Team Dynamics South Western Thomson Learning Business Management Teamwork Unit What are teams “Talent wins games but teamwork wins championships ” Michael Jordan Why d by syt68256

VIEWS: 130 PAGES: 57

More Info
									Team Dynamics
South-Western Thomson Learning

Business Management
Teamwork Unit
What are teams?

   “Talent wins games, but teamwork wins
     championships.”     - Michael Jordan
Why do we have teams?

   Two heads are better than one.
   Gain in knowledge from each other
   People work in groups in every other part of
    their life. Why not business?


“None of us is as smart as all of us.”
                              -Ken Blanchard
Advantages of a Team
             More cost-effective
             work processes
             Increased employee
             Better use of
             workers’ time and
             Improved decision
Challenges Facing
Today’s Firms
   Rapid and extensive
   Industrial
   Intense competition
   Changing customer
   Workforce diversity
Companies that use
   Deere & Company – teamwork allowed it
    to survive in the early 1990’s
   Norwest Corporation – teamwork resulted
    in more than half a billion dollars in
    pretax earnings
    World War II – teamwork helped the US
    to win the war and become a superpower
    Apollo 13 – teamwork saved the life of
    the crew
Characteristics of a
Winning Team
   Shared knowledge          Management
   Inclusive attitude         Support and
   Shared Leadership          Sufficient Resources
   Balanced                  Belief in a Standard
    Participation from a       of Excellence
    Diverse Group             Clear Role
   Decision Making by         Assignments that
    Concensus                  Match members’
   Flexibility                Talents
Identify the Team’s
Also known
as a
mission, this
is a clearly
defined goal
or reason
for the
Establish the Team’s
                Once a purpose has
                 been defined, goals
                 based on the
                 mission must be
                Goals should be
                 clear, worthwhile,
                 timed, and
                 communicated with
                 all team members.
Well designed goals are:

 “A team functions well only when each individual
 team member commits 100 percent to both the
 team and its mission.”
                     - Mary Albright and Clay Carr
Create a Plan to Achieve

Starting a goal is one thing – achieving
it is another. Just because you have a
well written goal does not mean that it
will be accomplished. Teams need to
decide how to achieve the action
described in their goals by establishing
a plan.
Agree Upon a Code of
   Establish a written code of conduct that
    covers administrative and interpersonal
Utilize Skills and Talents of
Each Team Member
   Technical: in-depth knowledge about technical
    aspects of the project or equipment used by
    team members
   Organizational: focuses on details and
    deadlines, keeps the team and project on track,
    organizes action items
   Problem-solving: generates good ideas and
    follows a logical process to sift through
   Interpersonal: excels at resolving conflict,
    handling relationships and encouraging all team
    members to contribute to the team
Choose the Correct Size
Select the Right Task
Research has shown       Management must
   the most productive      choose the right
   work group size to       task for the team
   be five to seven         and give them the
   people.                  tools to achieve
It is better to start       their goals.
   with to few           Teams must have
   members because          time to become
   you can always           cohesive.
          “Size works against excellence.”
                    - Bill Gates
     “A team is more than a collection of people; it is
     a process of give and take.”
           - Barbara Clacel and Emile Robert, Jr.

True teamwork occurs when:
 Project’s outcome is equally important to each teammate
 Each person understands their own roles of all team members
 Each team accepts every team member as an essential
 Open frank communication has generated honesty and trust
Teamwork vs. Traditional
Traditional             Teamwork
 A hierarchy of         Leadership and
  supervisors             power is shared
 Management set         The team decides
  the tasks and           its own tasks and
  schedules               schedules
 Seniority and time     Skills and
  spent on job            productivity
  determine pay           determine pay
 Workers trained in     Worker’s cross
  their specific area     trained
Training for Teams
Organizations that focus        Decision-making
  on educating and
  training people about         Basic finance and
  the technical aspects of       accounting
  their jobs and about          Problem-solving
  effective group
  participation increase        Conflict resolution
  the chance that their         Cross-functional
  groups will become             training
Typical Team Roles

   Leader
   Critic
                  “The ratio of We’s to
   Implementor     I’s is the best
   Specialist      indicator of the
   Diplomat        development of a
   Coordinator     team.”
   Innovator            - Lewis D. Eigen
   Inspector
Stages in Team

In the beginning, the    The individuals:
  group is really just    Feel uneasy
  a collection of         Fear rejection
  individuals. During
                          Worry about
  this stage, team
  members feel             rejection
  uncertain about         Polite

  what they are           Avoid conflict
This stage is marked   The individuals:
  by disagreement       Disagree about
  and competition        values
  among the team        Demand
  members or             clarification
  between the
                        Challenge the
  teammates and the
  leader. The team       leader and each
  defines itself.        other
                        Participate or
                         withdraw more
Now the team             The individuals:
  congeals into a         Adapt or switch
  genuine group.           roles to get a better
  Having succeeded         match between
  in resolving their       skills and tasks
  major conflicts, the    Feel a strong group
  members feel more        commitment
  secure with each
                          Value each other’s
  other and their
  leader.                  talents
                          Rely on one

During this stage, the   The individuals:
  members become a        Clearly understand
  full-fledged team.       the team’s goals,
  There is clear,          and their own roles
  honest                  Match role
  communication            assignments to
  among the                member abilities
  members, with a
                          Participate freely
  strong focus on
  getting the work        Task oriented

     Team Building Strategies

Communication          Problem-Solving

    Survival Games      Cooperation
If a Team Fails. . .

Despite team-building efforts, a team
 will occasionally fail to unit or become
 hopelessly mired in Stage 2. So
 organizations should establish a way
 to profit from both negative and
 positive teamwork experiences.
Treat Others
   Be courteous            Express gratitude
   Show interest in        Criticize with
    coworkers                caution
   Exhibit a positive      Assist others when
    can-do attitude          they ask for help
   Admit when you are      Honor people’s
    wrong                    privacy
Traits of a Good Team
   Cooperative       A good listener
   Humble            Open to change
   Positive          Trustworthy
   Charitable        Lifelong learner
   Reliable          Diplomatic
   A Good
  Giving Feedback in a
  Positive Way
     Be prompt and specific
     Get to the point
     Speak only for yourself
     Avoid negative words or exaggerations
     Give positive feedback as well

“None love the messenger who
      brings bad news.”
                  - Sophocies
Receive Feedback in a
Positive Way
   Restate the person’s comments to
    make sure you understand.
   Listen carefully and respectfully
   Don’t interrupt but do acknowledge
    valid points and ask questions for
   Reflect on what is said
   Be professional
Non-Team Players
Damage the Team
Employees who aren’t team players can
 ruin their team’s chances of success by
 destroying the team from the inside out.
 They may:
  Work on low priority tasks to make sure the
   deadline is not completed on time
  Destroying the foundation of trust
  Making negative comments about
Teamwork Doesn’t Come
   Socialization
   Individualism
   Skill Segregation
   Role Segregation
   Inexperience
   Fear of decision-
   Inability to cope
    with change
Major Organizational Factors
That Hinder Teamwork
   No faith in the company or its mission
   Lack of support from management
   An unfavorable organizational climate
    Do not institute meaning
    Fail to establish group goals
    Deny access to necessary funds
    Do not have a team work area
   An unethical organizational culture
   Employee Disenchantment
Working with Difficult
People on Your Team
 Getting along with teammates is a prerequisite
 for effective teamwork. For most people, you
 will merely need to adhere to the basic rules for
 any professional interaction:
       Listen before talking

       Think before acting

       Anticipate the consequences of what you
        say or do
       The only person you truly have control
        over is yourself.
Coping Strategies
   Remain under control       Never use statements
    of your own response        of finality
   Remember to praise         Model the behavior you
    improved behavior           desire
   Refer to established       Don’t try to protect
    team rules and goals        people from the
   Try changing your           consequences of their
    reactions by offering       actions
    options                    Offer compromises
   Condemn negative           Listen and respond
    deeds not the person        using I messages
Types of Difficult People

   Controlling Aggressors.
       These unnerving individuals act openly
    hostile and negative and sometimes spew
    verbal abuse or threaten physical harm
How to cope with
controlling aggressors
   Try to keep them sitting down
   Try standing beside them as opposed to in
    front of them
   Just listen until they run out of things to say
   Never invade their personal space
   If they interrupt you, politely state, “I am
    not finished.”
   Avoid using the words you or your when
    discussing something negative.
   Volcanoes
        Like their
    namesake, these
    individuals are
    volatile and
    Frustration builds
    inside of them until,
    just like a volcano,
    they explode in a
    torrent of tears or a
    barrage of ranting
    and raving.
How to cope with
   Don’t interrupt while they vent
   Help them to calm down before trying to
    reason with them
   Empathize without condoning
   Demonstrate your concern
   Passive Aggressors
       These guerilla fighters never confront
    you openly but seek revenge in a subtle

How to cope with passive-aggressors
 Don’t let them play cat and mouse with you.
  Confront them directly and force a response.
 Make it clear that you expect them to discuss
  problems with you
 If they spread malicious rumors, confront them
  privately, directly and calmly.
 Don’t argue when they deny their covert actions
  or claim that they never intended to harm you
   Constant Complainers
        These all-around
    negative individuals
    continually find fault
    and whine incessantly.
    What is worse, they
    keep bringing up old
    arguments and
    rehashing past
    mistakes over and over
    again. They also tend
    to blame others for
    their shortcomings.
How to cope with
constant complainers:
   Listen to them to make them feel
   Acknowledge what they have said
    without necessarily agreeing with it
   Ask them to be part of the solution
   When they drag up the past, point out
    that the solution is in the present or
   Lazy Bums
    individuals agree to
    any request but
    usually fail to
    deliver. Time and
    time again they
    commit to deadlines
    and agree to action
    items, then fail to
    honor them.
How to cope with lazy
   Try focusing their attention on the task by
    clearly defining the problem
   Check with them frequently to be sure that
    they are actually taking the action agreed upon
   Let them know that you’re counting on them
    and feel confident that they can get the job
   Praise them whenever they are effective and
    meet the schedule
   Oppositional Defiants
        These people will
    contradict you even if
    you merely state that
    the sun is bright or ice
    is cold. They seem to
    thrive on controversy
    and seek opportunities
    to argue any point, no
    matter how minor.
    They enjoy playing
    devil’s advocate, and
    are usually very vocal.
How to cope with
oppositional defiants
   Maintain your physical distance
   Don’t allow yourself to be drawn into a
    public power struggle
   Never command, even if you have the
    authority to do so; always phrase
    everything as a request or question
   Offer choices so they feel as if they
    are in control
Notable Quotables
   “Human actions can be modified to some
    exten, but human nature cannot be
    changed.”          - Abraham Lincoln

   “Good humor makes all things tolerable.”
       -Henry Ward Beecher

   “I’m not one who easily trusts others to get
    the job done. When we got into teamwork,
    I found it particularly difficult to do my
    part.”           -John Newman
    Characteristics of
    Effective Teams
   1.   Members share common goals and
        work collaboratively to achieve them.
   2.   Members communicate openly and
   3.   Members show an inclusive attitude by
        using the pronouns we, us and ours
        instead of I, me, my and mine when
        discussing team achievements
“Two heads are better than one only if they contain different
  opinions.”                               -Kenneth Kaye
 Characteristics of
 Effective Teams (cont.)
    Members share leadership through
     combined problem-solving efforts.
    Members exhibit a high level of trust
     and cooperation.
    Members recognize conflict as a
     healthy and necessary part of group
“Nothing creates more self-respect among employees than
   being included in the process of making decisions.”
                 - Judith M. Bardwick
First identified by
   Irving Janis,
   groupthink is a
   phenomenon that
   occurs when a
   group strives to
   minimize conflict at
   the expense of
   critical analyzation
   and evaluation.
Ways to reduce the
chances of groupthink
   Asking a group member to deliberately
    play the role of devil’s advocate
   Assigning a team member to point out
    the negative ramifications of any
   Encouraging critical, independent thinking
   Evaluating the quality of every idea
   Disagreeing if you see a potential snag in
    a proposed suggestion
     Mutual Gain Conflict
     Teams that work effectively acknowledge
     conflict, confront the source of the
     conflict, and resolve it. There is a five-step
     mutual gain conflict resolution process:
1.   Recognize that both sides can win.
2.   Have a face-to-face discussion.
3.   Determine the real cause of the conflict.
4.   Discuss potential solutions.
5.   Don’t skip the follow-up talk!
Effective Communication
for Teams
                        For meaningful and
Teamwork cannot           productive team
  exist without open      communication,
  communication.          teammates need to
The two most              deal with each
  common errors are       frankly, respectfully
  continuous conflict     and receptively.
  in which nothing
  ever really gets
  resolved and
  everyone being too
“The boss is no longer the supervisor responsible
for overseeing the detail of your work, but is the
coach, back-up, mentor and friend.”
                        -Sir John Harvey-Jones

      Leaders in a team environment do
  not function the same way as leaders
  in the traditional work world. Since
  many effective teams manage
  themselves, a team leader’s role is
  more like that of a coach than a
  conventional supervisor.
Self-Managing Teams

     A self-managed team is essentially
  a well-trained group of employees
  responsible for accomplishing a
  complete task.
 Highly independent

 Takes full responsibility for actions

 Strong sense of ownership and pride
    The Role of a Team
         A team leader is the member of a
      team who focuses the team’s
      attention, organizes the work, and
      coordinates activities. This person
      usually obtains resources, keeps
      records, and encourages each
      member’s involvement.
“The boss drives his men; the leader coaches them.”
               - H. Gordon Selridge
Traits of a Skillful Team
   Consistently honest  Focused
   A technical expert    Fair and Impartial

   Inspirational         Confident

   Motivational          Cool under fire

   A people person       Positive

   Realistic
   Willing to share    “The boss depends upon
    power                authority; the leader on
                               good will.”
                           -H. Gordon Selridge
Team Leader
Responsibilities in a Team
   The meeting tasks (calling a meeting,
    preparing an agenda, checking on
    presenters, etc.)
   Avoiding jealously and competition among
   Motivating the team
            personal recognition
            reward systems
   Rewarding a job well done

To top