The Fresno Arts Council holds a monthly featuring artists in the Fresno area and is held every first Thursday of the month. One of the biggest art events takes place during the annual Rogue Performance Festival in March. Fresno Art Museum The museum is located in Radio Park, and puts up a rotating series of exhibits. It participates in the monthly Art Hop, and has a variety of film programs, including classic films, anime, and international selections. Fresno Art Museum is also home to Rhythms of Art, a ground-breaking program founded by Fresno composer and jazz pianist Armen Nalbandian, in which music is composed and performed for featured exhibits. Additionally, the museum hosts the Fresno Poets’ Association readings in the Bonner Auditorium. Fresno Filmworks Fresno Filmworks brings foreign, art-house, and independent films on the second Friday of each month and in the Spring they hold an Annual Film Festival. All showings are at the historic Tower Theatre. Fresno Grand Opera The Fresno Grand Opera produces internationally-acclaimed opera and worldclass concerts. Fresno Metropolitan Museum The Met displays traveling exhibitions, shows from its own collection, lectures and other

Unincorporated communities
• • • • Calwa Highway City Mayfair Pinedale

Cultural and commercial attractions
This section may contain material not appropriate for an encyclopedia. Please discuss this issue on the talk page. (January 2009) Arte Américas Arte Américas is a local Latino cultural center. Arte Américas was founded in 1987 by artists and teachers "To make the Central Valley a flourishing place for Latino arts." It presents art exhibits and the performing arts. Fresno County Blossom Trail The 67-mile (108 km) Fresno County Blossom Trail runs through some of the most productive agricultural land in the world. The annual Blossom Trail kickoff comes each February, and motorists and hikers through the farm country can come upon displays of blossoming peach, nectarine, plum, orange, and almond trees in full bloom. Christmas Tree Lane Every December, Van Ness Boulevard between Shields and Shaw Avenue is transformed into a magical Christmas Wonderland. The two miles (3 km) long display includes decorations of some 140 homes and 300 trees.It all started in 1920’s when a young girl was going to die and every one lit a candle around her lighting up the town. Fall Wine Cornucopia The only exhibition of all San Joaquin Valley wines, regional art, and gourmet foodstuffs presented to the people of the San Joaquin Valley and beyond. The Fall Wine Cornucopia occurs every October in Downtown Fresno. The San Joaquin Valley produces 60% of all of the wine in California, and much of that production is centered around Fresno.

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outreach programming. The museum also has a science center called the Reeves ASK Science Center that was developed in partnership with San Francisco’s Exploratorium. The museum’s historic home in The Fresno Bee Building is currently closed for renovations, and is scheduled to reopen on November 13, 2008. Until July 6, 2008, the Reeves ASK Science Center has been relocated to 933 Van Ness Avenue in downtown Fresno. The Met participates in Fresno’s ArtHop program, and hosts outreach events and fund raisers on an annual basis, including First Friday Films, Christmas at the Met and a science-education based Bubble Festival. Fresno Philharmonic The Fresno Philharmonic, under the baton of music director, Theodore Kuchar, is a nonprofit organization whose sustainability depends on contributions from the community. It is the largest professional orchestra between San Francisco and Los Angeles, with its stated mission, to provide high-quality classical music and music education programs to audiences and school children throughout the Central Valley. Fresno Poets’ Association The Fresno Poets’ Association was founded around 1980 by the poet Chuck Moulton. Initially its purpose was more social than literary; it provided an excuse for local writers to gather once or twice a year for a picnic. When the Bixler brothers opened the Wild Blue Yonder night club in the Tower District, they wanted to host occasional poetry readings, and Chuck Moulton began to promote members of the FPA as readers at the club. Eventually Jacquelin Pilar, the curator of the Fresno Art Museum, also became involved in the FPA, and some of the readings began to be held in the Bonner Auditorium at the Fresno Art Museum. After a change in ownership of the Wild Blue Yonder, the FPA reading series made the Fresno Art Museum its permanent home. Since 1994, the reading series has been directed by the poet C.G. Hanzlicek. Readings take place on the first Thursday of the month in the Bonner Auditorium at the Fresno Art Museum, October through December and February though May. Fresno Reel Pride Fresno Reel Pride is one of the oldest and largest LGBT film festivals in the United States. Now located in the historic Tower Theatre and at the nearby Starline, Reel

Fresno, California
Pride is a celebration of gay and lesbian cinema and has been recognized as a premiere cultural event in central California. Fresno Reel Pride presents an annual fiveday film festival each September in addition to special film screenings throughout the year. Kearney Mansion Museum Located in Kearney Park, Kearney Mansion is one of the most historic sites in the Central Valley for the story that it tells-the integral role that M. Theo Kearney played in the agricultural history of the San Joaquin Valley, and his formation of the California Raisin Growers Association. Meux Home Museum Built in 1889 by Dr. Thomas Richard Meux, this Victorian structure is one of Fresno’s oldest and best preserved family homes. It boasts dozens of custom features, including an octagonal master bedroom, a turreted roof and intricate gingerbread ornamentation. Miss California Pageant Every year in June the Miss California Pageant, the official preliminary to Miss America, is held in Fresno. Rogue Festival The Rogue is a non-juried arts festival that celebrates the independent performer and artist. This typically-in-March annual event comprises theater, music, dance, film, performance art, puppetry, spoken word, storytelling, visual arts and more. It has the typical elements of a Fringe Festival... but with a "21st century sensibility". Save Mart Center The Save Mart Center is a newer professional-level indoor arena (cap:16,000) completed in 2003, located at the Shaw Avenue and Hwy 168 interchange in NE Fresno. It has hosted a wide range of music acts, from The Rolling Stones to The Who to Madonna, as well as a huge variety of other events. It is currently the home of the Fresno State Men’s & Women’s Basketball teams. Warnors Theatre Warnors Theatre is a historic theatre located in Downtown Fresno. Opened in 1928 the theatre was designed by B. Marcus Priteca. It is on the National Register of Historic Places. The theatre has a pipe organ which was used primarily for silent movies during the era. Sports Club Sport Founded League Venue

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Fresno Baseball 1998 Grizzlies

Fresno, California

Notable residents

• Andrew Pacific Coast Chukchansi Rodriguez- Comedian; Actor; League Park Navy Hospital Corpsman • William Everson - Poet Central Arena 2002 af2 Selland • Kevin Federline - Dancer; rapper; exValley Football Arena husband of Britney Spears Coyotes • Andy Finch - US Olympic snowboarding Fresno Soccer 2003 USL Premier Chukchansi team Fuego Development Park Tom Flores - Hispanic-American • League quarterback, Oakland Raiders coach • Mac Foster - Professional boxer • Mark Gardner - MLB pitcher • Matt Garza - MLB pitcher • Jenifer Alcorn - Retired female • Matt Giordano - Indianapolis Colts NFL professional boxer safety • Jeff Atmajian - Hollywood orchestrator • Bill Glasson - PGA Tour golfer • Phil Austin - Writer; actor; The Firesign • Tom Goodwin - Former MLB player Theatre comedy troupe • Christopher Gorham - Actor • Alan Autry - Actor; former mayor of • Kenny Guinn - Former Governor of Fresno Nevada • Ross Bagdasarian, Sr. - Actor; singer; • Sid Haig - Actor musician • Brandon Hancock - USC fullback; fitness • Robert Beltran - Actor, Star Trek Voyager expert • Laura Berg - Olympic gold medalist • Victor Davis Hanson - Scholar; historian; softball player author • Deborah Blum - Fresno Bee Pulitzer Prize • David Harris - Vietnam War draft winner resistance leader • Frenchy Bordagaray - Baseball player • Steve Hosey - Former MLB player • Bruce Bowen - NBA player, San Antonio • Pat Howell - Football player Spurs • Rex Hudler - Former MLB player • Gregory "Pappy" Boyington - World War II • Chris Jefferies - Basketball player ace, retired in Fresno • Adam Jennings - Atlanta Falcons NFL • Johnny Boyd - AAA and USAC Champ Car player driver • Bill Jones - Former California secretary of • Ernie C - Musician/Guitarist for Ice T’s state rock group Body Count • Bobby Jones - Former MLB pitcher • Ron Catalano Musician • Gary Jules - Singer • Frank Chance - Baseball Hall of Famer • Kirk Kerkorian - Billionaire businessman • Cher - Singer; actress; Fresno High School • Joanna Kerns - Actress from Growing alumna Pains • Mike Connors, aka Krekor Ohanian • Richard Kiel - Actor Actor, Mannix • Jordan Knight - Musician • Victor Conte - BALCO founder • Josh Koscheck - Mixed Martial Artist; • Young Corbett III - Professional boxer Ultimate Fighting Championship • Jim Costa - U.S. House of Representatives • Daryle Lamonica - Former Oakland • Ron Cox - Former NFL player Raiders quarterback. • Tyrone Culver - Miami Dolphins NFL • Claude "Pop" Laval - Photographer; player historian • Ktrij Devejian - Armenian Apostolic • Steven Anthony Lawrence - Actor Church Press Secretary; formerly of • Philip Levine - Poet Fresno • Larry Levis - Poet • Trent Dilfer - Former San Francisco 49ers • Brook Lopez - New Jersey Nets NBA quarterback Basketball player • Henry Ellard - Former Los Angeles Rams • Robin Lopez - Phoenix Suns NBA wide receiver Basketball player • Johnny Estrada - MLB player • Hector Lizarraga - Former IBF boxer

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• Ricky Manning, Jr. - Chicago Bears NFL player • J. P. Manoux - Actor • Richard Marshall - Carolina Panthers NFL player • Bob Mathias - Olympic Gold Medal Decathlete; U.S. congressman • Marcus McCauley - Minnesota Vikings NFL Player • Kevin F. McCready - contributor to antipsychiatry movement • Audra McDonald - Actress; singer • Tim McDonald - Former Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers NFL Player • Barry McGuire - Rock/folk singer; songwriter • Barbara Morgan - Astronaut; educator • Armen Nalbandian - Musician, Composer • Lorenzo Neal - Oakland Raiders NFL fullback • Carson Palmer - Cincinnati Bengals NFL quarterback • Sam Peckinpah - writer; director • Planet Asia - Rapper • Chuck Poochigian - California state senator • Keith Poole - NFL player, New Orleans Saints • James Porteous - Inventor • Phil Roman - Animator, founder of Film Roman • Les Richter - NFL player • Chester Harvey Rowell - Journalist, Lincoln-Roosevelt League co-founder • Aaron Ruell - Actor; Director • Johnny Russell - Singer; songwriter • William Saroyan - Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright; novelist • Gary Scelzi - NHRA champion • Tom Seaver - Hall of Fame baseball pitcher • Juan Serrano - Flamenco guitarist • David Seville, aka Ross Bagdasarian songwriter; recording artist • Frank Hamilton Short - lawyer, Conservation movement • Clifton Smith - NFL running back, Tampa Bay Buccaneers • Dennis Springer - Former MLB pitcher • Gary Soto - Author; poet • DeShawn Stevenson - NBA player • Randy Stumpfhauser - BMX Pro and 4x World Champion • William A Sutherland - Lawyer, author, politician

Fresno, California
• Jerry Tarkanian - Former NCAA basketball head coach • Brian Turner - Poet • Billy Volek - Current NFL Quarterback • Bill Vukovich - Two-time Indianapolis 500 winner • Heidi Watney - Boston Red Sox Reporter for NESN • Nick Watney - PGA Tour golfer • Marcus Wesson - Convicted of filicide • Del Webb - Real estate developer, former owner of New York Yankees • Flex Wheeler - IFBB Professional Bodybuilder • Randy Williams - Olympic Gold Medalist in the Long Jump • Ickey Woods - Former Cincinnati Bengals fullback • Steve Yarbrough - Writer • Charle Young- Former NFL All Pro Tight End • Steve Zaillian - Screenwriter • Warren Zevon - Musician

Media
Newspapers
• • • • • • • The The The The The The The Fresno Bee Community Alliance Undercurrent Business Journal (Fresno) Charger Collegian Vantage

Radio
88.1 KFCF is Fresno’s Pacifica station, and one of Fresno’s few non-commercial, non-corporate radio stations. KMJ was Fresno’s first radio station; it began broadcasting in 1922. Over the years its powerful 50,000-watt signal could clearly be heard throughout much of California. Here are the Fresno radio stations currently broadcasting: FM Stations • 103.1 • 105.5 • 101.9 KAAT KJZN KOQO • 96.7 KALZ • 105.1 • 107.5 • 95.3 KKBZ KRDA KBHH • 107.9 • 103.7 • 94.9 KBOS KLLE KRZR • 88.1 KFCF • 91.1 KLVY • 97.1 KSEQ • 91.5 KSJV

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• 90.3 KFNO • 104.1 KFRR • 90.7 KFSR • 102.7 KHGE • 95.7 KJFX • 99.3 KJWL • 100.3 KMAK • 97.9 KMGV • 105.9 KMJ • 107.1 KHIT • 100.5 KMQA • 94.3 KOKO • 92.1 KOND • 790 KFPT • 1600 KGST • 1250 KHOT • 1510 KIRV • 580 KMJ • 93.7 KSKS • 98.9 KSOF • 106.3 KVPW • 89.3 KVPR • 101.1 KWYE

Fresno, California

Sister cities
Fresno has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI). • • • • • • • Kochi, Japan Lahore, Pakistan Mashhad, Iran Morogoro, Tanzania Münster, Germany Taraz, Kazakhstan Torreón, Mexico Verona, Italy Catubig, Samar, Philippines Bongabong, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines

AM Stations • 1680 KAVT • 900 KBIF • 1340 KCBL • 980 KEYQ • 1430 KFIG

• 1210 KQEQ • 1060 KTNS • 940 KWRU • 1550 KXEX • 1300 KYNO

• • •

Transportation
Highways
Fresno is served by a main north/south freeway State Route 99. Other highways include the State Route 168 (Sierra Freeway), which is an east-west bound freeway that leads to the city of Clovis and Huntington Lake, State Route 41 (Yosemite Freeway/Eisenhower Freeway) that comes into Fresno from the south via Atascadero, and State Route 180 (Kings Canyon Freeway) that comes from the west via Mendota and from the east in Kings Canyon National Park. Fresno is the largest U.S. city not directly linked to an Interstate highway. Perhaps in light of this, but probably more because of increasing traffic on Interstate 5 on the west side of the Central Valley, much discussion has been made to upgrade SR 99 to interstate standards and, eventually, incorporate it into the interstate system, most likely as Interstate 9. Major improvements to signage, lane width, median separation, vertical clearance, and other concerns are currently underway.

Television
To avoid interference with existing VHF television stations in the San Francisco Bay Area and those planned for Chico, Sacramento, Salinas, and Stockton, the FCC decided that Fresno would only have UHF television stations. The very first Fresno television station to begin broadcasting was KMJ-TV, now known as KSEE, Channel 24, which began broadcasting on June 1, 1953. Here are the Fresno television stations currently on the air: • 16 KHSC HSN • 18 KVPT PBS • 21 KFTV Univision • 24 KSEE NBC • 26 KMPH Fox • 30 KFSN ABC • 32 KJEO-LP America One • 33 KSDI-LP The Sportsman Channel • 39 KMSG Azteca America • 43 KGMC IND • 47 KGPE CBS • 49 KNXT EWTN • 51 KNSO Telemundo • 53 KAIL My Network TV • 59 KFRE The CW • 61 KTFF Telefutura

Airports
Fresno Yosemite International Airport (FAT)/ (FYI), until recently "Fresno Air Terminal", provides regularly scheduled commercial airline service. The airport serves an estimated 1.3 million passengers annually to domestic and two international destinations. Fresno Chandler Executive Airport (FCH) is located 2 mi (3 km) southwest of Downtown Fresno. Built in the 1920s, it is one of

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the oldest operational airports in California. The airport currently serves as a general aviation airport. Sierra Sky Park Airport, located in Northwest Fresno, is a privately owned airport, but is open to the public. The airport was America’s first aviation community. Extra-wide streets surrounding the airport allow for residents of the community to land, taxi down extra-wide avenues, and park in the driveway at home.[23]

Fresno, California

References
[1] "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (SUB-EST2007-01)". US Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/ tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved on 2008-12-03. [2] ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007". US Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/ tables/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved on 2008-12-03. [3] ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [4] "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [5] (.xls) E-1 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State with Annual Percent Change — January 1, 2007 and 2008. California Department of Finance. May 1, 2009. http://www.dof.ca.gov/ research/demographic/reports/estimates/ e-1/2008-09/documents/ E-1%202009%20Internet%20Version.xls. Retrieved on 2009-5-1. [6] "2000 election results" (PDF). http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/sov/ 2000_general/ssov/pol_dis.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-28. [7] "2004 election results"" (PDF). http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/sov/ 2004_general/ssov/ pres_general_ssov_all.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-28. [8] USGS GNIS: Fresno, California [9] "Civil War Revisited Wraps Up". ABC30.com. October 10, 2005. http://abclocal.go.com/kfsn/ story?section=local&id=3522714. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. [10] "The Civil War Revisited". Fresno Historical Society. http://www.civilwarrevisited.com/ index.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.

Rail
Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak San Joaquins. The main passenger rail station is the recently renovated historic Santa Fe Railroad Depot located in Downtown Fresno. The Bakersfield-Stockton mainlines of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway and Union Pacific Railroad railroads cross in Fresno, and both railroads maintain railyards within the city; the San Joaquin Valley Railroad also operates former Southern Pacific branchlines heading west and south out of the city.

Public transportation
Public transit is provided by the Fresno Area Express. It consists entirely on buses serving the greater Fresno metropolitan area. Intercity and long-distance bus service is provided by Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages. The city once provided trolley service during the late 19th and early 20th century. Known as the Fresno City Railway Company and later the Fresno Traction Company, the service operated horse-drawn streetcars from 1887 to 1901. Electric streetcars were introduced in 1903. The electric streetcars were used until 1939.[24]

See also
• • • • Fresno Police Department Fresno County Library Japanese American internment For a long list of [Fresnans][3] who have been first to win major awards of all types, see the Fresno Bee article: "Fresno First Pulitzer Pursuits," Sunday, February 28, 1988.

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Fresno, California

[11] "Fresno, California Climate Summary". online_books/anthropology74/ce16e.htm. RSS Feeds World Weather. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. http://www.rssweather.com/climate/ [20] Holman, Michael (October 1984). California/Fresno/. Retrieved on "History". Breaking and the New York 2007-03-06. City Breakers. Freundlich Books. ISBN [12] "Fresno, California Wind Direction 0-88191-016-3. Diagram". Causes of Haze Assessment. [21] Jim Boren (December 12, 2002). 2002. http://www.coha.dri.edu/web/ "Lessons learned from Rezone can’t be state_analysis/California/ forgotten". The Fresno Bee. KingsCanyonNP_metsfcwind_fresno.html. http://www.fresnobee.com/columnists/ Retrieved on 2007-03-06. boren/story/5599730p-6576567c.html. [13] Hogan, C. Michael; Patmore, Leda Retrieved on 2007-04-23. C.;Harry Seidman (August 1973). [22] http://www.fresnobee.com/907/story/ Statistical Prediction of Dynamic 699204.html Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using [23] "The Front-Door Fliers". Time Magazine. Standard Meteorological Data Bases. December 10, 1965. EPA-660/2-73-003. U.S. Environmental http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ Protection Agency. http://cave.epa.gov/ article/0,9171,898437,00.html. Retrieved cgi/nph-bwcgis/BASIS/ncat/dba/ncat/ on 2007-01-22. DDW?M=145&W=DATETAG++%3D++1060217. [24] "Fulton Berry’s Street: From Street Cars Retrieved on 2007-03-06. To No Cars At All, Almost". Fresno [14] http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/ Historical Society. cliMAIN.pl?ca3257 http://www.valleyhistory.org/PandP/ [15] METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS fultonstreet.html. Retrieved on AND COMPONENTS, Office of 2007-06-06. Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-08-01. [16] COMBINED STATISTICAL AREAS AND • City of Fresno Official website COMPONENT CORE BASED • City of Fresno Developer’s Guide for STATISTICAL AREAS, Office of Downtown Housing Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. • Guide to Historic Architecture in Fresno, Accessed 2008-08-01. California at FresnoHistory.org [17] "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the • Fresno Arts Council Population for Incorporated Places Over • Fresno City and County Historical Society 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 • Fresno Convention & Visitor Bureau Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" • Greater Fresno Area Chamber of (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. Commerce United States Census Bureau, Population • Central Valley Independent Media Center Division. 2008-07-10. • The Community Alliance newspaper http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/ • The Fresno Bee Web Site tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved • Fresno Jobs Community Board on 2008-12-01. • Fresno Wiki [18] Kevin Enns-Rempel; John Edward Powell. • Fresno Undercurrent Website "Fresno Sanitary Landfill (1937)". HistoricFresno.org. http://historicfresno.org/nrhp/ landfill.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. [19] "Pinedale Assembly Center, California". U.s. National Parks Service. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresno,_California" Categories: Fresno, California, Fresno County, California, Cities in California, County seats in California, Settlements established in the 1870s

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Fresno, California

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