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					                              A STUDY ON
A project report submitted to the Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam
        in     partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of


                    MISS. BONU. LAKSHMI
                     (Regd No.2085415023)

                      Under the Guidance of

                      Sri V. MAHESH,         MBA.

    (Affiliated to Andhra University, approved by AICTE and
                   Accredited with B+ by NAAC)
                   Munasabpeta, SRIKAKULAM.


                    MUNSABPETA, SRIKAKULAM


        This is to certify that Miss. B. LAKSHMI has completed his
WITH     REFERANCE         TO    SRI    VIJAYA     VISAKHA           DAIRY
VISHAKAPATNAM “ in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of
Guidance and to the best of my knowledge. It is his original work.

      Place :                                          V. MAHESH. MBA
      Date:                                                  Asst.Professor


           I here by declare that Project Report titled “A STUDY ON TRAINING AND

DEVELOPMENT”         with    reference   to    “SRI    VIJAYA      VISAKHA       DAIRY

VISHAKAPATNAM” being submitted to patial fulfillment for the requirement of the


COURSES affiliated to ANDHRA UNIVERSITY, Visakhapatnam is my own work and its

not submitted any other institutions or published anywhere for the award of any degree or


                                                            (BONU. LAKSHMI)


        I feel to render my thankful acknowledgement to the following
 distinguished personalities who stretched their helping hand to me in
 completing my project work successfully.

         I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to my Project Guide Sri.
V. MAHESH,     Asst.Professor   inspired me during my extensive research in this
and extended his constructive guidance and constant supervision, which is of
immense, help to me in successful completion of this study.

         I am extremely thankful to Mr. T. CHITTIBABU, H.R. manager of
to do this project work at their esteemed organization and facilitating me
throughout the study with his valuable suggestions in spite of his extremely
busy schedule without which it would be almost impossible for me to
complete this work.

         I also sincerely thankful to the Head of the Deported of
 management studies Sri. V. MAHESH other faculty members and my
 friends and family members for their continuous co-operation and
 guidance throughout of study in this college.

                                                          (BONU. LAKSHMI)

                                         PAGE NO :
CHAPTER – 1 :-


            Need For Study
            Objectives
            Methodology
            Limitation’s of the study




          DATA ANALYSIS







              People need competence to perform tasks. The nature of the job is
constantly changing due to changes in the environment, changes in organizational
priorities, goals and strategies, changes in technology etc. Higher degree and quality
of performance of tasks requires higher level of competence in people of an
organization is essential to achieve the organizational goals and objective. One of the
important mechanisms of HRD is that TRAINING, which is a commonly used term
which has a wide variety of connotations depending on one’s experience and
                          Training and development programs are necessary in any
organization for improving the quantity of work of the employees at all levels
particularly in a world of fast changing technology, changing values and environment.
The purpose of both is similar, the main difference between the two is in respect to
the level of employees for whom these are meant and the contents and techniques

                          OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The following are the specific objectives of the study.

            To study the genesis and concept of human resource development with
               particular reference to training and development.
            To portray the organizational profile of Visakha Dairy with focus on
               HRD department

            To access and analyze the training and development programs in
               Visakha Dairy

            To evaluate the training program,

            To appraise the executive department programs in the organization.

            To determine whether the training programs are meeting the objectives
               of the management.

            To make necessary suggestion to bring about meaningful relationship
               between training     and development efforts and      efficiency of

                        SCOPE OF THE STUDY

                               To know the function of the organization as a whole
and as well to know how the policies are made and implemented and conveyed to the
employees. The study is to know in brief about the following departments:

                          Training and Development Center
                          Human Resource Development Department

    Following departments were approached for survey during the project: -
                          Finance Department
                          Production Department
                          M.I.S. Section
                          Marketing Department
                          Quality Control Department


       Towards the accomplishment of the said objectives, information would be
obtained from primary as well as secondary data sources; Primary data will be
generated by way of meeting different executives concerned with training and
development programs. Also a survey on training program is conducted by means of a
questionnaire to derive the training programmers . Efforts will be directed in
obtaining the view of employees /executives who got trained in the in house/ outside
training programmers.

       Information pertaining to training and development programs organized over a
period will be obtained by way of referring to record of the statistical departments,
personnel departments, and training and development departments. In- house
magazines, journals, newspapers, any other published materials will be referring to in
collection of necessary data.


       The study is confined to Visakha Dairy with specific reference to training and
development programs. In view of time constraint the study will be for a shorter
period. Information regarding the outcome of training and development programme
will be evaluated on general terms but not on scientific terms.

    The time constraint there to study all the policies of, as it is a very fast topic.

    Sample size collected is not very large.

    Subjectivity on this part in interpretation and analysis



                           MISSION STATEMENT


                               VISAKHA UNION

       Visakha Union is committed to enhance the Milk Procurement through
Technical inputs by providing Quality services to our Member Producers by ensuring
economic viability to improve socio-economic conditions of our Members. Visakha
Union is also committed to supply quality milk and milk products to consumers. The
Union shall become top dairy co-op. in the country with its inspired team of
        Sri Vijaya Visakha District Milk Producers Mutually Aided Company Union


     We, the inspired Team of Employees are dedicated to the following values:

              Co-operation,

              Honesty,

              Discipline / Time,

              Quality / Purity,

              Hard working,

              Transparency,

              Trust / Belief on Organization,

              Mutual Respect,

              Skill Development & Education

Sri Vijaya Visakha District Milk Producers Mutually Aided Compeny
Union Limited

                         QUALITY POLICY
             “Visakha Co-operative Dairy endeavours

One of the best processors of milk and manufacturers of milk products in India. We

are committed to provide hygienic, safe And nutritious products to achieve customer

Satisfaction and in turn improve the economy Of our member producers. To this

effect The management is committed to implement, Maintain and continually improve

the quality And food safety (HACCP) system in dairy”




01 No. of Societies                       848

02 No. of Women Societies                 67

03 No. of MPACs                           1258

04 No. of Milk Chilling Centres            6

05 No. of Feed Mixing Plants               1

06 Union Training Centers                  1

07 No. of Bulk Cooling Centers            47

08 No. of Milk Collection Routes          50

09 No. of Veterinary First Aid Centers    592

10 No. of Emergency Veterinary Routes     19

11 No. of Producers in Societies         168782

12 No. of Women Members                  31211

13 No. of Animals Vaccinated (Triovac)   10000

14 No. of Cattles Insured                13980


           At present we have total no. of 2172 Milk Booths, out of which 450 o utlets are
selling milk and milk products round the clock. We are supplying milk and milk
products in the three districts of North Coastal Andhra viz., Srikakulam,
Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Kakinada, Rajahmundry and Tuni in East Godavari
District.     We are distributing milk through 36 routes for a wider coverage and
accessibility of the public. We have been doing many of sales promotion activities
with innovative ideas for development of milk market. The sales figures for the last 5
years are given here under:

Particulars        1997-98      1998-99     1999-2000      2000-01    2001-02    2002-03     2003-04
Milk sales in 138516            138733      152450         158000     170000     202600      235036
litres      (Day
The Present Liquid Milk Sales are 2,70,000
Ghee(in kgs)       665378       705536      1150155        542350     723569     429000      480854
SMP(in kgs)        21450        81649       1201534        20360      1140985    75000       413808
Doodhpeda          20446        25973       27003          30801      46103      56000       70167
SFM (200 ml 224257              277823      291502         576586     716076     1015000     1387027
Butter      Milk 1148225        1736378     2502077        2801958    4410448    5600000     5935850
(200ml pack)
Curd(in Lts)                    5695        11623          9238       39436      56000       129735
Paneer in kgs                   179         2699           4649       10696      15600       30867
Rose        Milk                            250            2848       3205       3500        3552
UHT         Milk                                                                             1582353
TP Flavoured                                                                                 76219
White Butter                                                          70000      150000      2099770

1.   Promotional Activities:-
     a)     Hoardings
     b)     Glow Sign Boards
     c)     Wall Paintings
     d)     Banners, Carry bags,
     e)     Press Ads. Etc.

2.   Consumer Education Programme :-
     Test your Milk programme and door to door campaign by a survey team
     Training to Field Staff, to upgrade the skills.
     Milk Products : are being sold through Distributors.

                        FINANCE & ACCOUNTS:-

       The financial operations of Visakha Coop. Dairy, Visakhapatnam has been
increasing with a remarkable growth rate by year SINCE 1995-96. The turnover had
increased from Rs.63.00 to 180.00 crores in 2002-03. For a glance the year wise
financial performance is stated below:-

( Lakhs)
Year        Turn-over      Increase       Total     Addl. Purchase Price   Net Profit
1995-96     6534.19        ---            293.77    118.34                 1.91
1996-97     7870.94        24.26          322.56    268.42                 11.24
1997-98     950255         20.73          565.73    410.88                 5.31
1998-99     11431.44       20.30          563.47    429.51                 5.36
1999-00     12119.45       6.02           377.81    177.19                 6.94
2000-01     12340.68       1.83           ---       115.52                 5.00
2001-02     15145.00       22.72          309.03    300.00                 9.03
2002-03     18114.99       19.61                    362.00                 7.19
2003-04     20979.16       15.81                    394.00                 19.51


       Milk is the food, which contains Vitamins, Proteins, fats & Carbohydrates.
Every human being consumes milk at one time or the other world health organization
suggests that the infants should be fed compulsorily with mother milk, because it
provides all the necessary fats, proteins, etc. which is essential for the growth of the
baby. If mother milk is not available they suggest animal milk. This shows what
major role milk is playing in our daily life.

       Indian is the second highly populated country and is about to occupy the first
position. In India the major source of income is Agriculture. Dairying is a part of
Agriculture. Dairying is one of the best instruments for bringing up the socio-
economic development of the country. Developing countries like India rural people
depend on agricultural income like farming. Dairying etc. the India dairy is expected
to retain its indigenous character for a long time because of consumer tastes for
articles of food so far delicacies are concerned.

       Dairy development in India has been most spectacular in recent years, while
chief contributing factor to this achievement is the Anand pattern of dairy
cooperatives. No less creditable has been a concerned effort of the national dairy
development and the Indian dairy development. These two institutions have been
responsible for dairy development in India since 1970. Dairying is considered as a
whole when it contains elements like production. Procurement and marketing “Kaira
District Co-opeative Milk Producers Union Limited” adopted this integrated
approach. This integrated approach in Dairying is proved to be successful with
“AMUL” and later this integrated approach is came to be known as “ANAND


        Milk as we all know is a mixture of a variety of nutrients.          Milk is a
polysaccharide constitute of our food. Milk on digestion gives glucose and lactose.

        Milk   Lactose Glucose        +Lactose

        We all know that our body does eventually stop growing outwardly, but our
bones and tissues don’s. They are constantly being renewed. In fact bones are alive
and they need constant supplied of calcium and other nutrients in order to be strong.

        As IDE from Ca, mil provides at least 14 other important nutrients. All
performing different and important functions. As part of a well balanced diet milk
and other mil products are important throughout our life.

        As we grow into adulthood, we tend to consume less and less of milk. In
today’s market place, where there is a bewildering array of milk products. There is a
milk product for almost every one. Once consuming cow’s milk, infants under 1 year
should stock to whole milk for growth and energy needs

S.No.    Milk Beverage (1 Cup = 80z=250Ml)             Fat (in gms) Total Calories
1.       Whole Milk                                    9            157
2.       2%                                            6            120
3.       1%                                            3            108
4.       Skim                                          Trace        91
5.       B’ Milk                                       2            105
6.       Chocolate-partly skimmed (2%)                 5            189
7.       Dry, Skim, instant (25 gms)                   Trace        91



The Liquid Milk Market

         Average of 4 billion tons of milk was produced every year in UK, 73 million
tons in USA and India’s production is around 75 million tons. Half of the total
production of milk is used for manufacturing other products. In UK the liquid milk
sales has seen a decline since the previous 10 years.

         Since 1980 more than 90% of milk was purchased from the milkman. By
1980 this declined to 89% in 1985 to 81.9% in 1990 to 68.3% and by 1995 doorstep
delivery accounted for 44.5% of all milk purchased. Sales in supermarkets and small
shops increased in relation to the decline in doorstep share. The information collected
on international scenario was achieved from internet and it was no updated to the
current year.


         36% of all the household milk sold in England, Scotland and Wales is sold in
glass bottles, with plastic containers claiming 50% of the market and cartons the
remaining 14%. Virtually all milk sold in glass bottles is sold in doorstep delivery
while disposable packaging accounts for almost all shop sales.

         Major types of milk available internationally are

Sl.No.     Type                      Every Value                 Fat Content
1.         Whole Milk                387 Calories                3.5%
2.         Semi         skimmed 270 Calories                     1.0%
3.         Skimmed milk              194 Calories                0.1%
4.         HOMO                      All fat is spread evenly no cream line is

       The main stay in Indian farmers has been agriculture and allied occupations,
farm animals especially cattle have been an integral part of rural India for thousands
of years. During the year 1920 military farms were established to supply adequate
raw milk to the stations. These were well maintained and improved.

       In 1946 the first farmers’ integrated dairy co-operative was established in
Kaira district at Anand, which later came to be known as “Amul”. Amul and Greater
Bombay milk scheme set together a faster pace of dairy developed with emphasis on
developed techniques of processing and marketing under Indian conditions.

INSTITUTIONAL                  SUPPORT              TO      CO-OPERATIVE

       The Indian dairy corporation (IDC) was set up under companies Act on 13 th
February 1970. It is a Government of India undertaking. The immediate need to set
up IDC was to handle the popularly known “operation flood”

       India has emerged as the world’s top dairy nation with milk production
crossing 75 million tons in 1997-98. It is placed second in milk production when
compared to the USA. The Indian dairy industry production is estimated to have risen
from a low of 20 million tons to 75 million tons.

       Though our country has 25% of the total world agriculture animals, yet the
production of milk is only 6.5% of the world production. The Government started the
“Operation Flood” programme. India is the second largest populated country and
consumption of milk is also high. In order to meet the requirements of the people the
operation flood program was developed. In every five years plan emphasis is even
given to agriculture also which includes farming, dairying etc. In India the state in
which the production milk is high in Gujarat.

       It is estimated that the per capita consumption of every Ind ian is 118 grams.
But the minimum requirement for good health is 210 grams per day. It is also
estimated that the consumption would be 64.40 million tons in this year. Therefore it
is necessary to develop dairy farming in India.



(Sri Vijaya Visakha District Milk Produce rs Mutually Aided Coope rative Union
                          (VISAKHA COMPANYDAIRY)
       The Milk shed of Sri Vijaya Visakha District Co mpany Milk Producers’
Union Limited (Visakha Cooperative Dairy) Visakhapatnam is comprising of three
districts Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam.         These three districts are
situated in the North eastern part of the coastal area of Andhra Pradesh state and
considered to be backward for Agricultural and Industrial Development.              The
Srikakulam district is declared as the backward district for the industrial development
and the Government has sanctioned subsidy and also sales tax exemption for five
years from the date of starting of an industry. The perennial source of was for
irrigation through rivers and riverlets is also very much limited especially in
Visakhapatnam and Vizianagaram Districts.         Therefore, the rural farmers mostly
belonging to small and marginal categories have necessarily to depend on the some
other source of income for their livelihood.

       The Government after considering dairying is one of the best instrument for
bringing socio-economic development in the rural areas has started a Dairy with an
handling capacity of 10,000 litres per day in 1966.         Dairying not only creates
subsidiary occupation to the rural farmer by rating reasonable market price for his
produce at his doorstep by also meets the demand of the urban consumers for the
supply of hygienic quality milk at reasonable price. After observing the success of
the small dairy, the present new dairy was constructed with an initial capacity of
50,000 ltrs. pr day taking loan of Rs.98.50 lakhs from National Co mpany
Development Corporation, which completed and commissioned during the year 1977.
This dairy was registered under cooperative societies act in 1973. At the stage, the
area of operation was limited to Visakhapatnam district only. The farmers took lot of
interest in dairying after realizing it as the subsidiary occupation as it is giving them
regular income for their livelihood.     With the result more and more small and
marginal farmers land agricultural labourers joined in this stream for increasing their
economy at the village level utilizing the infrastructure available at their doorsteps.
When the AP state has adopted “Anand Pattern” for dairy development through
operation flood (OF) programme this cooperative diary has also joined in the line in
1981 and become a member of the AP diary development company federation limited
at Apex level. At this stage, the union comprising of the districts viz., Srikakulam,
Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam was formed under the name of “Sri Vijaya Visakha
District Company Milk Producers’ Union Limited” during the year 1981-82. The
union is converted to mutually aided cooperative act ’95 from 08-07-1999. And its
name also changed as “Srivijayavisakha District Milk Prod ucers’ Mutually Aided
Company Union Limited.

       As the production and procurement started increasing year by year with more
participation of rural farmers the handling capacity of Visakha Cooperative Diary
increased time to time as follows:-

1986-87                 50,000 Lts. To             1,00,000 Lts.
1989-90               1,00,000 Lts. To             1,50,000 Lts.
1991-92               1,50,000 Lts. To             2,00,000 Lts.

The Plant installed capacities are as follows:-

 Sl.              Unit Name             Present Handling           Peak Handling
 No.                                        Capacity              during 2000-2001
                                         (Ltrs/Per Day)             (Ltrs. per day)
1.           Visakha   Cooperative
             Dairy                                 2,00,000                   2,70,000
2.           MCC-Narsipatnam                         50,000                     41,311
3.           MCC-
             Ramabhadrapuram                         30,000                     23,090
4.           MCC-Srikakulam                          20,000                     16,200
5.           MCC-Vizianagaram                        20,000                     25,896
6.           MCC-Tuni                                20,000                     15,388
7.           MCC-Tekkali                              6,000                        800
8.           MCC-Seethampet                           1,000                          --


        The Union is procuring milk through a network of 800 primary milk producers
cooperative societies and 736 Milk producers association centers in the 3 districts of
Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam.        The average daily procurement of this Union
during 1997-98 is 1,88,900 litres per day. The payment for the milk procured is made
once in fortnight based on the fat and SNF contents of the milk supplied. The milk
transported to the dairy and its units through a network of 54 milk routes in three

a)      Technical        Inputs       provided        for      M ilk      Production

        The Visakha Union is not only procuring, processing and marketing the milk
which collected from various inputs to the producers to improve their cattle wealth
and also to improve socio-economical living standards through increase in milk
        The following inputs are provided to milk producers.
      Animal Health Care
      Artificial Insemination
      Feed and Fodder Activity
      Premixed cattle feed is being supplied at the rate of Rs.4.00/kg
      Distribution of Fodder Mini Kits on 50% subsidy etc.

      Extension Activities
      Film Shows
      Pamphlets & Charts distribution
      Cattle Insurance Scheme

b)      Veterinary Health Care

        346 Veterinary First Aid Centres are functioning in the Union. These centers
are started where there are no A H Departmental institutions. One of the employees
of Dairy Coop. Society is trained in Veterinary first aid who is attending to this work.

        The Union is presently having 14 emergency routes in Visakhapatnam District
with different mandals in three districts to cater the emergency veterinary needs of the
milk producers. The medicines are supplied on free of cost.

c)      No. of constructed society buildings in various districts is
        as follows :-

            Visakhapatnam District                           264            472
            Vizianagaram District                     63              132
            Srikakulam District                        7               17

d)      Training Centre

        The Union has its own Regional Training Centre near Hanumanthawaka with
boarding and lodging facilities and is imparting for the society personnel in the
following fields.

            40 Days                  A1 Programme
            20 Days                  A1 Programme
            10 Days                  Veterinary First Aid Training
            30 Days                  Paid Secretaries Training etc.

Fodder Farm

       In the Training center premises of Fodder farm is established both for
demonstration to the trainees and seed multiplication. The following fodder grassers
are grown in the farm.

1.     CO1               2. NB-21              3. Pata           4. Gunia

       During the year 1997-98 fodder slips to cover an area of 130 acres were
produced and distributed to the milk producers free of cost.

                      DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES

Women Dairy Project
       The A.P. Dairy Development Federation Limited, an enterprise of one million
farmers is striving hard to provide year found market at the doorsteps of the farmers
for the surplus milk available in the rural areas and supply quality milk and products
at reasonable price to the urban consumers for the past three decades. Recognising
the need to involve more and women into dairying for dairy development of
cooperative lines, federation proposed to the Government of India for financing
women Dairy project. The Government o f India sanctioned the project for 3 districts
of the state viz., Rayalaseema, Telangana and Coastal to organize 580 women dairy
cooperative with 25,760 women members during the project period of 3 years starting
implementation from 1997-98 onwards.


              To encourage women to form into dairy company.
              To train women in scientific dairying to increase the mil production
               from the existing milch animals, to improve the quality of milk to
               upgrade existing stock for better milch animals.
              To train the women as self- managers to run the dairy company on their
              To develop women diary company as nucleus for other women
               developmental activities, like women and child health, savings through
               thrift improving nutritional standards among children through locally
               available weaning foods, imparting literacy including legal literacy etc.

       The project motivate women members to take active participation not only in
milch cattle rearing but also in society management to develop them as self managers,
and also pave way for them to have coordination from other developmental
departments in the district for other activities which will be useful for women
development. Under this programme, this union has been given a target of 60 women
company societies to be formed in the 3 years of project period in phased manner.

                        First Year                        15
                        Second Year              30 and
                        Third year                        15

       Another important aspect in the project is they have proposed to utilize the
services of voluntary organization existing in the district with special reference to
develop women for :
              Legal literacy improvement programme
              Schemes for training in production of weaning foods.
              Dairy training for the skills of traditional birth attendants.

       To take up this project an amount of Rs.111.00 lakhs has been earmarked for
the project period of 3 years in establishing women dairy company in this Union.
Cooperative Development Scheme
               With the financial assistance from National Dairy Development Board,

the Cooperative Development Programme has been started during 1989 with the

following staff.

               One Assistant Manager
               Two Male Supervisors
               Two Lady Instructors

Objectives of the Scheme
      To consolidate the existing cooperative network and induce institutions
      To increase all round member participation and to sensitize the members
       cooperative management.

The following are different C D Programmes
              Women Education Programme
              Member Education Programme
              M C M Seminar/Training
              Chairman orientation/leadership development programme
              Paid Secretary Orientation Programme
              R & I Orientation and Motivation programme

              School children orientation programme
              Women club
              Youth forum

       This Union has established 11 Bulk cooling centers at Chodavaram area an
experimental basis to collect milk from the nearby villages by keeping bulk coolers
with a capacity of 1000/2000/2500 depending upon need.
Objectives :-
              There is time saving for the farmers in supply of milk to their
               respective village milk collection centers both AM & PM.
              The quality of milk will be maintained by restricting the transit time.

              The weighment and testing of milk will be done in the presence of the
               representatives who bring milk to the bulk cooling points.

              The expenditure involved in transport of milk both times will be
               reduced by 50% by collecting milk once in a day through milk tankers.

       This union is planning to establish a tetrabric factory which will produce
tetrabric packet milk have a self- life for 6 months and these tetabric milk packs can be
marketed within the state and outside state as there is a big demand for this product.
To have a self- life it is essential that quality plays a greater role. To maintain the
quality of milk, the bulk coolers will lay greater importance. With that concept the
bulk coolers are going to be established in this union.

       Under the joint partnership with ISPA, this union programmed to launch a
society level promoter based programme from the financial year 1997-98 with a
capital outlay of Rs.30.00 lakhs to cover 60 MPCS in two chilling center areas in a
period of two years.

       To bring about a gender balance development in the selected villages through
society based programme.
Specific Objectives :
               To improve knowledge of the rural women on better techniques in
                Dairy Management & Clean milk production.
               To promote fodder production.
               To develop skills for rural women on management of institutions like
                dairy cooperative society as self managers and self dependents.
               To promote thrift activities, health camps and to promote literacy in the
               To bring awareness in cattle health, breeding programmes, calves
                management, cattle insurance etc.


Local M ilk M arketing

         This includes marketing of milk in the local area to fulfill the wants of the
Consumers with much ease.

Milk Sales Under NMG

         Again necessity arose to increase the capacity from 1,00,000 to 1,50,000 litres
per day since the installed capacity was in a short time. The Union has increased the
purchase price of milk to a reasonable level comparing with the other advanced States
like Gujarat. The reasonable price gave very good impetus for the rural farmers for
adding more animals to their stock of milk animals and also to take up dairying as a
fresh occupation for the new farmers. Thereby, their procurement had surpassed very
much the level of the sale of liquid milk and hence was and means were searched to
dispose off the surplus liquid milk, which was over and above the local liquid milk
                In the process, other States like West Bengal, Orissa were contacted
and sales of milk was started to Milk Federations of Orissa and Mother Dairy Kolkata
as per their requirement. Subsequently milk was also sold to Raipur Dairy in Madhya
Pradesh. Even after the disposal of the surplus milk to other States, need arose to
conserve the remaining surplus milk be sending it to Milk Powder Factory,
Vijayawada as the procurement increased very much in a short period, surpassing the
liquid milk sales locally and also to outside S tates. Hence, the handling capacity of
Visakha Cooperative Dairy was increased again to 2,00,000 ltrs. per day the
expansion programme was completed during the year 1992.


Payment of differential price to the milk producers

       The Unique feature of this Union is that it is paying additional purchase price
at the end of each financial year for the milk producers ever since 1981-82 ranging
from 20 paise per litre to 35 paise per litre of milk procured and this has given a lot of
confidence among the milk producers to take up the dairy activities.
The details of the additional purchase price paid to the milk producers since 1995-96
is given below:-
           S.No.                           Year                    Amount in Lakhs
             1                           1995-96                          125.00
             2                           1996-97                          268.00
             3                           1997-98                          342.39
             4                           1998-99                          429.51

Higher Purchase Price of M ilk

       The purchase price paid by the Visakha Union for cow and buffalo milk for
the year 1999-2000 given below in detail

Year/Period                         Buffalo Milk       Cow Milk
                                    (Kg fat Value) (Total solid value)

01-04-1999 to 30-04-1999                150.00                 58.00

01-05-1999 to 31-03-2000                160.00                 62.00

Welfare Activity for the M ilk Producers & Employees

       The Union has constituted a Trust by name “Milk Producers and Employees
Education, Health & Medical Welfare Trust” in the year 1989 with an objective to
provide educational, health and medical facilities to the milk producers, dairy
employees and their children. It is not out of place to mention that this is a unique
enterprises embarked upon by this Union in the entire state.

       For this initially, an English medium school was started in a private
accommodation from LKG to 2nd standard with strength of 90 children during the
year 1986. By the year 1996 the strength was increased to about 800 with a teaching
staff strength of 55. The school is now running upto 10 th standard and upgraded to
Junior College from 1997-98. Permanent school building complex was constructed
for the school with a total outlay of Rs.1.00 crore for ground and first floor for
providing accommodation for class rooms in the ground floor and hostel
accommodation in the first floor to the children of rural farmers. The buildings were
inaugurated on 14-06-1993, and the school was shifted to that building. Further with
a total outlay of Rs.2.00 crores, 60 bedded Super Speciality Hospital was constructed
to cater the needs of rural Farmers and employees of Visakha Union.

Life Insurance Scheme to the M ilk Producers

       During the year 1997-98 as a Welfare measure to the milk producers, Life
insurance scheme and Accidental policy were covered to nearly 1.00 lakh farmers in
this union.

               Under this Scheme, an amount of Rs.10,000/- is being paid to the
Farmers on natural death up to an age limit of 60 years without collecting any
premium from the farmers. So far 600 members covered under this scheme from
04/97 to 03/98. To meet this expenditure, this Union welfare measures expenditure.

               Secondly, this Union has taken up an accidental policy with UTI
company covering 1.20 lakh farmers and the deceased family can get Rs.20,000/-
under this programme. This is only small attempt to help the farmers to support moral
courage when they were in distress by loosing their family earning member.


       As the receipts of milk exceeded the 2,00,000 liters per day capacity and the
peak procurement was reached to the level of 2,14,000 liters during the year 1992,
whereas the local liquid milk sales is about 1,00,000 liters per day, the surplus milk is
to be converted into products. For this process of conversion, the surplus milk is
being sent to Vijayawada by incurring heavy expenditure on transport along involving
a risk of long distance transportation of the highly perishable product. In addition
huge amounts were paid to MRF – Vijayawada towards conversion charges of the
SMP. Basing on the above facts, the circumstances lead to establish a Milk Powder
Factory with a capacity of 13 MTs per day at Visakhapatnam with a capital outlay of
Rs.7.00 crores, which was commissioned during May 1998.

Flow Chart Depicting the Function of MPF

                                    WHOLE MILK
A                                   SEPARATION
R                                  SKIMMED MILK
I                                   SILO (30 LTS)
                            BALANCE TANK (500 LTS)
C                          FLASH HEATER (A-SECTION)
O                              PRE HEATERS 1, 2, 3, 4

                                DSI (Holding Section)

                           FLASH HEATER (B-SECTION)

                                  Callndria – 1, 2, 3

                      V Preheaters 1, 2, 3
R                         Concentrated tank (2,000 Lts)
R                                Concentration (458c)

S                     Scrapped surface heat exchange (758 – 808c)
                                      High Pressure

Milk Powder                   Spray Nozzle (1908 – 2008c)

                     SATISFY THE CUSTOMERS.
       Due to the extension and Welfare activities taken up by the Visakha Union,
Dairying has almost become a main occupation for the milk producers in the drought
districts Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam especially where the rains are
insufficient. Thereby the milk procurement was surpassed the capacities of various
levels of the Dairy. Therefore necessity arose for the expansion of the Dairy capacity
for handling the excess milk procured. For this the following projects are planned and
are under active execution.
       For handling unit-II with ice bank system refrigeration plant and butter deep
freeze with an estimated cost of Rs.24 lakhs. Milk pouch packaging unit-II with cold
store and plant room with an estimated cost of Rs.2.56 lakhs.
       UHT/ASPETIC Milk plant with preprocessing and packaging machines on
differed payment basis with an estimated cost of Rs.848 lakhs.

UNDER          JANMABHOOMI                   PROGRAMME              IN     THREE

           It is aware under Janmabhoomi Programme various developmental activities
are being envisaged through this programme for the rural development.         In this
connection, the District Collector, Visakhapatnam, has sanctioned 85 Milk Co llection
Buildings under this programme with 50%.Contribution from the Societies and in
Vizianagaram the District Collector sanctioned 45 buildings with 50% contribution.
Further they are appealing all the District Collectors to consider some more buildings
in a phased manner, which is an important infrastructure, need to be provided to the
rural farmers for their economic growth.

                              Estimated             50%            50%
Sl.            No. of           Value           Contribution   Contribution
No.           Buildings Lakhs            from           from        Progress
             Sanctioned                         Government     Beneficiary
                                       Lakhs Lakhs

1.     Visakhapatnam                                                           Work is
       (85)                     113.13             56.56          56.56         under

2.     Vizianagaram              64.5              32.25          32.25          -do-

3.     Srikakulam               31.60              22.12          9.48           -do-

Table 2.6          MAN POWER PROFILE OF (VCD)

    S No               Employed during the year                No of Employees
1            1999-2000                                                548
2            2000-2001                                                566
3            2001-2002                                                654
4            2002-2003                                                658
5            2003-2004                                                720
6            2004-2005                                                887
7            2005-2006                                                937

Table 2.7
                      Main Productions of Visakha Dairy

            S No       STEEL PRODUCTS             BY PRODUCTS
                  Angles                     Nut coke
                  Billets                    Coke dust
                  Channels                   Coal tar
                  Beans                      Anthracene oil
                  Squares                    H P Naphalene
                  Flats                      Benzene
                  Rounds                     Toluene
                  Rebars                     Zylene
                  Wire rods                  Wash oil
                  ------------               Granulated slag
                  ------------               Lime fines
                  ------------               Ammonium Sulphate



                           Training & Development

       Organisation and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for
their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern manage ment has to
develop the organisation through human resources development. Employee training
is the most important sub-system of human resources development. Training is a
specialised function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human
resources management.
       After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an organisation he/she
must be provided with training facilities in order to adjust him to the job. Training is
the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular
job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilising a systematic and
organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a
definite purpose. Dale S Beach defines the training as “…. the organised procedure
by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose.”
       In other words training improves changes and moulds the employee’s
knowledge, skill, behaviour and aptitude and attitude towards the requirements of the
job and the organisation. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried
on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation to acquire and
apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and
       Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and
employee’s present specifications.
Goal of Training:
                    Training has certain goal, where the main aim is to train the
employees with the best of the knowledge available so that performance is achieved
to the maximum and as well it leads to higher job satisfaction. The questions in this
section are designed to help the owner- manager define the objective or goal to be
achieved by a training program. Whether the objective is to conduct initial training, to
provide for upgrading employees, or to retrain for changing job assignments, the goal
should be spelled out before developing the plan for the training program.

        Do you want to improve the performance of your employees?

        Will you improve your employees by training them to perform their
           present tasks better?
        Do you need to prepare employees for newly developed or modified jobs?
        Is training needed to prepare employees for promotion?
        Is the goal to reduce accidents and increase safety practices?
        Should the goal be to improve employee attitudes especially about waste
           and spoilage practices?
        Do you need to improve the handling of materials in order to break
           production bottlenecks?
        Is the goal to orient new employees to their jobs?
        Will you need to teach new employees about overall operations?
        Do you need to train employees so they can help teach new workers in an
           expansion program?

What should the Employees Learn:

                  Once the objective or goal of the program is set, you will need to
determine the course or the subject. The following questions will help us to decide
what the employee needs in terms of duties, responsibilities, and attitudes.
        Can the job be broken down into steps for training purposes?
        Are there standards of quality which trainees can be taught?
        Are there certain skills and techniques that trainees must learn?
        Are there hazards and safety practices that must be taught?
        Have you established the methods that employees must use to avoid or
           minimize waste and spoilage?
        Are there materials handling techniques that must be taught?
        Have you determined the best way for the trainees to operate the
        Are there performance standards that employees must meet?
        Are there attitudes that need improvement or modifications?
        Will information on your products help employees to do a better job?
        Should the training include information about the location and use of tool
           cribs and so on?
        Will the employee need instruction about departments other than his or her

Type of Training:
                    The type of training to be offered has an important bearing on the
balance of the program. Some types lend themselves to achieving all of the objectives
or goals, while others are limited. Therefore you should review the advantages of each
type in relation to your objective or goal.
        Can you train on-the-job so that employees can produce while they learn?
        Should you have classroom training conducted by a paid instructor?
        Will a combination of scheduled on-the-job training and vocational
           classroom instruction work best for you?
        Can your goal be achieved with a combination of on-the-job training and
           correspondence courses?
Method of Instruction:

                           One or more methods of instruction may be used. Some are
better for one type of training than another. For example, lectures are good for
imparting knowledge, and demonstrations are good for teaching skills.

        Does the subject matter call for a lecture or series of lectures?
        Should the instructor follow up with discussion sessions?
        Does the subject matter lend itself to demonstrations?
        Can operating problems be simulated in a classroom?
        Can the instructor direct trainees while they perform the job?

Type of Audio Visual Aids:

Audiovisual aids help the instructor to make points and enable the trainees to grasp
and retain the instructions.

        Will a manual of instruction -- including job instruction sheets -- be used?
        Will trainees be given an outline of the training program?
        Can outside textbooks and other printed materials be used?
        If the training lends itself to the use of motion pictures, filmstrips or slides,
           can you get ones that show the basic operations?
        Do you have drawings or photographs of the machinery, equipment or
           products that could be enlarged and used?
        Do you have miniatures or models of machinery and equipment that can be
           used to demonstrate the operation?

                           Training and Development

         Employee training is distinct from management development or executive
development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the areas of
operations, technical and allied areas the latter refers to developing an employee in the
areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organisation and
allied areas.

                    Differences between Training and Development

S No        Area                Training                      Development

    1.   Content      Technical skills and            Managerial and behavioural

                      knowledge                       skills and knowledge

    2.   Purpose      Specific job-related            Conceptual and general


    3.   Duration     Short-term                      Long-term

    4.   For whom     Mostly technical and non-       Mostly for managerial

                      managerial personnel            personnel

Importance of Training

         The importance of human resources management to a large extent depends on
human resources development and training is its most important technique.            No
organisation can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the
organisation requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and
make him suitable to the job. Training works towards value addition to the company
through HRD
         Job and organisational requirements are not static, they are changed from time
to time in view of technological advancement and change in the awareness of the
Total Quality and productivity Management (TQPM). The objectives of the TQPM
can be achieved only through training, which develops human skills and efficiency.
Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. Organisational
efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on
training. If the required training is not provided, it leads to performance failure o the
employees. Organisational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be
achieved through training. Training is important, as it constitutes a significant part of
management control. Training enhances 4Cs for the organisation viz.
                    Competence

                    Commitment

                    Creativity and

                    Contribution

                               Benefits of Training

How Training Benefits the Organisation:

    Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profits


    Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organisation

    Improves the morale of the workforce

    Helps people identify with organisational goals

    Helps create a better corporate image

    Fosters authenticity, openness and trust

    Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate

    Aids in organisational development

    Learns from the trainee

    Helps prepare guidelines for work

    Aids in understanding and carrying out organisational policies

    Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organisation

    Organisation gets more effective in decision- making and problem solving

    Aids in development for promotion from within

    Aids in developing leadership skill, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes and

       other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

    Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work

 Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel,

   administration etc.

 Develops a sense of responsibility to the organisation for being competent and


 Improves labour- management relations

 Reduces outside consulting costs by utilising competent internal consulting

 Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.

 Eliminates sub-optimal behaviour (such as hiding tools)

 Creates an appropriate climate for growth and communication

 Aids in improving organisational communication

 Helps employees adjust to change

 Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension

   Benefits to the Individual, Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the


 Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving

 Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition,

   achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalised and


 Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence

 Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict

 Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication

   skills and attitudes

 Increases job satisfaction and recognition

 Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills

 Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee)

 Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future

 Develops a sense of growth in learning

       Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills: also writing skills when

         exercises are required.

       Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks. Benefits in Personnel an Human

         Relations, Intra and Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation

       Improves communication between groups and individuals

       Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through

         transfer or promotion

       Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action

       Provides information on other governmental laws and administrative policies

       Improves inter-personal skills

       Makes organisation policies, rules and regulations viable

       Improves morale

       Builds cohesiveness in groups

       Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination

       Makes the organisation a better place to work and live.

Need for the Training

         The need for the Training arises due to the following reasons:

i.       To March the Employee Specifications with the Job Require ments and

         Organisational Needs

                Management         finds    deviations   between    employee’s   present
         specifications and the job requirements and organisational needs. Training is
         needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skill,
         knowledge, attitude, behaviour etc. to the tune of the job requirement and
         organisational needs.

ii.      Organisational Viability and the Transformation Process

                The primary goal of the organisations is that their viability is
         continuously influenced by environmental pressure. If the organisation does
         not adapt itself to the changing
iii.   Technological Advances

               Every organisation in order to survive and to be effective should adopt
       the latest technology i.e. mechanisation, computerisation and automation.
       Adoption of latest technological means and methods will not be complete until
       they are manned by employees to enrich them in the areas of changing
       technical skills and knowledge from time to time.

iv.    Organisational Complexity

               With the emergence of increased mechanisation and automation,
       manufacturing of multiple products and by-products or dealing in services of
       diversified lines, extension of operations to various regions of the country or
       in overseas countries, organisation of most of the companies has become
       complex. This creates the complex problems o f co-ordination and integration
       of activities adaptable for and adaptable to the expanding and diversifying
       situations.   This situation calls for training in the skills of co-ordination,
       integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and

v.     Human Relations:

               Trends in approach towards personnel management has changed from
       the commodity approach to partnership approach, crossing the human relations
       approach. So today management of most of the organisations has to maintain
       human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although
       hitherto the managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers
       accordingly. So, training in human relations is necessary to deal with human
       problems (including alienation, interpersonal and inter-group conflicts etc.)

vi.    Change in the Job Assignment
               Training is also necessary what the existing employee is promoted to
       the higher level in the organisation and when there is some new job or
       occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip old employees
       with the advanced disciplines, techniques or technology.
       The need for the training also arises to:
        Increase productivity

            Improve quality of the product/service

            Help a company to fulfil its future personnel needs

            Improve organisational climate

            Improve health and safety

            Prevent obsolescence

            Effect personal growth

            Minimise the resistance to change and

            To act as mentor

                                  Training Objectives

           Generally line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate the training
polices.      The personnel manger formulates the following training objectives in
keeping the company’s goals and objectives:
            To prepare the employee, both new and old to meet the present as well as

              the changing requirements of the job and the organisation.

            To prevent obsolescence.

            To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for an

              intelligent performance of a definite job.

            To prepare employees for higher level tasks.

            To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions

              by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and

              developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.

            To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to

              occupy more responsible positions.

            To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with

              opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a
           view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from over-


        To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.

        To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.

        To ensure economical output of required quality.

        To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-

           operative attitudes and good relationships.

Assessment of Training Needs

       Training needs are identified on the basis of organisational analysis, job
analysis and manpower analysis. Training programme, training methods and course
content are to be planned on the basis of training needs. Training needs are those
aspects necessary to perform the job in an organisation in which employee is lacking
attitude/aptitude, knowledge and skill.
Training Needs = Job and Organisational requirements – Employees Specifications

                                 Assessment Methods

The following methods are used to assess training needs:

        Requirements/weakness.

        Departmental requirements/weaknesses.

        Job specifications and employee specifications.

        Identifying specific problems

        Antic Organisation repeating future problems.

        Management’s requests.

        Observation.

        Interviews.

        Group conferences.

        Questionnaire surveys.

        Test or examinations.

        Check lists.

        Performance appraisal.

           Methods used in Training Needs Assessment

 Group or Organisational Analysis             Individual Analysis

Organisational goals and Objectives      Performance appraisal

Personnel/Skills inventories             Work sampling

Organisational climate indices           Interviews

Efficiency indices                       Questionnaires

Exit interviews                          Attitude survey

MBO or work planning systems             Training progress

Quality circles                          Rating Scales

Customer survey/satisfaction data        Observation of Behaviour

Consideration of current and projected


  Individual                        Group Training                  Organizational
Training Needs                          Needs                       Training Needs

Training Methods

       The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory
personnel in the organisation. These training programmes are classified into On-the-
job and Off- the-job programmes.

                                  Training Methods

On-the-job Methods                                    Off-the-job Methods

    - Job rotation                                       - Vestibule training

    - Coaching                                           - Role Playing

    - Job instruction                                    - Lecture Methods

    - Training through step-by-step                      - Conference or Discussions

    - Committee Assignments                              - Programmed Instruction

On-The-Job Training Methods

       This type of training also known as job instruction training is the most
commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job
and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the
supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has
the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working
conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker
rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also
minimized as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering
services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job.
On-the-training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training
through step-by-step and committee assignments.

i. Job Rotation:

       This type of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to
another.   The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his
supervisor of trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of
training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees
can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs.          This method gives an
opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and
respect them.

ii.    Coaching:

         The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach
in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his
performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee
share some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him o his
burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the
freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

iii. Job Instruction:

          This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this
method, the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the jobs, jobs, job
knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the
performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.

iv. Committee Assignments:

       Under the committee assignment, a group of trainees are given and asked to
solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It
develops teamwork

Off-the-Job Methods.

       Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation
and his attention is focussed upon learning the material related to his future job
performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his
entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it.
There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Companies have
started using multimedia technology and information technology in training Off- the-
job training methods are

i.     Vestibule Training:

       In this method actual work conditions are simulated in a class room, Material,
files and equipment which are used in actual job performance are also used in
training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical

and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks.
Theory can be related to practice in this method.

ii. Role Playing:

         It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour
in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice.
The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production managers,
mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control
inspectors, foremen, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing
inter-personal interactions and relations.

iii. Lecture Method:

         The lecture is traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor
organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be
effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees.          An
advantage of the lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group
oft trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the
lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively.

iv. Conference or Discussion:

         It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supe rvisory personnel.
This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts,
ideas and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the
improvement of job performance. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the
lecture method, in that the discussion involves two-way communication and hence
feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. The
success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the

v. Programme d Instruction:

         In recent years, this method has become popular. The subject matter to be
learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are
arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through

these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive
and time consuming.


       The following training procedure is essentially an adoption of the job
instruction-training course, which has been proved to have great value.

Training Procedure

                       The important steps in the training procedure are: -

i. Preparing the Instructor:

       The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The
job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time
without the trainee- losing plan. For each part, one should have in mind the desired
technique of instruction, that is, whether a particular point is best taught by
illustration, demonstration or explanation.
       A serious and committed instruction must:

        Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach.

        Have the aptitude and ability to teach

        Have willingness towards the profession.

        Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership

        Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods.

        Be a permanent student, in the sense that he should equip himself with the

           latest concepts and knowledge.

ii. Preparing the Trainee:

       As in interviewing, the first step in training is to attempt to place the trainee at
ease. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task.
Though the instructor may have executed this training procedure, many times he or

she never forgets its newness to the trainee. The q uality of empathy is a mark of the
good instructor.

iii. Getting Ready to Teach:

        This stage of the programme is class hour teaching involving the following


         Planning the programme

         Preparing the instructor’s outline

         Do not try to cover too much material

         Keep the session moving along logically

         Discuss each item in depth

         Repeat, but in different words.

         Take the material from standardised texts when it is available

         When the standardised text is not available, develop the programme and

              course content based on group approach, Group consists of employer,

              skilled employees, supervisors, trade union leaders and other familiar with

              job requirements. Group prepares teaching material.

         Teach about the standard for the trainee like quality, quantity, waste or

              scrap, ability to work without supervision, knowledge or procedure, safety

              rules, human relations etc.

         Remember your standard, before you teach.

iv. Presenting the Operation:

        There are various alternative ways of presenting the operation viz.
Explanation, demonstration etc.         an instructor mostly uses these methods of
explanation. In addition, one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures,
charts, diagrams and other training aids.

v. Try out the Trainee’s Performance:

       As a continuation of the presentation sequence given above, the trainee should
be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some instructor prefers that the
trainee explain each step before doing it, particularly if the operation involves any
danger. The trainee, through respective practice, will acquire more skill

vi. Follow-up:

       The final step in most training procedures is that of the follow-up. When
people are involved in any problem or procedure, it is unwise to assume that things
are always constant. Follow- up can be adapted to a variable reinforcement schedule
as suggested in the discussion of learning principles. Every training programme
should have a follow-up, otherwise the training programmes in the future cannot be

                      TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY

       Training to the employees can be provided both within the industry and
outside the industry. Training within the industry is provided through both on-the-job
methods and off- the-job methods.
       Normally supervisors, foremen and supervisors provide the training to the
employees. Supervisors in coach the employees initially how to handle the machines,
materials, accounts, files, records etc., and also clarify the issues and doubts raised by
the employees.
       Supervisors observe the employees when they carry-out the job on their own,
identify the mistakes that the employees commit, performance of the employee etc.
Supervisors have to appreciate the employees publicly and counsel them privately
regarding their mistakes. Like this, the supervisors, teach, coach and instruct the
employees until they do the job perfectly.
       In addition, some supervisors deliver the lectures to group of employees, take
them around the factory or work place and ask them to observe when the supervisor is
handling a machine or material or files. The supervisors also arrange exhibitions of
carrying activities by different employees. In addition to coaching and step-by-step
training, managements also provide training through job rotation, and committee
       Some industrial units establish their own training institutes or colleges and
arrange for training within the industry. These institutes or colleges use off- the-job-
training methods like lecture, role-plays, vestibule training, conferences and
programmed instructions.
       Almost all organisations prefer training within industry due to its advantages.
They are
        Less cost, Less time-consuming, High appropriate as the supervisors coach
        Familiarity of the employees to the work place and work environment of
           the industry
        Loss of time due to employee absence to his work is minimum
        Employee’s progress can be judged easily and immediately.
        Employees can implement the training inputs effectively.

Advantages of Training
       The contributions of imparting training to a company should be readily
apparent. The major values are

i.     Increased Productivity.
       An increase in skill usually results in an increment in both quality and quantity
of output.   However, the increasingly technical nature of modern jobs demands
systematic training to make possible even minimum levels of accomplishment.
ii.    Heightened Morale
       Possession of needed skills helps to meet such basic human needs as security
and ego satisfaction. Collaborate personnel and human relations programmes can
make a contribution towards morale, but they are hollow shells if there is no solid
core of meaningful work down with knowledge, skills and pride.
iii.   Reduced Supe rvision
       More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than by deficiencies in
equipment and working conditions. Proper training in both job skills and safety
attitudes should contribute towards a reduction in the accident rate.
iv.    Increased Organisational Stability
       The outcomes of training help for organizational stability by enhancing
organizations human capital. The ability of an organisation to sustain its effectiveness
despite the loss of key personnel can be developed only through creation of a
reservoir of employees. Flexibility, the ability to adjust to short-run variations in the
volume of work requires personnel with multiple skills to permit their transfer to jobs
where the demand is highest.


       The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation.           The basis of
evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should
be determined at the planning stage. The process of training evaluation has been
defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance
and to assess the value of training in the light of that information”.   Evaluation leads
to controlling and correcting training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at
which evaluation of training can take place. Viz. Reactions learning, job behaviour,
organisation and ultimate value.

i.      Reactions

        Training programme is evaluated on the basis of the trainee’s reaction to the
usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of
presentation, teaching methods etc.
ii.     Learning

        Training programme, trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the
basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner’s
ability to use or apply the content he learned.
iii.    Job Behaviour

        This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has
applied his learning to his job.
iv.     Organisation

        This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job
behaviour of the department/organisation in the form of increased productivity,
quality, morale, sales turnover and the like.

v.      Ultimate Value
        It is the measurement of the ultimate result of the contributions of the training
programme to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability etc. and to the
individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising
social benefit.
        The various methods of training evaluation are:
        I.        Immediate assessment of trainees’ reaction to the programme.
        II.       Trainee’s observation during the training programme.
        III.      Knowing trainees expectations before the training programme and
                  collecting their views regarding the attainment of the expectations after
        IV.       Seeking opinion of the trainee’s superior regarding his/her job
                  performance and behaviour before and after training.
        V.        Evaluation of trainee’s skill level before and after the training
        VI.       Measurement of improvement in trainees on the job behaviour.
        VII.      Examination of the testing system before and after sometime of the
                  training programme.
        VIII.     Measurement of trainee’s attitudes after the training programme.
                IX.    Cost-benefit analysis of the training programme.
                X.     Seeking opinion of trainee’s colleagues regarding his/her job
                       performance and behaviour.
                XI.    Measurement of levels in absenteeism turnover, wastage/scrap,
                       accidents, breakage of the machinery during pre and post period of the
                       training programme.
                XII.   Seeking opinions of trainee’s subordinates regarding his/her job
                       performance and behaviour.

       Recent Development in Training Employee Self Initiative

                Employees have realized that change is the order of the day and hey have
       started playing the role of an change agent. Consequently, employees identify their
       own training needs, select appropriate training programmes organised by various
       organisations and undergo the training programmes. Thus, employees in recent times
       started taking proactive learning measures on their own.

                                            On-line Training
                Companies started providing on- line training. Trainees can undergo training
       by staying at the place of their work.           Participants complete course work from
       wherever they have access to computer and Internet. Different t ypes of media are
       used for on- line training.

S No   Technique                                               Suitability
   Job Rotation       This is particularly useful in the development of diversified skills and to give executives a
                       broader outlook, which are very important to the upper management levels.
   Understudy         An understudy is normally chosen with a forethought of making available to the
                       organisation a subordinate who is equal to his superior in the event of retirement, illness
                       or death of the superior. The subordinate will be able to take over his position and
                       manage as effectively as his boss could.
   Multiple           This technique is mainly useful in bringing the managers out of their narrow shells and
       Management      help them gain a broader outlook and knowledge in different functional areas.
   Case Study         In the development of executive and analytical and decision-making skills, this technique
                       is particularly useful.
   Incident           This technique improves one’s intellectual ability, practical judgement and social
       Method          awareness.

 Role Play         Role playing helps executives in understanding people better by giving them vicarious
 In Basket         Situational judgement and social sensitivity are the two important qualities that can be
                    developed with the help of this method.
 Business          This technique may be used in order to develop organisational ability, quickness of
   Games            thinking and leadership.
 Sensitivity       This helps one know more about himself and the impact of his behaviour on others,
   Training         which are important to manage people better.
 Simulation        Problem solving through decision-making can be developed quite well with the help of
 Managerial        To develop leadership qualities in executives over a long period of time, this technique is
   Grid             adopted.
 Conferences       The most difficult thing for any one is to change his own attitude. This technique
                    develops the ability of the executives to modify their attitudes, when needed in the
                    interest of the organisation.
 Lecturers         This is the best technique to give more knowledge in a short period of time to a large
                    number of participants.


                                  VISAKHA DAIRY has a well-established Training and
    Development Center, which identifies the needs of the employees and provides
    training based on the identified requisites.
                     The main quality objectives of the Training and Development Center
    for the year 2004-2005 are: -
           To train a minimum of 20% of employees from all cadres both from internal
              and external faculties in various Skill Development, Technological and
              Refresher Training Programmes.
           To measure the effectiveness of Training Programmes and report the same on
              quarterly basis for at least 25 programs.
           To achieve zero accident in the Department by effective implementation of

The major training programmes that are conducted by the Training and
development center are:

                              FRESHERS TRAINING

       Initially a small group of trainees were recruited among the displaced persons
in December 1991. Since then a sea charge has taken place .The novel feature of
(VCD) manpower is that almost 90% of the work force in the works division has been
recruited through training in various schemes like

   1. Management Trainees
   2. Senior Trainees
   3. Junior Trainees

     Special schemes were worked out and implemented to facilitate induction of
displaced persons as well as SC and ST categories such as

           a. Special Trainees
           b. Asst.Technical Trainees
           c. Secretarial Asst.Trainees

                     The list of trainees and their training programme is given below.
The trainees were given orientation training, which includes induction training, basic
lectures and workshop training with multi skilled approach for the junior trainees.

                                          63    Name of Trainees                                Training period    Probation   Cadre
1.               Management Trainees                        1 year          1 year

2.              a) Senior Trainees (SOT)                   11/2 years       1 year
                     b) Special SOT’s
                                                            2 years         1 year

3.                 Assistant Steno’s                       11/2 years       1 year
                    (Ast’s) Trainees

4.              Junior Trainees (JOT’s)                    11/2 years       1 year
5.                  a) Special Trainees                2years(6 months +    1 year
                                                          11/2 years.

                                                         30 months (12
                     b) Super Special              months +18 months)
                          Trainees                                          1 year

6.                Assistant Technicians                  24 months         1 year

                 b) ATT’s (SC/ST/DP’s)                    30 months         1 year

7.                      Khalasis                          No training       1 year

             There is a wing called Training Administration, which helps in taking care
of the administration aspects in smooth functioning of the training progra mmes.
                The main function of this wing is: -
      To see that the trainees are paid the stipend properly.
      Their leave accounts are maintained.
      Advances like T.A., Cycle, and Medical etc. that are required for the trainees
        are extended to the rules functioning.
      Their characters and incidents clearances are obtained from the district head
        quarters before regularization.
      Any disciplinary actions that are required are taken on the recommendations
        of the concerning officers.

    Providing Audio, Visual aids for imparting effectively. The period of training
       for MT’s (Administration) of (VCD) is 1 year.

                         Skill Development Programs

       Skill development programs are those programs that are conducted in the
organization to enrich the skills of the employees who deal with the various
equipment in the plant. These programs are mainly conducted at the workshop where
full- fledged training is given on the equipment. Hence we can say that main purpose
of the skill development program is to improve the skills of those employees who
directly work with the equipment.

      There are several programs that are conducted in a calendar year and all the
topics are covered based on the requirement. All these programs are coded as SM(01)
to SM(13). And each code carries a specific topic on which the training program will
be conducted. The details of the training program are published in the training
calendar, which has the day and dates printed about when the training will be
conducted. Every employee in the is provided this calendar so that he attends the
training program as on the given dates.
                       After the training is completed feed back is taken from the
employees and with this the grading is done of how effective the training was and
whether the training was helpful for the employee to implement it at the workplace.

       Post training evaluation is done which would give us the learning level index
and as well the average feedback. In this way we can easily know how much the
employees gained from the training. It helps the organization as a whole to evaluate
the performance of the employees after their training is terminated. It leads to
increased efficiency of the organization and as well increases the individual

                              On the Job Training

               It is the method of training the employees or the workers to improve
their skills and competencies required for their job. It means that On the Job Training
is conducted to increase the employee input to achieve higher efficiency so that the
requisites of the job are fulfilled and the performance of the employees is maximized.
On the Job Training places the employees in a actual work situation and makes them
appear to be immediately productive. It is hence learning by doing.
                       There are several methods used for training the employees
under this i.e. Apprenticeship Training, Simulation Technique, Demonstration, and as
well training on the equipment.
                               In the perspective of Visakha Dairy, On the Job
Training is very significant aspect to train the existing employees so that higher job
performance is reached, which leads to higher productivity and as well as higher job
satisfaction. To conduct this several steps are to be followed which begins right from
the Job Description to Assessment testing.

     The sequence of the On the Job Training at is in the following manner: -

    Job Description: -

                            A Job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an
employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. A task is a typically defined as a
unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., sorting the
mail, etc. Job Descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and
responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position
reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job,
salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by
conducting a Job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks
necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills
needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results
associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles.

        Typically, job descriptions are used especially for advertising to fill an open
position, determining compensation and as a basis for performance reviews. Some
times job descriptions are not worded in a manner such that the employee's
performance can be measured; they end up serving as the basis for evaluation rather
than performance. So it becomes very essential to have a complete description of the
job, which would help us in knowing the specifications in the job.

                           Identifying Training Need

             Present Practice       ---------------------------   Standard Practice

                              Training Requirement

                       Job Descripti on

                              Devel op SOP

                                   Identi fy Trainer

                                              Assess the Training

                              YES                  Qualified             NO           Retrain

     Identifying the Skills and Knowle dge: -

                                                    Once the complete description of
the job is known then it becomes essential to identify the skills and knowledge
required for the job to be successfully terminated. Based on the findings at this stage it
helps in knowing the basic requirements to fill that job position. It may be
qualification or any other technical background or communication skill etc, based
upon the type of job. Once the skills and knowledge required for the job are identified
then it becomes easy for the person in charge to prepare the subject matter of the job.

Standard Ope rating Procedures: -
     An SOP is a set of instructions or steps someone follows to complete a job
safely, with no adverse impact on the environment (and which meets compliance
standards), and in a way that maximizes operational and production requirements.
SOP are meant for the people who perform jobs by themselves, for people who work
together on a job, and for people who supervise other people doing a job. Following
factors should be considered like age, education, knowledge, skills, experience and
training of the person who will perform a job, and the "social culture" or work history
within which the individual works. SOP material is used to write a description of how
a job is done.

                                   SOP’s are very essential for all the jobs before a job
is begun. SOPs first must be comprehensive. Often SOPs are written by one person,
and are reviewed by one or more others, one of whom may approve a final version.
Most importantly, SOPs should be reviewed by several people qualified to evaluate
the SOP in terms of its completeness and clarity of safety, environmental and
operational components. In keeping with the intent of various International Standards
Organization (ISO) standards, these reviews should be based on the maximum safety,
health and environmental considerations, not merely "what the law requires.

SOPs should be written by teams that include some or all of the following:
     People who will perform the job
     People who will perform maintenance on equipment involved in an SOP
    Engineers or others who design equipment and processes
    Technical writers
    Safety personnel
    Environmental personnel
    Equipment manufacturers
    Vendors
    Suppliers
    Contractors

Team writing accomplishes several goals besides just producing an SOP:

    It ensures that comprehensive knowledge acquired from different perspectives
       is applied to the SOP.
    It creates "buy- in," which increases the likelihood that the SOPs will be
       implemented under the guidance of the writers.
    It trains trainers the people who write the SOP. Having participated in in-depth
       decision making about the SOP, the writers know it intimately and are more
       likely to be effective trainers (coaches).
    It involves people from diverse parts of the operations as a whole, which helps
       ensure that when new and modified processes are implemented, someone goes
       back and updates the SOP.
    It encourages employees to follow the SOP and listen to the trainers because
       the employees know that the writers invested time and effort on behalf of the
    Writing teams do not have to sit together to write. They can write or edit parts
       of the SOP independently and then one person can combine the individual
       contributions. Once combined, circulate the draft SOP for review among the
       writers before editing a final draft for review by supervisors and subsequent
       supervised testing by employees. Ideally a writing team should meet at least
       once in the beginning of a project to establish writing objectives, targets and
       responsibilities, but then can work semi- independently with one person
       serving as coordinator.

                     In this way standards are set which make the task much easier,
such that the employees are trained as per the required standards.

    Identifying the Employee Skills and Competencies: -
                    After the Standard Operating Procedures are set then the next
stage is to identify the skills and competencies possessed by the employees who are
assigned that particular job. By this it becomes easy to know about the knowledge of
the employee and the short comes so that the employee is trained where they require
additional skill. These skills can be identified by conducting the performance analysis
of the employee or by checking the result or the contribution level. This would make
the training task much easier since only the requisite training is given instead of
training the employee in all aspects and this saves time and as well the results can be
seen very soon.

    Compare the former with the identified skills and knowledge of the Job:
                         This stage becomes very crucial because the skills and
knowledge of the job are compared with the skills and k nowledge possessed by the
employee and the deficiencies are found in the employees. The found deficiency is
then fulfilled by training the employees. This would make the task of the training
much easier because only specific training is given. This reduces the training cost and
as well as training duration.

    Know the strengths and weakness of the People: -
                       Once the skills and competencies of the employees are
identified, it becomes necessary to sort the list by means of strengths and weaknesses.
It means a kind of SWOT analysis is done to identify them. By identifying these we
can neglect the strengths and provide training for the weaknesses. This would help the
employee to know his strengths and weaknesses and as well help the organization to
provide the required training to the employee.
    Identify the Trainer: -
                     After the weaknesses are found now it becomes necessary to find
the right trainer who could train the identified employees with the best input so that
the results are maximized. A trainer is the most important part of the training program
and hence the results are based on the inputs fed by the trainer and hence very
carefully the right person should be chosen to train the employees.
    Conduct Training: -
                     Once the trainer is identified then the dates should be fixed for
the training program and it should be conducted. The trainer may use various
techniques to train the employees i.e. either by classroom method or demonstration
method or slide showing method or training the employees on the equipment and
many more techniques can be used by the trainer. In this way by following either all
the above said methods or by following any one the trainer can train the trainees.

     Implementing of the Learned Skills: -

                         Once the training is completed then comes the stage of
implementation where the employees implement their newly learnt skills at their
respective jobs. What ever the employees learnt in the training may be difficult to
implement but by following the techniques taught to them at the training they can
easily implement their skills. The implementation is done under the follow up action
of the trainer.
     Assessment Test: -
                               An Assessment test is conducted at the end to know the
knowledge gained by the employees and how far they are able to recollect the learned
material. This test would give the result of how much knowledge employee gained by
the training and what score he gained in the test and as well it helps in knowing the
performance level of the employee.
     If not Assessed then Retrain: -
                                            If at last the employee has not qualified the
test then it means that the employee has to be retrained so that he gains the required
skill. In this way assessment test helps in knowing the knowledge gained by the

                  In this way On the Job Training carries all the above steps, which
should be conducted sequentially so that the training is given successfully.

            Training - Management Information System

Training Information System (TRAINS) is envisaged to computerize most of the
training and development activities of T & DC department.
           After receiving the Annual training calendar along with course objectives,
respective departments have to nominate the employees for various programmes as
per the seat allotment on monthly basis.
        T&DC will check the level of the participants to find out his suitability for a
particular programme.

                       All the programmes are conducted every month and attendance
particulars are fed in the computer.       Every HOD has the access to Training
Information System wherein they can nominate, view and modify the proposed
nominators of his employees. HOD can also view the attendance details of his
employees as well as attendance status of his department as a whole against

Benefits of TRAINGINGS are: -

      Easy tracking of training attendance

      Provision for accommodating last minute substitution

      Correspondence is reduced

      Time for nomination finalization is reduced.

      Duplication of nomination is eliminated for the same programme.

      Availability of employee training history.
                         Training MIS Section Activities

        Training MIS Section compiles all the relevant data pertaining to training.

1.      Weekly Reports

        WAR Weekly Absenteeism Report

        Mon – Sat

2.      Monthly Report

        Previous month 4th Monday to current month 3rd Saturday.

        (a)    Report to MS Department

               -       On 10th of every month

               -       A report of number of employees trained against MOU is sent
                       to MS department.

               -       Performance linked benefit scheme (PLBS)

        (b)    Report to HRD department on training data.

               -       Details on freshers training

               -       Development programmes         }      sent on 1st

               -        Foreign training

        These details are being put up to the Directors by the HRD department along
        with the data as a Executive Information System (EIS).

        (c)    Report to section in charge (within the department)

        (d)    Monthly report on Post Training Evaluation forms send Vs received.

3.      Quarterly Reports.

        (a)    Report to Training Advisory Committee

        (b)    MOU fulfillment report to corporate planning.

4.      Annual Report

        (a)    A report to PPM department

               - Report on category wise, number of programs conducted and
               employees trained during financial year.
        (b)    Report to company affairs

               - Details mentioned at 4(a) along with other training activities are sent.

                              Technological Courses

Objectives of the Technological Studies

      Achieving improvement in component life.
      Reducing equipment down time, thereby improving availability.
      Reducing cost of space and maintenance.
      Improving quality of products and services.
      Reducing the incidents of repetitive breakdowns.

                                   Technological courses in various disciplines are
generally given to executives and non-executives according to their requirement. The
duration of the training period may be 3 to 4 days. Some of the technological courses
being conducted at T&DC, are given below.

Management of waste:
                            Training is given to reduce the waste according to the
standards of ISO-9001 for quality management, ISO-14001 for environmental
management system.

Conditioned Based Training:
                                   The main purpose of this training is to maintain the
machines in a proper way and to reduce the break down increase the life of machine
(maximum availability of equipments for use).
Energy maintenance and audit:
                                    The main purpose of this training is to utilize the
resources energy in the best appropriate manner and to reduce the cost of

Ope ration and maintenance of pollution Control Equipment:

                                     The major task behind this training is to reduce the
level of pollution to the maximum extent and to secure the health of the workers and
also provide safety measures to the society.

Industrial tribology:
                        The basic objective here is to train the technical employees
regarding the various lubricants used in the machinery, so that condition of the
machines is maintained.

Industrial hydraulics:
                          The main objective here is to: -
                            Explain the underlying principles of fluid power.
                            Identify various components of hydraulic circuits.
                            Draw fluid power circuits.
                            Identify defects in a hydraulic circuit and rectify.

Faculty Development Programme
          In this training some selected employees are trained and later they are made
as the faculty for some programmes in the future.
                                  The objectives of the Faculty Development
Programmes are as follows. The participants would be able to: -

                   Identify the factors influencing learning
                    Explain how to set learning objectives for the session
                    Plan systematically for the lecture session
                    Identify the strengths and weaknesses as a faculty
                    Know the factors for essential of conducting a session.

                        Electronics related programmes

         In T&DC there is an exclusive electronic laboratory for practical

demonstration and hands on practice on electronic training kits, which is conducted in

electronic laboratory according to the training requirement. Experiments are done in

the laboratory on the various electronic kits.

            The following are the major equipments of electronic lab:


       Relevant course materials are distributed to the participants who attend the

training programmes, which are useful for the further reference in their respective

jobs. The pre-test and post-test are conducted by T&DC Dept. for evaluating the skills

of the participants, thereby assess their learning index.

                                Vocational training


        The main aim of the vocational training in Visakha Dairy is to train the
students from educational institutions and to impact knowledge and skill pertaining to
the activities in the organization.
                    The concept of vocational training is to make the students accustomed
to the work culture of the organization. This vocational training will not only enhance
the abilities of the trainees but also inculcate organizational awareness in the minds of
the trainees.
Types of vocational training:
                                  Vocational training is mainly of two types
                                        1) Project work
                                        2) Industrial training

    1) Project work:
                The duration of this training period is 2 to 3 months and given to all

the technical personal regarding the work culture and to impart the knowledge and

skills in performing the jobs. Those entrants who are already studying in the

educational institutions mainly utilize this training and thus they can utilize their

leisure or vacation period to gain knowledge and to have a practical experience in

working environment.

   2) Industrial training:
          The duration of this training period ranges from 4 to 6 weeks and this
training is given to technical students. It allows the students to be aware of the
organizational climate. The main essence of this training period is to create awareness
among the trainees regarding prevailing industrial relations in the organizations.
                Vocational training is only for those students who are in courses like
engineering, MSc Computers, MSc (IS), MSc (IT), MCA and BCA students.

Apprenticeship training:
         Apprenticeship training is widely in vogue today in many industries.
Under this method both knowledge and as well skills in doing a job or a series of
related jobs are involved. Apprenticeship training is described in industries, which
require a constant flow of new employees expected to become all-round craft men.

           According to the apprenticeship act 1973, it is a statutory obligation on the
part of the employer to provide stipend or monitory incentives to the trainees who
undergo apprenticeship training. Basically as far as Visakha Dairy is concerned there
are 3 types of apprenticeship training that are conducted. They are

   1) Technician apprenticeship
   2) Graduate apprenticeship training
   3) Technician (vocational) training.

1) Technical apprenticeship training:

                This training is provided to all the diploma holders to acquaint
themselves with the working conditions of the organization. As per the enactment of
the apprenticeship act 1973 the trainees are paid 1400 per month as a stipend to
undergo this training. Out of this total amount, the board of apprenticeship training
south Indian channai pays 50% and rest is paid by the Visakha Dairy.
2) Graduate apprenticeship training:

                     This training is given to all the engineering graduates and makes
them to acquaint with the updated knowledge, and skills pertaining to the working
environment in. These trainees are paid Rs.1900 as stipend per month, which is
equally shared by the board of apprenticeship training and Visakha Dairy.
3) Technician (vocational) training:

                This technician (vocational) training is further divided into 2 types.
They are
                                      1) Office assistantship
                                      2) Auditing and accounting.

The trainees are provided Rs. 1090 per month according to the statutory obligations
enacted in the apprenticeship act. The main purpose of this training is acquaint the
trainees with office administrative activities and controlling mechanisms in
administrative channels such as auditing and accounting

4) Trade apprenticeship training:

           This training is given to all the ITI students. The duration of this course is
one to two years. Dividing upon the different trades. These trainees are being paid

Rs.1090 per month according to the statutory obligations enacted in the
apprenticeship act 1973.


       This training is conducted for computer awareness programme, computer
fundamentals, and MS Office for different levels of employees. The training is
basically meant for employees of steel plant, Visakhapatnam only. This training is
given from D.G.M to technician. Training is given on latest topics like Internet, e-
commerce and individual modules. Flash training programme is given in Hindi
language only. If any computer virus problems or software problems arise then the
complaint is taken to the maintenance department. Additional to these, Training is
given on Job design based on AutoCAD. Computers add design programs are also
provided to each levels of employees.

        External faculty members used to conduct these training programmes but now
the system changed by assigning this responsibility to the internal faculty members.
So at present the training programme is carried down dually by the internal faculty
and external faculty( some times when any new modified version is introduced). The
schedule of the training programme is - part time class internally for senior Executive
from 6 p.m to 8 p.m every evening for continuously for 12 days. Some times may be
one week also. They provide the training depending upon the duration of software
package or course.

       The main goal of Personnel Computer training is to provide computer
knowledge to the employees of Visakha Dairy. The organization maintains an online
information system, which is shared through the intranet facility available with all the
departments. This speeds up the gathering of the information through computer and
the employees speed up their work and design their programs.

                               Training Budget
               A budget is a plan, which is expressed in quantitative, generally in
monetary terms covering a specific period, usually 1 year. In other words, budget is a
systematic presentation of the utilization of manpower and material resources. It
represents estimates of future causes and revenues.

Budget Control:
                                  since inception performance budgeting has been
introduced. Both the financial and physical aspects are being incorporated into the
annual budget to represent the operations of the various departments in terms of
functions, activities projects and programmes etc.

Presentation of Training Budget:
                                    The responsibility for preparing the budget of each
department lies with the respective department head. Each head of the department
(HOD) prepares the performance plans or activity plans for the successive year during
the months of November and December.
                                  The budget is presented to the Board of Directors.
“The budget presentation sessions” which are organized every year during

Salient features of Training Budget :
                      The training budget, which is worked out every year, is based
on annual training plan. The training budget encompasses the following items: -
                      a) Compassion of Revenue and Expenditure over-budgeted.
                      b) Planned activities for the next financial year.
 The total training budget is allocated for the following areas:
                      a) Revenue Items
                      b) Capital Items.

 In revenues items the budget for 2004-05 was allocated for: -
       Library expenses
       Stipend to trainees
       R&M-Office equipments
       Printing and Stationary
       Telephone Expenses
       Traveling Expenses (International)
       Taxi Hire Charges
       Training Expenses (foreign)
       Training Expenses Programme
       Honorarium (Internal)
       Course Fee and Travel (External)
       Lunch and Refreshment
       Consumable and Spares
       Other Miscellaneous Expenses (Conservancy services)

                    The total budget allocated for Revenue items is around Rs.250
lakhs for the year 2004-05. In Capital Items the budget allocated for the current year
was in the following: -
      Workshop Equipment
      Equipment for electronic lab
      Library/Office Equipment and Furniture
      Audio-Visual Equipment

          The total budget allocated for capital items during 2004-05 is Rs.15 lakhs.


                          In order to find out the effectiveness of training programmes,
feedback will be obtained from the participants at 3 levels viz.

   1. Reaction level
   2. Learning level
   3. Behavior level

Reaction level and Learning level:
        At the end of the training programme, a test (post test) will be conducted to
measure the learning of the participant.
         Reaction level feed back form is filled by the participants on various aspects.
The rating of effectiveness is measured on a 5- point scale. In case, the effectiveness
is less than “3” on a 5-point scale, the programme will be reviewed to take necessary
corrective action.

                 The summary of the reaction and learning level of a particular
programme is prepared and put up to the HOD of the Training for review. The
remarks or suggestions of the participants will be projected for consideration.

                     After the participants return to their departments from the training
programme, the controlling officer has to conduct a briefing section and guide them to
implement the knowledge gained through the training programme.

                             In case of Skill Development Programmes Pre test and
Posttest are conducted to measure the learning index.

Behavior Level:
                     After 1 month of conducting the programme the post training
evaluation form (PTE forms) will be send to the HOD’s of the concerned
departments. This is designed to find out the knowledge and skill gained during the
training programme and its implementation status on the job. The HOD’s in turn get
the forms filled by the respective controlling officers and send them back to the
training department. The PTE forms are designed on a 5-point scale.

                All the data collected through PTE forms are summarized. If the
average rating is more than 3 on 5 point scale it will be assumed that the programme
is effective. In case if it is less than 3 the respective coordinators will discuss with
respective controlling officers to find out the reasons. If the controlling officers feel
that the knowledge and skill gained by the participant through the training program is
in sufficient the participant may be nominated to the same program again.

                    The consolidated summary reports on training evaluation are
being put up to the respective training advisory committees for review once in every



                                SURVEY REPORT
                         A survey was conducted to identify the effectiveness of
training based on the below given questionnaire .

Name of the Employee                   :
Designation                            :
Department                             :
Educational Qualification              :
Gende r                                :
Age                                    :
       1)       What are the methods followed for Need identification process?
                a)      Tests                   b)     Interviews
                c)      Observations            d)     All the above
       2)       Were the training programmes conducted by your organization is
                satisfied by you.
                                YES    /        NO
       3) How do you think that the training helped you?
            a) Increased Productivity b) Enhanced the skills
            c) Made job easier d) Others (please specify)

       4) Do you find that the knowledge imparted to u during training is applicable
       to your present job?
               YES / NO

       5) How do you feel your job?
                     a) Interesting             b) Challenging
                     c) Monotonous              d) Others (Please specify)

      6) Have you been briefed about the programme details before attending at
Training section of VCD?
                 YES / NO

7) After the completion of the training program, how often does the controlling officer
interact with you?
                       a) Frequently                   b)    Sometimes
                       c) No Interaction               d)    Others

8)     Do you think internal faculty/trainers are well qualified to impart Training?

                 YES / NO

9)     Is there any system to record training needs of employees?

                 YES / NO

10)    What are the methods followed to attain feed back from trainees?

       a)      Tests                  b)        Interviews
       c)      Observations           d)        Others

11)    Have you been given adequate training at the time of joining?

                 YES / NO

12)    Are you aware of different training programs that are available in Dairy?

                 YES / NO

13)    Do you think after some experience in the organization training requirement
       will become lesser?

                 YES / NO

14) Do you require further training for the present job?

                 YES / NO
        If Yes, Kindly specify the area where you face the requirement
15. What were the reasons for you to be nominated for the training course?
                       a) General policy of the company
                       b) Set by the company for the preparation of higher
                       c) By virtue of seniority you need to be trained before
                       d) Others (Please specify)

                             An analysis of the above given data has been prepared by
the views shared by the employees and the following analysis would make us clear
with the accurate information and would help us in formulating adequate suggestions.
Since the questionnaire has been given above, the respective numbers of the questions
will be used to analyse the data and as well to show the data through a pie chart
instead of repeating the questions.
        Methods                              Respondents             Percentages
A       Tests                                40                      40%
B       Interviews                           15                      15%
C       Observations                         30                      30%
D       All the above                        15                      15%

 Q 1)

                     50                                                    East
                     40                                                    West
                     30                                                    North
                          1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

        From the above diagram we can conclude by saying that more than half of the
employees take their job as challenging which depicts the competitive level present in
the organization. The other half feel that the job is interesting. And very few find their
job Monotonous.

       Q 2)

                   From the above pie chart we can see that more than half of the
employees enhance their skills through training. This shows that the training given by
the T & DC center is very useful to the employees. Some employees feel that the
training given to them increases the productivity at their shop floor. And the rest feel
that training makes their job easier.


               All most all the employees feel that training helps them in
implementing the learned knowledge at their respective work places. And very few
i.e. 5% of them feel that knowledge imparted to them is not applicable at their work.


                  Majority of the employees say that the       has a set procedure to
identify their training needs at managerial level. Very few of them disagree with this

Q. 5)

                  Most of the employees say that the set policies of the organization
make them to undergo training. And the remaining feel that it depends on their own
decision or training department itself decides to whom to choose to undergo training.


                          More than half of the employees feel that the training is
given to them, as it is the general policy of the organization to provide training to the
employees. And about 30% of the employees feel that training is given to them before
they undertake any higher responsibility.

                    Majority of the employees suggested that they are in need of
training and very few felt it not necessary at present.


                    Most of the employees say that they were briefed about the
training program before it is conducted. And some say that they are not intimated
before the training commences.

                    Around half of the employees say that their controlling officer
often interacts with them after the training is terminated. And the other say that they

interact with the controlling officer only when the need arises. And very few say that
the controlling officer do not interact with them.

        When the employees were asked about the training requirement many came
forward with their individual requisite. Based upon their views following are the
specific areas where most of them need training: -
    Sewage water treatment (WMD)
    Stores Procedures
    Electrical circuits
    Leadership skills
    Procedure of the Organization
    Role of Personnel Department
    Information Technology
    Computer training and Precision Instruments Reading
    Communication skills

        Some of the employees have given the following suggestions to the T & DC
to improve the efficiency of the training programmes: -
    Awareness of employees on duty
    Practical approach for improving managerial effectiveness
    Communication skills and time management
    New packages should be included in PC training
    Conduct Programmes out side steel plant
    Employee relation
    Provision of a good library in the plant
    Opening HRD and T & DC branches inside the plant



                              Finding from Survey:

                     After conducting the survey on training effectiveness I came to
know that the following requirements that are implemented to some extent and can be
improved further.
    Time period for the program is not sufficient and hence it should be increased.
    More of study material should be circulated.
    Faculty can be improved by bringing in professionals.
    More information is required to know the task clearly.
    Classes must be relevant to specific job.
    Pre briefing and post training discussions should be preferred to the training
    Time duration of few programmes like health education and computer classes
       should be increased.
    Department wise programs should be conducted.
    If possible training should be given at the shop floor.
    External faculty should be engaged rather than the faculty from the
       organization itself.
    Workshops and seminars should be conducted frequently.
    Language problem for non-executives.
    More of case studies should be discussed
    Incorporation of Audio Visual equipments and quality maintenance c lasses
       should be conducted for each department.
    TQM training should be given.
    Employees should be sent for industrial training to other organizations

                       Following are the suggestions, which I feel are relevant to
improve the efficiency of the .
    Total Quality training helps to achieve the highest level of effectiveness, so it
       must be implemented.
    Performance evaluation and post training evaluation is required for the
       training tobe effective.
    Pre discussion assignment should be conducted to bring active participation.
    As a part of the system once the employees are nominated for the program,
       training department must inform the HOD to advice participants controlling
       officer to give pre briefing. After completion of the training programme,
       controlling officer must check how many participants are able to implement
       the acquired knowledge in their workplace.
    The development programmes are being designed based on the need. While
       designing the programmes views of the managers and participants should be
       taken into consideration.
    There is no proper measuring tool existing in for measuring the result level of
       evaluation of training, in terms of money saving, comprising productivity etc.
       No cost benefit study has been conducted so far. Henceforth any attempt in
       this regard by will be a worthful effort.
    The internal faculty should be given effective training to improve their
       teaching skills, so that the employees grasp the knowledge easily given during
       the training.
    should try to bring about some changes in the organizational style by trying to
       follow some methods from the western world.


Srivijayavisakha District Company. Milk Producers Union Limited (Visakha
Company. Dairy) Visakhapatnam is comprising of three districts viz., Srikakulam,
Vizianagaram & Visakhapatnam. These three districts are constituted in the Northern
Part of the Coastal Andhra and considered to be the backward region for Agricultural
and Industrial Development. This Union was registered under Cooperatives Act in
1973. The Dairy was constructed with an initial capacity of 50,000 litres with an
estimated cost of Rs.1.37 crores, with the assistance from N.C.D.C. New Delhi, which
was commissioned in the year 1977. This Union is converted to Mutually Aided
Cooperative Act, 1995 with effect from 08-07-1999, and its name is changed as “Sri
Vijayavisakha District Milk Producers Mutually Aided Company Union.                   The
production and procurement started increasing year by year with more participation of
the rural farmers.
                          Success cannot be achieved sole handedly and hence it is the
hard work devotion, dedication and determination of the employees of the (VCD) that
made this organization to flourish at greater heights. The net profit of the organization
for the year 2003-2004 was nearly 1.32 crores (Provisional). This shows the
extraordinary performance of the organization.
                     This project helped me to know the working conditions, employee
training conditions and the functioning of the organization as a whole and especially
the function of the Training and Development Center (T & DC) in detail. This project
has also made me familiar with the techniques adopted by the T& DC to identify and
then train the employees in their specific areas. This study enriched my knowledge
about the organization and helped me to gain more of organizational knowledge.
                     One thing that I noticed in this study is the level of input given by
the employees at their work place. Every employee takes his job as a challenge and
performs for the betterment of the organization. This has brought glory to (VCD). The
level of motivation ion the employee is very high.

      I am very happy to say that the kind of co-operation given by the
employees during the survey was really appreciable. Even though they
were busy with their works, they were kind enough to provide me with
the best possible information.
                      Their interest depicts their encouragement towards
the students who come for the project. Employees are very encouraging
and they appreciate students and co-operate with us to complete our task
            We can say that the backbone of any organization is its
diverse work force. The statement “Unity in Diversity” is rightly
applicable in this organization. The role played by the HRD in this
organization is highly appreciable. Managing HR is quite a difficult task
in any organization, so the whole organization functions as a family and
the result is what we have seen.








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