AWMA IA Chapter GHG Presentation _Jim Powell_

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AWMA IA Chapter GHG Presentation _Jim Powell_ Powered By Docstoc
					Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Status of U.S. Initiatives
Air & Waste Management Association
Iowa Chapter Meeting November 13 2007 13,

Topics to be Covered

Greenhouse Gases Climate Change What’s going on in USA Estimation Methods

Greenhouse Effect
• Solar energy penetrates the • •
Earth’s atmosphere Most of the energy is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and reemitted as infrared radiation Greenhouse gases absorb and g re-emit some of this radiation, warming the Earth’s surface and the lower atmosphere

Principal Greenhouse Gases & Relative Potency for Climate Change
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 1
– From decay of organic matter and fossil fuel combustion

• Methane (CH4): 23
– Decay of organic matter in the absence of oxygen

• Nitrous oxide (NOX): 310
– Nitrogen fertilizers, nylon production, fossil fuel combustion

• Halocarbons
– – – (HFCs): 6,500 - 9,200 PFCs 140-12,1000 SFC: 23,900

Greenhouse Gas Contributors
4.5% 17.4%





NB – from baseline 1990 emissions numbers generated from Kyoto. Only included industrialized countries (China etc. excluded) 2.3% 2 3%

Recent Findings of United Nations (% increase 1990 to 2003)

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Contributions by Source Type

What the United States is Up To
• U.S. is not a signatory to Kyoto treaty g y y y • Bush Administration emphasizing partnership with • • • •
business rather than setting prescriptive emission reductions U.S. EPA is promoting voluntary program (“Climate Leaders”) for US Industries to establish non-binding targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions t t t d h i i Private Initiatives (e.g., Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)) State Greenhouse Gas Registries Regulations on GHG Emissions
"We have no interest in implementing that treaty," Christie Todd Whitman, Administrator of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

US Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity
• February 2002 Presidential

• R d Reduce th greenhouse gas the h
emission intensity of the American economy by 18 percent by 2012

• This will prevent more than
500 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent carbon equivalent emissions through 2012,

• Equivalent of taking 70
million cars off the road

Current US Government Initiatives
• Post-Kyoto Framework on • • • •
Energy Security and Climate Change Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Intensity Unequaled I U l d Investments i t t in Science and Technology Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) P Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) – $3B i l in last 3 yr

Private Greenhouse Gas Reduction Initiatives
• Climate VISION Partnership
– 12 major industrial sectors – El t i l utilities Electrical tiliti – Petroleum refiners – Forest/Paper producers – Railroads Climate Leaders – Commitments to prevent 125 billion pounds of CO2 emissions (equivalent to emissions from 3 million automobiles in a year) – 143 Major Companies


U.S. U S EPA Climate Leaders Partners
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
3M Advanced Mi Ad d Micro D i Devices, I Inc. Alcan Aluminum Corp Alcoa Inc. American Electric Power Ball Corporation Baltimore Aircoil Company p y Bank of America Baxter International Inc. BP plc Calpine Corporation Casella Waste Systems, Inc. Caterpillar Inc Inc. Cinergy Corporation

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The Collins Companies Eastman K d k C E Kodak Company Exelon Corporation Fetzer Vineyards First Environment, Inc. FPL Group, Inc. Frito-Lay y Gap Inc. General Motors Hasbro Holcim (US) Inc. IBM Corporation Interface, Inc. Interface Inc International Paper

U.S. EPA Climate Leaders Partners
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Johnson & Johnson Lafarge North America Inc Inc. Lockheed Martin Miller Brewing Company National R N ti l Renewable E bl Energy Laboratory Nisource Inc. Norm Th N Thompson O tfitt Outfitters Pfizer Inc. Polaroid Corp Praxair, Inc PSEG Raytheon y Roche Group US

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

SC Johnson & Son, Inc Shaklee Corp St. Lawrence Cement STMicroelectronics Staples Inc. Sun Microsystems Target Corporation Tenneco Automotive Unilever HPC UTC U.S. Steel Corp WE Energies g Xerox Corporation

Proposed Guidelines for Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

• DOE proposed guidelines • EPACT 1992 • Improve accuracy and verifiability of GHG
emissions • Recognition of those who register emission reductions

Private Initiatives for Voluntary GHG Reductions
• • • • • • •
The Climate Registry Chicago Climate Exchange Clean Air – C l Pl Cl Ai Cool Planet t Climate Neutral Network The Climate Trust (Oregon) ( g ) Environmental Resources Trust International Council on Local Environmental Issues (ICLEI) • NESCAUM Early Action Demonstration Project • The Pew Center on Global Climate Change • World Business Council for Sustainable Development

The Climate Registry
• Provides:
– an accurate, complete, consistent, transparent and verified set of g greenhouse g emissions data gas – from reporting entities, supported by a robust accounting and verification infrastructure.

• Governor Culver signed Iowa onto The Climate Registry
on J l 5 2007 July 5, 2007. • 39 of the United States, 2 Canadian provinces, and 1 Mexican state have joined The Climate Registry. • Draft protocols out for public comment on October 19, 2007.

Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
• Developed in conjunction with the
Chicago Board of Trade

• Members agree to cap GHG emissions
and reduce those emissions by 2006

• Structured GHG emissions banking
and trading exchange established g g

• Members include: American Electric
Power (AEP), Ford, International Paper ( ), (IP), Waste Management, and 12 other g , companies

• International trades restricted due to
p U.S. position

“…investments in improving energy efficiency and in developing new renewable energy sources can just about enable the U.S. to meet the Kyoto targets while reducing other harmful emissions by 90 percent… percent ” David Lochbaum, Union of Concerned Scientists

State Greenhouse Gas Registries
• States with registries under development
– – – – – – California Illinois Maine Maryland New Hampshire New Jersey – – – – – New York Oregon Texas Washington Wisconsin

• Purpose of registries
– Encourage voluntary reductions in GHG emissions – Establish a baseline against which to measure any future GHG emission reduction requirements – Generate emission reduction credits

Iowa GHG Legislation
• Senate File 485, passed in 2007, requires DNR to include
estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in its construction permitting and emissions inventory programs programs.

• Defines Greenhouse Gas (GHG) as carbon dioxide (CO2),
methane (CH4) nitrous oxide (N2O) hydrofluorocarbons, ), O), hydrofluorocarbons perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

Future Inventory Plans
Goal: Add to and improve the inventory each year:

• Bottom-up F-gas (HFC, PFC, and SF6) inventory • Additional specific source categories such as landfills and
wastewater treatment plants

• Add all minor sources • Report on emission unit level? • Add data reported to The Climate Registry

Future GHG Regulations (Court Case)
• In October 11 states filed suit in the U S Court of Appeals October, U.S.Court
for the District of Columbia to force the EPA to regulate GHG emissions including CO2 • EPA maintains that the do not ha e the a thorit from they have authority Congress to regulate GHGs • States involved include:
– – – – – – Connecticut Illinois Maine Massachusetts New Jersey New Mexico – – – – – New York Oregon Rhode Island Vermont Washington

What s What’s Ahead?
• Uncertainty for Stakeholders
– – – – – Change in Administration policy International pressure to conform Impact on capital expansion decisions Verification of emission reductions Viability and credibility of open trading markets

• Different processes and standards across globe
– International conformity – Recognition of efficacy of emission reduction measures

• Change will occur
– Regardless of country or agreements, changes will occur – Businesses need to monitor new developments

GHG Estimation: Organization
• Choosing Organizational Boundaries • Developing an Inventory Management Plan
– – – – – Discovered that many of its Facilities Groups were already heavily engaged in implementing energy conservation projects; Identified the key personnel responsible for managing facilities data related to GHG sources at EMC properties; Verified site utility accounts and made necessary changes; y y g Evaluated electricity consumption of Data Centers and lab space verses office and manufacturing space; and Improved organization and tracking of data for each GHG emission source.

• Inventory Management as a Dynamic Process • Setting a GHG Reduction Target • Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects

Hierarchy of GHG Estimation Methods
1. Monitoring and Direct Measurement
– – – – – – – – – – Utilities Ethanol Plants Portland Cement SF6 HFC/PFC CO2 NOx CH4 Last Resort Processes where no published guidelines are available

2. Mass Balance 3. Emission Factors

4. Engineering Estimates

Estimation Methods
• Greenhouse Gas Protocol
– World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) – W ld R World Resources I tit t (WRI) Institute

• National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
– Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

• • • •

EPA Emission Inventory Improvement Program Gas Technology Institute, GRI-GHGCalc IA DNR ISO

Effective GHG Estimation Standard
• • • • • •
Technically sound Widely applicable, flexible Affordable Compatible with major schemes/regimes Compatible with other standards Widely recognized

GHG Protocol
• Convened in 1998 by World Business Council for
Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and World Resources I tit t (WRI) R Institute
– Mission: to develop international GHG accounting and reporting standards for business through an inclusive and transparent multi-stakeholder process – 350+ stakeholders (incl. Businesses, NGOs governments and inter (incl Businesses NGOs, intergovernment organizations) contributed to and reviewed the corporate inventory standard

• 2 modules: corporate inventories & GHG projects p p j
– Corporate standard published in 2001, tested by 30+ companies in 9 countries, peer reviewed – Second edition scheduled for release in mid-2003 – The project module is currently road-tested

GHG Root Data Source
• • • •
Numerous sources Different unit conventions HHV cite EIA Specifically addresses emissions from CHP

• Combustion Products
– Equipment
• References AP-42 (1995) AP 42

– Fuel Based
• International Energy Institute (IEA) Statistics

• Non-Combustion
– Broad range of emission factors – Citing
• CAPP (1999) • EPA (1999) • GRI (1996)

• Energy data expressed in net calorific values
– HHV converted from LHV

IPCC Limitations
• Equipment based combustion sources outdated • Vented/fugitive emission factors are not source specific
– Reported in terms of overall processes or operations

IPCC Decision Tree

• Fuel based combustion
– EIA (1996) – EPA AP-42 (1995) AP 42

• Non-combustion source
– – – – IPCC (1997) GRI/EPA (1996) Broad operational factors Not source specific

• Provides three calculation
– Vary in level of input data required

• Combustion Sources
– – – EPA AP-42 (1999) DOE (1997) Neitzert (1999)

• Non-Combustion Sources
– GRI/EPA Methane Study (1996)

Protocol Comparisons: Large Complex Refinery

Iowa DNR
• Iowa Code 455B.131 (2007) • Estimates for GHG in •
construction permits Voluntary GHG Registry
– – Tracking Crediting Iowa companies that
• • Reduce their emissions Provide increased energy efficiency

• Mandatory GHG Registry
– – Title V Facilities Ethanol Plants

• Emission Estimate Tools
– – – Stationary Combustion based on IPCC Mineral Products, EIPP Ethanol, California Climate Action Registry

Fossil Fuel Stationary Sources

Estimation Example: Fossil Fuels
Calculate CO2 emissions from an industrial natural gas boiler that burned 26,250 MMBtu of natural gas in a given year 26,250 MMBtu nat. gas 116.38 lbs CO2 MMBtu nat gas nat.gas 1 ton CO2 2000 lbs

=1,527,49 ton CO2

Select Industries Estimations
• • • • • •
Mineral Products Chemical Industry Metal Production Landfill Pulp and Paper Municipal Solid waste combustion

• Wastewater treatment

Emission Estimates for HFC/PFC/SF6
• Calculations based on mass balance
Base Inventory + Purchases + Change to Total Fuel Charge of Equipment - Sales Emissions/Year

HFC Example Calc
• Calculate the HFC emissions form a 1000 ton Commercial Chiller
Using HFC-23

• R i dI f Required Information ti
– – – – – Type and quantities of air conditioning equipment Total refrigerant discharge Annual leak rates Types of refrigerants MSDS of refrigerants

HFC Mass Balance
HFC-23 HFC 23 In Process (lbs) Running Total HFC (lbs)

Beginning of Year Inventory End of Year Inventory Purchases (including HFC-23 provided by equipment mfr with or inside new equipment) Amount returned to the site after offsite recycling Amount returned to supplier Amount taken from storage and/or disposed of Amount taken from storage and/or equipment and sent offsite for recycling/reclamation Difference between total full charge of new equipment vs. total full charge of retiring i t t t l f ll h f ti i equipment Total HFC-23 emissions

+1800 -1780 1780 +440 0 -0 -0 -120 +45

1800 20 460 460 460 460 340 385


ISO 14064-2006
• ISO 14064-1:2006
– specifies principles and requirements at the organization q g level

• ISO 14064-2:2006
– specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance at the project level

• ISO 14064-3:2006
– specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance for those conducting or managing the validation and/or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions.

ISO 14065:2007
• ISO 14065:2007 specifies principles and
requirements for bodies that undertake validation or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions.

• It is GHG program neutral. If a GHG program is
applicable, applicable the requirements of that GHG program are additional to the requirements of ISO 14065:2007.

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