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Cuban American

Cuban American
Cuban American
Cubano Americano

Part of a series of articles on Hispanic and Latino Americans Groups Argentine Americans Bolivian Americans Chilean Americans Colombian Americans Costa Rican Americans Cuban Americans Dominican Americans Ecuadorian Americans Guatemalan Americans Haitian Americans Honduran Americans Mexican Americans Nicaraguan Americans Panamanian Americans Paraguayan Americans Peruvian Americans Puerto Ricans (stateside) Salvadoran Americans Spanish Americans Uruguayan Americans Venezuelan Americans History History of Hispanic and Latino Americans History of Mexican-Americans

Notable Cuban Americans: C Romero · G Estefan · C Diaz · Pitbull · C Areu A Garcia · C Milian · C Gutierrez · E Mendes E Murciano · S O’Brien · M Veronica · P Hilton

Religions Christian Latinos · Santeria Latino Jews · Latino Muslims Political movements Hispanic and Latino American politics Chicano Movement Organizations National Hispanic Institute NALEO Congressional Hispanic Caucus LULAC · NALFO · SHPE National Council of La Raza Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW Culture Hispanic culture Literature · Studies · Music Languages English · Spanish in the United States Spanish · Spanglish Lists

Total population Cuban 1,611,478 Americans
0.5% of the total US population (2007)[1]

Regions with significant populations Florida (mainly South Florida, Tampa Bay Area, and Greater Orlando), New York Metropolitan Area Languages American English and Spanish Religion Predominantly Roman Catholic; minority Protestant, Santeria, Jewish and others. Related ethnic groups Spaniards · Italians · Portuguese · Hispanics Afro-Cuban · Jewish Cuban · Chinese Cuban

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Communities with Hispanic majority Puerto Rico-related topics Notable Hispanics Related topics Portals Latino and Hispanic Portal

Cuban American
Within several years, Tampa had a thriving cigar-making industry. Numerous Cuban families lived and worked in the area known as Ybor City near Tampa, and there are many third and fourth generation Cuban Americans who trace their Cuban heritage directly to this early immigration. Smaller waves of Cuban emigration to the U.S. occurred in the early 20th century (1900-1959); most settled in Florida and the northeast U.S. The majority of an estimated 100,000 Cubans arrived in that time period usually came for economic reasons (1929 depression, volatile sugar prices), but included anti-Batista refugees fleeing the military dictatorship, which had pro-U.S. diplomatic ties.

A Cuban American (Spanish: Cubano americano) is a United States citizen who traces his or her "national origin" to Cuba. Cuban Americans are also considered native born Americans with Cuban parents. Cuban Americans form the third-largest Hispanic group in the United States and also the largest group of Hispanics of European ancestry as a percentage within the group in the US.[2][3][4] Many communities throughout the United States have significant Cuban American populations. However Miami, Florida stands out as the most prominent Cuban American community, in part because of its proximity to Cuba. It is followed by North Jersey, particularly Union City and West New York.

1960 - 1980
Political upheaval in Cuba created new waves of Cuban immigrants to the U.S. In 1959, after the Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro, a large Cuban exodus began. From 1960 to 1979, hundreds of thousands of Cubans left Cuba and began a new life in the United States, often forming the backbone of the anti-Castro movement. Most Cuban Americans that arrived in the United States came from Cuba’s educated upper and middle classes. Between December 1960 and October 1962 more than 14,000 Cuban children arrived alone in the U.S. Their parents were afraid that their children were going to be sent to some Soviet bloc countries to be educated and they decided to send them to the States as soon as possible. This program was called Operation Pedro Pan (Peter Pan). When the children arrived in Miami they were met by representatives of Catholic Charities and they were sent to live with relatives if they had any or were sent to foster homes, orphanages or boarding schools until their parents could leave Cuba. In order to provide aid to recently arrived Cuban immigrants, the United States Congress passed the Cuban Adjustment Act in 1966. The Cuban Refugee Program provided more than $1.3 billion of direct financial assistance. They also were eligible for public assistance, Medicare, free English courses, scholarships, and low-interest college loans. Some banks even pioneered loans for exiles who did not have collateral or credit but received help in getting a business loan simply because they were of Cuban descent. These loans enabled many Cuban Americans to secure funds and

Immigration
Prior to the Louisiana Purchase and the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, all of Florida and Louisiana were provinces of the Captaincy General of Cuba (Captain General being the Spanish title equivalent to the British colonial Governor). Consequently, Cuban immigration to the U.S. has a long history, beginning in the Spanish colonial period in 1565 when St. Augustine, Florida was established by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, and hundreds of Spanish/Cuban soldiers and their families moved from Cuba to St. Augustine to establish a new life. Thousands of Cuban settlers also immigrated to Louisiana between 1778 – 1802 and Texas during the period of Spanish rule. Many early Cubans migrated to New York City, St. Augustine, Florida, Miami, Key West, and Tampa, Florida. Many Cubans were absorbed into the mainstream of American culture after the United States claimed Florida from Spain in 1821. In the late 1800s, a Cuban entrepreneur named Vicente Martinez-Ybor started a cigar making business in Tampa. Soon, other Cuban businessmen (Fuente, Villazon, Garcia, and Vega) followed Ybor’s example.

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start up their own businesses. With their Cuban-owned businesses and low cost of living, Miami, Florida and Union City, New Jersey (dubbed "Havana-on-the Hudson") were the preferred destinations for many immigrants, and soon became the main centers for Cuban American culture. Miami was particularly attractive due to its similar climate, geography, and architecture; Union City for the opportunities offered by the embroidery industry. However, Westchester, Florida within Miami-Dade County, stands as the area most populated by Cubans and Cuban Americans in the United States, followed by Hialeah, Florida in second.[5]

Cuban American
the 2000s left due to economic instead of political issues.[9] By October 2008 Mexico and Cuba created an agreement to prevent immigration of Cubans through Mexico.[10][11]

U.S. communities with high percentages of people of Cuban ancestry

1980s
Another large wave (an estimated 125,000 people) of Cuban immigration occurred in the early 1980s with the Mariel boatlifts. Along with the 125,000 immigrants came 25,000 criminals, mentally ill, and other dregs among Cuban society which Fidel Castro knowingly infiltrated into the country to corrupt the so-called "American Imperialist Society". Some of the "Marielitos" became prosperous through their own efforts, with government assistance and assistance from earlier immigrants, relatives and charitable organizations.

Mid-1990s to 2000s
Since the mid-1990s, after the implementation of the "Wet Foot, Dry Foot" policy immigration patterns changed. Many Cuban immigrants departed from the southern and western coasts of Cuba and arrived at the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico; many landed on Isla Mujeres. From there Cuban immigrants traveled to the Texas-Mexico border and found asylum. Many of the Cubans who did not have family in Miami settled in Houston; this has caused Houston’s Cuban American community to increase in size.[6] The term "dusty foot" refers to Cubans immigrating to the U.S. through Mexico.[7] In 2005 the Department of Homeland Security had abandoned the approach of detaining every dry foot Cuban who crosses through Texas and began a policy allowing most Cubans to obtain immediate parole.[8] Jorge Ferragut, a Cuban immigrant who founded Casa Cuba, an agency that assists Cuban immigrants arriving in Texas, said in a 2008 article that many Cuban immigrants of

The top 25 US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Cuban ancestry are:[5] 1. Westchester, Florida 65.69% 2. Hialeah, Florida 62.12% 3. Coral Terrace, Florida 61.87% 4. West Miami, Florida 61.61% 5. University Park, Florida 59.80% 6. Olympia Heights, Florida 57.65% 7. Tamiami, Florida 56.63% 8. Hialeah Gardens, Florida 54.31% 9. Medley, Florida 51.91% 10. Sweetwater, Florida 49.92% 11. Palm Springs North, Florida 43.59% 12. Miami Lakes, Florida 42.28% 13. Kendale Lakes, Florida 38.58% 14. Fountainbleau, Florida 37.29% 15. Miami, Florida 34.14% 16. Miami Springs, Florida 31.83% 17. Richmond West, Florida 29.30% 18. Coral Gables, Florida 28.72% 19. Virginia Gardens, Florida 26.11% 20. South Miami Heights, Florida 25.70%

U.S. communities with the most residents born in Cuba
For total 101 communities, see the reference given. Top 101 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Cuba are:[12] 1. Westchester, FL 55.8% 2. Hialeah, FL 53.5%

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Coral Terrace, FL 51.9% West Miami, FL 50.5% South Westside, FL 48.3% University Park, FL 48.1% Hialeah Gardens, FL 47.5% Medley, FL 46.0% Tamiami, FL 45.7% Olympia Heights, FL 45.2% Sweetwater, FL 45.2% Westwood Lakes, FL 44.9% Sunset, FL 32.7% Fountainbleau, FL 32.3% North Westside, FL 30.4% Miami, FL 30.3% Miami Lakes, FL 30.1% Palm Springs North, FL 29.8% Kendale Lakes, FL 28.9% Kendale Lakes-Lindgren Acres, FL 24.3%

Cuban American

Political beliefs
Cuban Americans tend to be significantly more politically conservative than other Hispanic groups in the United States and form a major voting block for the Republican Party (GOP) in the state of Florida. Many Cuban Americans fled the island to escape the political and economic oppression that they experienced under the Castro regime. As such, they tend to identify with the strong anticommunist stance of the Republican Party. The failed Bay of Pigs invasion, and its association with John F. Kennedy, left many Cubans distrustful of the Democratic Party. Ronald Reagan, on the other hand, is particularly popular in the Cuban exile community (there is a street in Miami named for Ronald Reagan). More recently, the Clinton administration’s heavy handed use of armed INS agents in the seizure and return of Elián González to his father in Cuba under the direction of Janet Reno and Eric Holder may have affected the outcome of the 2000 Presidential election by stoking the passions of the exile community and serving to increase the Republican turnout in a contest that was ultimately decided by fewer than 1,000 votes in Florida. Cuban Americans along with the Vietnamese Americans are the only two ethnic minority blocs that support the Republican Party in large numbers. Although Cuban Americans still vote mostly Republican, their support for the Party has somewhat eroded in recent years as younger American born Cuban Americans continue to assimilate within the general population. In contrast to the earlier waves of Upper and Middle Class Cubans who fled the island between 1960-1980 as political exiles, many recent arrivals to the US tend to be more racially diverse and lower skilled workers drawn to America by the promise of economic opportunity. As such, they are generally more in tune with the message of the Democratic Party than their predecessors.

Assimilation
Many Cuban Americans have assimilated themselves into the American culture, which includes Cuban influences. Since the 1980s, Cuban Americans have moved out of "Little Havana" to the suburbs of Miami, such as Hialeah and Kendall as well as the more affluent Coral Gables and Miami Lakes. Many new South and Central Americans, along with new Cuban refugees, have replaced the Cuban Americans who have relocated elsewhere in Florida (Fort Lauderdale, Orlando, Tampa Bay and West Palm Beach) and dispersed throughout the nation. Cuban Americans live in all 50 states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico, which received thousands of anti-Castro refugees as well in the 1960s, and Cuban American population growth is found in California, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia. More recently, there has been substantial growth of new Cuban-American communities in places like Hazleton, Pennsylvania; Raleigh, North Carolina, Palm Desert, California and recently a small increase in Appleton, Wisconsin. Cuban Americans have been very successful in establishing businesses and developing political clout by transforming Miami from a beach retirement community into a modern city with a distinct Caribbean flavor.

Food
See also: Cuban cuisine Cuban food is varied, though rice is a staple and commonly served at lunch and dinner. Other common dishes are arroz con pollo (chicken and rice), pan con bistec (steak sandwich), platanos maduros (sweet plantains), lechon asado (pork), yuca

Cuban American culture
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(cassava root), flan, batido de mamey (mamey milkshake), papayas, and guava paste. Cuban versions of pizza contains bread, which is usually soft, and cheese, toppings, and sauce, which is made with spices such as Adobo and Goya onion. Picadillo, ground beef that has been sauteed with tomato, green peppers, green olives, and garlic is another popular Cuban dish. It can be served with black beans and rice, and a side of deepfried, ripened plantains.

Cuban American
which includes cola flavor and "Limon", or lemon-lime. Their bottled water line is Ciego Montero and is a mineral spring water from the Cienfuegos province. The two nationalized beers are Cristal and Bucanero. They are made in partnership with Canadian brewers Labatts. Bucanero comes in two varieties, Bucanero Fuerte and Bucanero Max. Both are stronger than Cristal, with Max being the strongest, though Bucanero Fuerte is most popular with Cubans. The rum of choice is Havana Club, which is widely available and comes in light and dark varieties, as well as a large range of years, starting at 3.

Beverages

Demographics
Official Immigration to the U.S[13][14]

Year of White Black Other Immigration 1959-64 1965-74 1975-79 1980 1981-89 1990-93 1994-2000 Total 93.3 87.7 82.6 80.9 85.7 84.7 85.8 87.2 1.2 2.0 4.0 5.3 3.1 3.2 3.7 2.9 5.3 9.1 13.3 13.7 10.9 11.9 10.4 9.6 White 85.0%

Asian 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.2 Black 3.6%

Num

144

247

29,5

94,0

77,8

60,2

174

828

Race by Cuban national Origin, 2000 [3] Country of Origin Cuba Total: 1,241,685

Oth

7.1%

1,055,432 44,700 88,1

Materva Cubans often drink cafe cubano: a small cup of coffee called a cafecito (or a colada), which is traditional espresso coffee, sweetened, with a sugar foam on top called espumita. It is also popular to add milk, which is called a cortadito for a small cup or a cafe con leche for a larger cup. A common soft drink is Materva, a Cuban soda made of yerba mate. Jupiña, Ironbeer and Cawy lemon-lime are soft drinks which originated in Cuba. Since the Castro era, they are also produced in Miami. To provide nationalized alternatives to imported soft drinks, bottled water and beers, Cuba offers a line of "Refresco Nacional"

The ancestry of Cuban Americans comes primarily from Spain, with many others being of French, Portuguese, Italian, Irish, Lebanese (Arab), north African, Chinese and Russian descent, with a sizable population of sub-Saharan African or mixed African Mulatto ancestry.[15][16] During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarian, Catalan, Andalusian and Galician emigrated to Cuba. Much of Haiti’s white population migrated to Cuba after the Haitian War of Independence in the early 18th century. Also, minor but significant ethnic influx is derived from diverse peoples from Middle East places such as Lebanon and Palestine. There was also a significant influx of Jews, especially between the World Wars, from many countries, including Sephardic Jews from Turkey

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and Ashkenazic Jews from Poland, Germany and Russia. Other Europeans that have contributed slightly include Italians, Germans, Swedes, and Hungarians. Many Chinese also settled Cuba as contract laborers and they formerly boast the largest Chinatown in Western Hemisphere as most Chinese Cubans left for Florida.

Cuban American
However, there are many Protestant (primarily Pentecostal) with small numbers of syncretism, nonreligious or tiny communities of Jewish Cuban and Muslim Americans.

Immigration policy
Before the 1980s, all refugees from Cuba were welcomed into the United States as political refugees. This changed in the 1990s so that only Cubans who reach U.S. soil are granted refuge under the "wet feet, dry feet policy". Cuban immigration also continues with an allotted number of Cubans (20,000 per year) provided legal U.S. visas. According to a U.S. Census 1970 report, Cuban Americans as well as Latinos lived in all 50 states. But as later Census reports demonstrated, the majority of Cuban immigrants settled in south Florida. A new trend in the late 1990s showed that fewer immigrants arrived from Cuba than previously. While U.S. born Cuban Americans moved out of their enclaves, other nationalities settled there. In late 1999, U.S. news media focused on the case of Elián González, the 6-year-old Cuban boy caught in a custody battle between his relatives in Miami and his father in Cuba. The fiasco ended on April 22, 2000, when INS agents took Elián González to the Cuban Interests Section in Washington, D.C. From there, his father took him back to Cuba.

US Census and ACS
In the most recent census in 2000 there were 1,241,685 Cuban Americans, both native and foreign born and represented 3.5% of all Hispanics in the US. About 85% of Cuban Americans identify themselves as being White, mostly Spanish, which is the highest proportion of all other major Hispanic groups. In Florida, Cuban Americans have cultural ties with the state’s large Spanish American or European Spanish community. In the 2007 ACS, there were 1,611,478 Americans with national origins in Cuba. 983,147 were born abroad in Cuba, 628,331 were U.S born and of the 1.6 million, 415,212 were not a U.S citizen.[17]

Economics
The median household income for Cuban Americans is $36,671, a figure higher than other Hispanic groups, but lower than for non-Hispanic whites. In contrast, US-born Cuban Americans have a higher median income than even nonHispanic whites, $50,000 as compared to $48,000 for non-Hispanic whites.[18]

Political representation
There are now four Cuban-American members of the United States House of Representatives; Lincoln Diaz-Balart, Mario DiazBalart, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Albio Sires and two Senators (Mel Martinez of Florida, and Bob Menendez of New Jersey) in the United States Senate, as well as the Cuban-American Secretary of Commerce, Carlos M. Gutierrez. In 2006 Marco Rubio became Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Eduardo Aguirre served as Vice Chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the United States in the George W. Bush administration and later named Director of Immigration and Naturalization Services under the Department of Homeland Security. In 2006, Eduardo Aguirre was named US ambassador to Spain. Cuban-Americans have also served other

Education
25% of Cuban Americans have a college education, about twice the average of all other Hispanic groups, and lower than that of nonHispanic whites, of which 30% are college graduates. [19] However, 39% of US-born Cuban Americans have a college degree or higher, as compared to only 30% of non-Hispanic whites, and 12% for all other Hispanic groups. [20]

Religion
Being of primarily Spanish extraction, most Cuban Americans are Roman Catholic, but some Cubans practice the African Traditional Religions (such as Santeria or Ifá), which evolved from mixing the Catholic religion with the traditional African religion.

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high profile government jobs including White House Chief of Staff, John H. Sununu. Cuban-Americans also serve in high ranking judicial positions as well. Danny Boggs is the current chief judge of United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and Raoul G. Cantero, III, served as a Florida Supreme Court justice until stepping down in 2008.

Cuban American
[8] "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. 5. [9] "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. 3. [10] "Cuba, Mexico Look To Block The Texas Entrance To The U.S.." "Hair Balls." Houston Press. October 20, 2008. [11] Olsen, Alexandra. "Cuba: Mexico to fight illegal migration to US." Associated Press via The Monitor. October 20, 2008. [12] "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Cuba (population 500+)". citydata.com. http://www.city-data.com/top2/ h134.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. [13] Cuba 1953 UN Statistics; Ethnic composition. Page: 260.May take time to load page [14] Cuba Statistics Demographic and Immigrants to the USA. Page 156. [15] Etat des propriétés rurales appartenant à des Français dans l’île de Cuba from http://www.cubagenweb.org [16] CIA - The World Factbook - Cuba [17] http://factfinder.census.gov Cuban Americans in 2007 [18] [1] from http://pewhispanic.org/files/ factsheets/23.pdf [19] [2] from http://pewhispanic.org/files/ factsheets/23.pdf [20] [3] from http://pewhispanic.org/files/ factsheets/23.pdf

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • White Hispanic White Latin American Afro Latin American Cuba-United States relations Cuban British Cuban exile Cubans Diaspora politics in the United States Hispanos Hyphenated American List of Cuban Americans Spanish American U.S. embargo against Cuba White Cuban

References
[1] HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN [2] "Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/ hispanics2007/Table%205.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-13. [3] ^ Tafoya, Sonya (2004-12-06). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/files/ reports/35.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-07. [4] Microsoft Word - SomeOtherRace-Final 12-04.doc [5] ^ "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. http://www.epodunk.com/ancestry/ Cuban.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. [6] "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. 1. [7] "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. 2.

External links
• Immigration Law and the Racialization of Latina/Latino • Cuban Americans can go Home More Easily Under Obama Rules by William E. Gibson, Los Angeles Times, March 15 2009 • Long Islanders of Cuban Descent see Glimmer of Hope by Zachary Dowdy, Newsday, April 13 2009 • Cuban American Travel to Cuba on the Rise by Marc Frank, Reuters, May 6 2009

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_American" Categories: Cuban-Americans, Ethnic groups in the United States, Cuba–United States relations

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Cuban American

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