Robotics - PowerPoint by sowdhamanikamalakann

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									A Technical Paper Presentation On Robotics

The Word Robot may bring to your mind a pictures of this….

Or May BE this….

But a Robot Need To BE A Machine Resembling Human…

Instead It can as simple as This…

Humanoids & (AI)Artificial Intelligence Are all the final outcomes of Robotics To talk about them now will be to Early…..

So let us Start with Some Basic
Right From Ground ZERO

The Three Laws of Robotics
• A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. • A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

A Brief History of Robotics
• The word robot introduced by Czech playwright Karle Capek: robots are machines which resemble people but work tirelessly. • His view is still to be fulfill!

Best soccer player ever

Best robot player ever

PUMA

SCARA

Two famous robots: Puma. (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly). ‘78. SCARA. (Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Assembly). ‘79.

Classification of Robots II AFR
• Type A: Handling Devices with manual control • Type B: Automatic Handling Devices with predetermined cycles

• Type C: Programmable, servo controlled robots
• Type D: Type C with interactive with the environment

AFR: The Association Française de Robotique

The Origins of Robots
Year: 1250 Bishop Albertus Magnus holds banquet at which guests were served by metal attendants. Upon seeing this, Saint Thomas Aquinas smashed the attendants to bits and called the bishop a sorcerer.

Year:1640 Descartes builds a female automaton which he calls “Ma fille Francine.” She accompanied Descartes on a voyage and was thrown overboard by the captain, who thought she was the work of Satan.

The Origins of Robots
Year : 1738 Jacques de Vaucanson builds a mechanical duck made of more that 4,000 parts. The duck could quack, bathe, drink water, eat grain, digest it and void it. Whereabouts of the duck are unknown today.

Year: 1805 Doll, made by Maillardet, that wrote in either French or English and could draw landscapes.

The Origins of Robots
Year:1940 Sparko, the Westinghouse dog, uses both mechanical and electrical components

Year:1960 Industrial Robots created. Robotic Industries Association states that an “industrial robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions to perform a variety of tasks.

The Origins of Robots

Year:1960 Shakey is made at Stanford Research Institute International. It contained a television camera, range finder, on-board logic, bump sensors, camera control unit, and an antenna for a radio link. Shakey was controlled by a computer in a different room.

Combining these fields we can create a system that can

SENCE

PLAN ACT

In this Presentation we will study many aspects of robotics.

1. General Robot Structures 2. General Definitions 3. Sensors and Sensor Planning 4. Actuators 5. Vision 6. Artificial Intelligence 7. Motion Planning 8. Mobile Robot 9. Forward Kinematics 10. Inverse Kinematics

General Robot Structures
An Robot normally constitutes of: – A sequence of mechanical bodies called LINKS. – Prismatic or revolute JOINTS connecting links. – ACTUATORS to move these joints. – SENSORS • To measure status of robot • To measure status of environment – A programmable CONTROL system. – A SUPERVISION system.

General Definition Robot
Look at a Venn diagram of Mechanical Electrical Hardware Software Control Systems. Robotics is the overlapping area at the center of the three

Sensor & Sensor Planning
S e n s in g P la n n in g A c tin g

in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e e n v iro n m e n t w h e re is th e tru c k ?

a c tio n o n th e e n v iro n m e n t

w h ere sh o u ld I d ig ?

What is Sensing ?
•
•

Collect information about the world
Sensor - an electrical/mechanical/chemical device that maps an environmental attribute to a quantitative measurement – attribute mixtures - often no one to one map – hidden state in environment Each sensor is based on a transduction principle - conversion of energy from one form to another Also known as transducers

• •

Types Of Sensor

• Active
– send signal into environment and measure interaction of signal w/ environment – e.g. radar, sonar

• Passive
– record signals already present in environment – e.g. video cameras

Sensing for specific tasks

W h ere is th e face?

Actuator Is An
Hydraulic Cylinder Actuators
• A mechanical device for moving or controlling something • Electric Motors and Drives

• Hydraulic Drives
• Pneumatic Drives • Internal Combustion hybrids

Electro-hydraulic System Example

Robot vision in social settings
• Humans (and robots) recover information about objects from the light they reflect • Human head and eye movements give clues to attention and motivation • In a social context, people constantly read each other’s actions for these clues • Anthropomorphic robots can partake in this implicit communication, giving smooth and intuitive interaction

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is the study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act.”

Ability to think and learn. The ability to learn facts and skills and apply them, especially when this ability is highly developed.

Motion Planning
•Motion planning is aimed at enabling robots with the capabilities of automatically deciding and executing a sequence of motions in order to achieve a task without collision with other objects in a given environment. • Basic Problem: Static obstacles • Extended Problems: Moving obstacles, Multiple robots, Dynamic Constraints, Planning with uncertainties, and etc.

Areas involve Robot Motion planning
• Mars Exploration Rovers: – Robot geologists – Vision System • 2 panoramic cams • 2 navigation cams • 4 hazard avoidance cams – Brain: laptop computer inside the Rovers Electronics Module

Mobile Robot

• “Mobile” means not stay-put at one place • Mobile + Robot = Robot that is not stay-put at one place….thus Mobile Robot can move around in much larger workspace, seeing, touching, transporting, manipulating things in various location

Mobile Robot Applications
Construction
Security

Personal affair
Material Handling

Entertainment
Landmines detection

Manipulator kinematics
Type of joints • Frame assignments • Link connection description

• Link transformations
• Actuator space

What do we mean by “Intelligence”?
• Open question: where intelligence begins

and ends • Intelligence (our working definition): the ability to improve an animal or human’s likelihood of survival within the real world, and, where appropriate, to compete or cooperate successfully with other agents to do so.

Summary of Robot Behavior
• Presence of stimulus is necessary, but not sufficient, to evoke a motor response. Only when stimulus exceeds a threshold does it produce a response. • A strength multiplier, or gain g, can be used to turn off behaviors or alter the response’s relative strength. • Responses are encoded in two forms: – –Discrete encoding: Rule-based methods often used – –Continuous functional encoding: inverse square law often used

Advantages of Robots
• Robotics and automation can, in many situation, increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products • Robots can work in hazardous environments • Robots need no environmental comfort • Robots work continuously without any humanity needs and illnesses • Robots have reputable precision at all times • Robots can be much more accurate than humans, they may have mile or micro inch accuracy. • Robots and their sensors can have capabilities beyond that of humans • Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously, humans can only one. • Robots replace human workers who can create economic problems

Disadvantages of Robots
• Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies, this can cause: – Inappropriate and wrong responses – A lack of decision-making power – A loss of power – Damage to the robot and other devices – Human injuries • Robots may have limited capabilities in – Degrees of Freedom – Dexterity – Sensors – Vision systems – Real-time Response • Robots are costly, due to – Initial cost of equipment – Installation Costs – Need for peripherals – Need for training – Need for Programming

Possible Robot Coordinate Frames

New Directions
• Entertainment / social robots • Humanoid robots • Swarm / distributed robots • New robot locomotion mechanisms • Application-specific robotics • Medical robots • Telemedicine

Discussion of Ethics and Philosophy in Robotics
•Can robots become conscious? •Is there a problem with using robots in military applications? •How can we ensure that robots do not harm people?


								
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