.Ppt for Project Evaluation and Operation Management - PDF

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					 ODA Project Cycle Management
  Experience with Capacity Development

                  Daniel Svoboda
      Civic association DEVELOPMENT WORLDWIDE

                   October 2003

               Goal of the Lecture

To emphasize few topics crucial for appropriate
understanding of the Project Cycle Management
   (PCM) principles and of the Results Based
 Management (RBM) approach and for effective
 implementation of development interventions.

Practical experience based, among others, on:
 Ø UNDP & UNIDO workshops (1995-2003)
 Ø 8 rounds of PCM training (MFA, DC IIR, 2001-2002)
 Ø 3 years of PCM education (UP Olomouc, 2001-2003)
 Ø ODA projects peer review (DC IIR, MFA, 2000-2003)
 Ø IPDET training (WB & Carleton University, CIDA, 2003)

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               PCM Training Road Map

 A) Introduction to Project Theory
 B) Official Development Assistance Principles
 C) Czech Guidelines - Design & Implementation
      C1 Project Formulation Framework (MFA standard form)
      C2 Project Document (DWW proposal)
      C3 Monitoring Reports ( DC IIR proposal)
 D) Evaluation
      D1 Participatory Evaluation Form (DC IIR proposal)
 E) Practical Examples for PCM Training

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              Introduction to Project Theory
                                                                                 Country & Sector
                                                                                 Country & Sector
                                  Evaluation                  Setting
                                    report                   priorities

       (ü)             EVALUATION
                                                                   & FORMULATION

                          Final                                            Project
                         report                                           proposals

                      & MONITORING         (ü)                        APPRAISAL
                                  Work                       document
                                                FINANCING                  Project Cycle
DWW                                                                                                 4
      Design, Management and Evaluation

  TOR & training                             communication

TOR & training                                  communication

            design    implementation        impact

vision & training
                     & monitoring
                                          & PR

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          Project Theory / Logical Framework

     impact (broader goal)

s                                             goal / impact
     wider & sustainable benefits

s    outcomes (purpose)                        outcomes
     real use of the outputs

s    outputs (results)                          outputs
     products of the activities

s    activities                                 activities
     actions taken (and means)
s    inputs
     financial, human, material
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        Project Theory / Logical Framework
                                                                           and the       then the project
                                                 if assumptions         outcomes are        can bring
                                                   are fulfilled   +
                                                                          achieved       positive impacts

                                                                           then the
                        if assumptions          and the outputs
                                            +                          outcomes can be
                          are fulfilled          are produced

if assumptions         and the activities       then the outputs
  are fulfilled    +     are realized           will be produced

and inputs and             then the
  means are            activities will be
  available                realized
                                                                             “if - then”
if preconditions
   are fulfilled

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      Project Theory / Logical Framework
            Bulawayo - hospital and school for midwifes

                 Intervention           Verifiable             Sources of
                     logic              indicators             verification
                                    Lower mortality of    Comparative statistic
Goal / Impact Better health care                                study
                  Functional          Assisted births,       Health records,      Further operation
               hospital & school     number of nurses         certification           assured
                   Building         Time, expenditures,   Capability approval X   Recruitment and
                 (& personnel)         equipment ...       construction project   public awareness
                    Project                                                        Qualified local
  Activities                              Means                  Budget
               (survey, training)                                                   companies
                                                                                    Choice of
                                                                                  appropriate site

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         Glossary of Key Terms (examples)
Development goal (impact) („to contribute to …“)
    contribute to poverty for beneficiaries, which a development
 tolong-term positive effect reduction be means of supporting
   intervention contributes to (in the frame of broader programs)
                 competitiveness of the SMEs
Outcomes (purpose) („to achieve …“)
    likely or achieved short and medium-term effects - planned
     achieve active participation a the trained experts project
 to improvement in specific area asof result/consequence ofin the
               consultancy sector for realistic SMEs
    activities and outputs (considering regionalassumptions)
Outputs (products) („to produce …“)
   clearly specified products of the activities undertaken, the
 to prepare 5 trainers and 30 trained experts in the field of
   combination of which achieve the purpose of the project
 environmental management and sustainable development
   (outputs are guaranteed on the basis of provided inputs)
Activities (action) („to carry out …“)
    actions taken or work of 5 trainers in the Czech Republic
   to carry out training performed through which inputs/means
    are then 2 joint training courses in
   and transformed into specific outputs the partner country

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                     ODA Principles
Ø   Relevance - consistency of objectives with partner´s
    needs and priorities and partner´s and donor´s policies
Ø   Effectiveness - measures achievement of objectives
    and their importance and logic ("do the right things")
Ø   Efficiency - measure of productivity - how economically
    resources are converted to results ("do the things right")
Ø   Feasibility - addresses the issue whether the project
    objectives can be really achieved (quality of project)
Ø   Impacts - long-term effects produced by the project,
    positive and negative, intended and unintended
Ø   Sustainability - continuation of benefits after major
    development assistance has been completed

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          Project / Programme Design                                B
 Problem Analysis
 û identification of priority problems and target groups
 û “cause-effect” relationship

 Stakeholders Analysis
 û all influenced by or influencing the project progress and success
 û characteristics - interest and expectations - cross-cutting issues
   - potentials and deficiencies - implications for the project

 Analysis of Objectives
 û expected situation after the project, hierarchy of objectives
 û means-end relationship - negatives converted into positives

 Analysis of Strategies
 û clear criteria for making the choice of strategies
 û identification of different options
 û choice of the project strategy

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             Czech ODA Guidelines                       C
         Knowledge of the Rules and Procedures

ODA Concept 2002 - 2007 / ODA priorities
Competencies (MFA, line ministries, DC IIR)
Tenders in the frame of strategic programmes
Submitting projects outside the programmes
Project cycle timetable
Methodology (proposal form, project, reports)
Project appraisal and M&E criteria
Financing and cost-sharing
OECD/DAC principles
Other donors´ policies (EU, UN, CIDA, V4 countries …)

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               Czech ODA Guidelines                            C
      Proposal Form - Project - Monitoring - Evaluation

Proposal Form (Project Framework) - purpose:
 1) to highlight the key information and to attract „investor"
 2) to enable comparative appraisal of all project proposals
Project Document Format - purpose:
 1) to specify information necessary for project approval
Monitoring Report Format - purpose:
 1) to unify the rules for monitoring of the key indicators
 2) to emphasise the role (liability) of project management
 3) to enable external supervision and evaluation
Evaluation - purpose:
 1) to use lessons learned and streamline the procedures !!!

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      Project Formulation Framework                                                           C1
        1. Project title:                                         2. Project identification
                                                                  2a) Project No.
                                                                  2b) new / ongoing
        3. Partner country / Site:
        4. Line ministry:
        5. Budget:                           6. Project schedule (mm/ yy-mm/yy):
        a) Total:
        b) This year:
        7. Context and rationale:
        7a) Character (bilateral / multilateral, sectoral focus)
        7b) Project identification, reasons for the choice of partner country / locality
        7c) Current situation and institutional structure
        7d) Expected situation at the end of project
        7e) Target groups and beneficiaries
        7f) Comparative advantages
        7g) Risks and assumptions
        8. Goal (development objective):
        9. Outcomes (immediate objectives):
        10. Outputs:
        11. Key activities and timetable:
        12. Key budget lines:
                               INSTITUTIONAL BACKGROUND
        13. Project co-ordinator in the CR:
        13a) guarantor
        13b) implementing agency
        13c) contact person (address, phone, e-mail)
        14. Partner institution in the partner country:
        15. Other partners:
                            PLACE. DATE, NAMES, SIGNATURES
        16. Place and date of elaboration: 17. Names and signatures:
                      (MoU, letters of intent, project document, detailed budget...)

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             Project Document Format                        C2
                   CONTEXT & BACKGROUND

                      PROJECT STRATEGY

                        GOAL / IMPACT


                           OUTPUTS            ASSUMPTIONS



                     RISKS & ASSUMPTIONS

                   QUALITY & SUSTAINABILITY


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                 Monitoring Reports

A) Identification and description data
B) Monitoring of outputs and activities
C) Accountancy data

D) Review of involved experts

E) Review of material and equipment supplies
F) Review of sub-contracts and services
G) Review of training activities
H) - I) another relevant & important information
J) Participatory evaluation of results - outcomes & impacts
K) Participatory evaluation of relevance and quality

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                Project Evaluation
                    Need of Evaluation

      If you do not measure results, you can not tell
      success from failure…
      If you can not see success, you can not reward
      it and you are probably rewarding failure…
      If you can not see success, you can not learn
      from it…
      If you can not recognize failure, you can not
      correct it…
      If you can demonstrate results, you can win
      public support…

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                     Project Evaluation
                      Purpose of Evaluation

 To give information whether we are doing
 right things:                                              gies
 - substantiation of development intervention            ate
 - satisfaction of client

 To give information whether we are doing                      s
 things right:                                              ure
 - effectiveness of objectives achievement               ced
 - productivity of transforming inputs into outputs
 To give information whether some better
 ways of doing the right things can exist:
 - alternatives
 - best practices
 - lessons learned

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                  Project Evaluation                          D
SUCCESS                  Evaluation Topic

          goal / impact          ï Evaluation of impacts

           outcomes              ï Evaluation of procedures

            outputs              ï Peer review

            activities           ï Monitoring

             inputs              ï Financial audit

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                   Project Evaluation                                                D
                     Evaluation of Impacts

                                                                  good project

                  unsustainable project
                                                without project

                              bad project

A                                           B                                    C

A) start of the project
B) end of the project
C) two (five) years after project completion

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        Practical Examples for PCM Training                              E

     reconstruction                                       Enhanced
                 Reconstruction                          for tourists
                  of historical
                   buildings                               Higher
                                                         incomes for
                                  New jobs created
Bad logic:
- higher incomes correspond only to the direct bank investment
- enhanced attractiveness cannot compensate the security risks
- there are no infrastructure aspects in the project
- project does not deal with maintenance of reconstructed buildings ...

  DWW                                                                    21
       Practical Examples for PCM Training                          E

       Building new water wells

                                                    Better access
Investment                                            to water

                                         5 new

 Risky project:
 - there is no expert supervision (no knowledge of environment,
 no information on wells´ parameters, no care of water quality or
 quantity, etc.) ð the hydrogeological effects can be negative
 - no care of operation, maintenance or protection of new wells

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       Practical Examples for PCM Training                               E

      Support for the poorest families
                         Enough milk                   Better health
                         for children                   of children
   cows for
                            habits                     Better living
   one year
                          Possible calf                 conditions
                          can be kept

Negative impacts, no feasibility:
- selection of endowed families can divide the community
- a “member of family” can not be lent and then be taken away
- the project does not care of feed or stables
- possibility of keeping a calf is not related to the presence of bull
(his owner becomes the most important community member) ...

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        Fictive Example (but quite didactic)                          E

                         Project purpose:
               To get chicken across the road
                      Evaluation questions:
What is the chosen technical solution - crossing, underpass, bridge,
traffic lights, block and tackle, balloon, catapult or flight training?
How effective is the solution (finance, time or humanity issues)?
How relevant is the solution - does it care of target group needs
and priorities - e.g. can chicken wait to see the results?
What are the infrastructure conditions on the other side of the
road - enough space, care, security, water, feed?
Can the conditions on the other side be better than before or
better than for a comparative group that stays?
And why the chicken want to cross the road - what about better
strategy for answering their needs and priorities?
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                    Civic Association
      for International Development Co-operation
      DWW, Ciklova 7, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic
        phone/fax: (+420) 222 513 123, 222 513 971
           E-mail: development-ww@volny.cz

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