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ASEAN

ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN ??????? (Chinese) Perhimpunan Bangsa-bangsa Asia Tenggara (Indonesian) ???????????????????????????? (Khmer) ????????????????????????????????????? (Lao) Persatuan Negara-negara Asia Tenggara (Malay) Kapisanan ng mga Bansa sa TimogSilangang Asya (Tagalog) ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? (Tamil) ???????????????????????????????????????? (Thai) Hiệp hội các quốc gia Đông Nam Á (Vietnamese) Demonym Member states Southeast Asian 10 Brunei Burma (Myanmar) Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Government Secretary General Regional organization Surin Pitsuwan

Formation Bangkok Declaration Charter
Flag

8 August 1967 16 December 2008 4,464,322 km2 2,772,344 sq mi 577 million 129/km2 208/sq mi 2007 estimate US$ 3,431.2 billion US$ 5,962 2008 estimate US$ 1,505.7 billion $2,609 ▲ 0.742 (medium) (100th¹) 10 Brunei dollar Cambodian riel Indonesian rupiah Lao kip Malaysian ringgit Myanma kyat Philippine peso Singaporean dollar Thai baht Vietnamese dong

Motto: "One Vision, One Identity, One
Community""10 countries, 1 identity"

Area Total Population 2008 estimate Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita HDI (2007) Currency

Anthem: "The ASEAN Way"

Seat of Secretariat Largest city Working language

Jakarta Jakarta English English Malay Burmese Chinese (Mandarin) Filipino Indonesian Khmer Lao Tamil Thai Vietnamese

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Time zone Internet TLD ASEAN (UTC+9 to +6:30) 10 .bn .kh .id .la .my .mm .ph .sg .th .vi Website http://www.asean.org/ Calling code 10 +673 +855 +62 +856 +60 +95 +63 +65 +66 +84
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Nominal GDP had grown to USD $1.4 trillion in 2008.

History

██ ASEAN full members ██ ASEAN observers ██ ASEAN candidate members ██ ASEAN Plus Three ███ East Asia Summit █████ ASEAN Regional Forum See also: List of ASEAN member states ASEAN was preceded by an organization called the Association of Southeast Asia, commonly called ASA, an alliance consisting of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand that was formed in 1961. The bloc itself, however, was established on 8 August 1967, when foreign ministers of five countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand – met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration, more commonly known as the Bangkok Declaration. The five foreign ministers – Adam Malik of Indonesia, Narciso Ramos of the Philippines, Abdul Razak of Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat Khoman of Thailand – are considered as the organization’s Founding Fathers.[7] The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were the desire for a stable external environment (so that its members’ governing elite could concentrate on nation building), the common fear of communism, reduced faith in or mistrust of external powers in the 1960s, as well as the aspiration for national economic development; not to mention Indonesia’s ambition to become a regional hegemon through regional cooperation and the hope on the part of Malaysia and Singapore to constrain Indonesia and bring it into a more cooperative framework. Unlike the European Union, ASEAN was designed to serve nationalism.[8] In 1976, the Melanesian state of Papua New Guinea was accorded observer status.[9]

If considered as a single entity. Selected key basic ASEAN indicators Annual growth 1.6%

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations,[1] commonly abbreviated ASEAN (generally pronounced /ˈɑːsi.ɑːn/ AH-seeahn,[2] occasionally /ˈɑːzi.ɑːn/ AH-zee-ahn[3] in English, the official language of the bloc),[4] is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[5] Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, the protection of the peace and stability of the region, and to provide opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully.[6] In 2005, the bloc spanned over 9 acres (4,500,000 km2) with a com1.1×10 bined GDP (Nominal/PPP) of about USD$896.5 billion/$2,728 billion growing at an average rate of around 5.6% per annum.

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Throughout the 1970s, the organization embarked on a program of economic cooperation, following the Bali Summit of 1976. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. The bloc then grew when Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member after it joined on 8 January 1984, barely a week after the country became independent on 1 January.[10] On 28 July 1995, Vietnam became the seventh member. Laos and Burma (Myanmar) joined two years later in 23 July 1997.[11] Cambodia was to have joined together with Laos and Myanmar, but was deferred due to the country’s internal political struggle. The country later joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilization of its government.[11] During the 1990s, the bloc experienced an increase in both membership as well as in the drive for further integration. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus[12] composing the thenmembers of ASEAN as well as the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing influence of the United States in the APEC as well as in the Asian region as a whole.[13][14] This proposal, however, failed since it faced heavy opposition from Japan and the United States.[13][15] Despite this failure, member states continued to work for further integration. In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as the +3 countries (China, Japan, and South Korea).[16] Aside from improving each member state’s economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on 28 March 1997 after all but one of the member states have ratified it. It became fully effective on 21

ASEAN
June 2001, after the Philippines ratified it, effectively banning all nuclear weapons in the region.[17]

Satellite image of the 2006 haze over Borneo At the turn of the 21st century, issues shifted to involve a more environmental prospective. The organization started to discuss environmental agreements. These included the signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to control haze pollution in Southeast Asia.[18] Unfortunately, this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze. Other environmental treaties introduced by the organization include the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security,[19] the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network in 2005,[20] and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, both of which are responses to Global Warming and the negative effects of climate change. Through the Bali Concord II in 2003, ASEAN has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace, which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also, the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to.[21] The leaders of each country, particularly Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia, also felt the need to further integrate the region. Beginning in 1997, the bloc began creating organizations within its framework with the intention of achieving this goal. ASEAN Plus Three was the first of these and was created to improve existing ties with the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. This was followed by the even larger East Asia

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Summit, which included these countries as well as India, Australia, and New Zealand. This new grouping acted as a prerequisite for the planned East Asia Community, which was supposedly patterned after the now-defunct European Community. The ASEAN Eminent Persons Group was created to study the possible successes and failures of this policy as well as the possibility of drafting an ASEAN Charter. In 2006, ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly.[22] As a response, the organization awarded the status of "dialogue partner" to the United Nations.[23] Furthermore, on 23 July that year, José Ramos-Horta, then Prime Minister of East Timor, signed a formal request for membership and expected the accession process to last at least five years before the then-observer state became a full member.[24][25] In 2007, ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its inception, and 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States.[26] On 26 August 2007, ASEAN stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015.[27][28] In November 2007 the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal entity. During the same year, the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security in Cebu on 15 January 2007, by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS (Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea), which promotes energy security by finding energy alternatives to conventional fuels. On February 27, 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with the ASEAN regional block of 10 countries and New Zealand and its close partner Australia was signed, it is estimated that this FTA would boost aggregate GDP across the 12 countries by more than US$48 billion over the period 2000-2020.[29][30]

ASEAN
the knowledge that neighbors would refrain from interfering in their domestic affairs. Territorially small members such as Singapore and Brunei were consciously fearful of force and coercive measures from much bigger neighbors like Indonesia and Malaysia. As a result, non-interference, consensus, nonuse of force and non-confrontation became the key principles of the organization. On the surface, the process of consultations and consensus is supposed to be a democratic approach to decision making, but the ASEAN process has been managed through close interpersonal contacts among the top leaders only, who often share a reluctance to institutionalize and legalize cooperation which can undermine their regime’s control over the conduct of regional co-operation. All of these features, namely non-interference, informality, minimal institutionalization, consultation and consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation have constituted what is called the ASEAN Way. Since the late 1990s, many scholars have argued that the principle of non-interference has blunted ASEAN efforts in handling the problem of Myanmar, human rights abuses and haze pollution in the region. Meanwhile, with the consensus-based approach, every member in fact has a veto and decisions are usually reduced to the lowest common denominator. There has been a widespread belief that ASEAN members should have a less rigid view on these two cardinal principles when they wish to be seen as a cohesive and relevant community.

Policies
Apart from consultations and consensus, ASEAN’s agenda-setting and decision-making processes can be usefully understood in terms of the so-called Track I and Track II. Track I refers to the practice of diplomacy among government channels. The participants stand as representatives of their respective states and reflect the official positions of their governments during negotiations and discussions. All official decisions are made in Track I. Track II on the other hand refers to diplomatic activities that are unofficial and includes participants from both government and non-government institutions such as the academic, economic communities and NGOs. This track enables governments

The ASEAN way
In the 1960s, the push for decolonization promoted the sovereignty of Indonesia and Malaysia among others. Since nation building is often messy and vulnerable to foreign intervention, the governing elite wanted to be free to implement independent policies with

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to discuss controversial issues and test new ideas without making official statements or binding commitments, and, if necessary, backtrack on positions. Although Track II dialogues are sometimes cited as examples of the involvement of civil society in regional decision-making process by governments and other second track actors, NGOs have rarely got access to this track, meanwhile participants from the academic community are a dozen think-tanks. However, these think-tanks are, in most cases, very much linked to their respective governments, and dependent on government funding for their academic and policy-relevant activities. Their recommendations, especially in economic integration, are often closer to ASEAN’s decisions than the rest of civil society’s positions. The track that acts as a forum for civil society in Southeast Asia is called Track III, which is essentially people-to-people diplomacy undertaken mainly by CSOs. Track III networks claim to represent communities and people who are largely marginalised from political power centers and unable to achieve positive change without outside assistance. This track tries to influence government policies indirectly by lobbying, generating pressure through the media. Third-track actors also organise and/or attend meetings as well as conferences to get access to Track I officials. While Track II meetings and interactions with Track I actors have increased and intensified, rarely has the rest of civil society had the opportunity to interface with Track II. Those with Track I have been even rarer. In other words, the participation of the big majority of CSOs has been excluded from ASEAN’s agenda-setting and decisionmaking. Looking at the three tracks, it is clear that until now, ASEAN has been run by government officials who, as far as ASEAN matters are concerned, are accountable only to their governments and not the people. In a lecture on the occasion of ASEAN’s 38th anniversary, the incumbent Indonesian President Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono admitted: “All the decisions about treaties and free trade areas, about declarations and plans of action, are made by Heads of Government, ministers and senior officials. And the fact that among the masses, there is little knowledge, let alone appreciation, of the large

ASEAN
initiatives that ASEAN is taking on their behalf.”

Meetings
ASEAN Summit
The organization holds meetings, known as the ASEAN Summit, where heads of government of each member meet to discuss and resolve regional issues, as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc with the intention of promoting external relations. The ASEAN Leaders’ Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. Its third meeting was held in Manila in 1987 and during this meeting, it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years.[31] Consequently, the fourth meeting was held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently, deciding to hold the summit every three years.[31] In 2001, it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Myanmar which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the European Union.[32] By December 2008, the ASEAN Charter came into force and with it, the ASEAN Summit will be held twice in a year. The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows: • Leaders of member states would hold an internal organization meeting. • Leaders of member states would hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum. • A meeting, known as ASEAN Plus Three, is set for leaders of three Dialogue Partners (People’s Republic of China, Japan, South Korea) • A separate meeting, known as ASEANCER, is set for another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia, New Zealand). During the fifth Summit in Bangkok, the leaders decided to meet "informally" between each formal summit:[31]

East Asia Summit

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ASEAN Formal Summits Date 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th3 15th
1 2

ASEAN

Country Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Philippines2 Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Host Bali Kuala Lumpur Manila Singapore Bangkok Hanoi Bandar Seri Begawan Phnom Penh Bali Vientiane Kuala Lumpur Cebu Singapore Cha Am, Hua Hin Pattaya

23‒24 February, 1976 4‒5 August, 1977 14‒15 December, 1987 27‒29 January, 1992 14‒15 December, 1995 15‒16 December, 1998 5‒6 November, 2001 4‒5 November, 2002 7‒8 October, 2003 29‒30 November, 2004 12‒14 December, 2005 11‒14 January, 20071 18‒22 November, 2007 27 February - 1 March, 2009 10-11 April 2009 2009

Postponed from 10‒14 December, 2006 due to Typhoon Seniang.

hosted the summit because Myanmar backed out due to enormous pressure from US and EU
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This summit consisted of two parts. The first part was moved from 12‒17 December, 2008 due to the 2008 Thai political crisis. The second part was aborted on April 11 due to protesters entering the summit venue. ASEAN Informal Summits Date 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 30 November 1996 14‒16 December, 1997 27‒28 November, 1999 22‒25 November, 2000 Country Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Host Jakarta Kuala Lumpur Manila Singapore

Participants of the East Asia Summit: ASEAN ASEAN Plus Three Additional members Observer The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asian forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with

ASEAN in a leadership position. The summit has discussed issues including trade, energy and security and the summit has a role in regional community building. The members of the summit are all 10 members of ASEAN together with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand who combined represent almost half of the world’s population. Russia has applied for membership of the summit and in 2005 was a guest for the First EAS at the invitation of the host - Malaysia.[33] The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on 14 December 2005 and subsequent

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Meeting Country First EAS Second EAS Third EAS Malaysia Location Date Kuala Lumpur Note

ASEAN

14 Russia attended as a guest. December 2005 Rescheduled from 13 December 2006. Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security

Philippines Singapore

Cebu City 15 January 2007

Singapore 21 Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, EnNovember ergy and the Environment[34] 2007 Agreed to establish Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia TBC TBC The Summit was scheduled to be hosted by Thailand. The date and location of the venue was rescheduled several times, and then a Summit scheduled for 12 April 2009 at Pattaya, Thailand was cancelled when protesters stormed the venue. A revised date and location is to be confirmed. Note

Fourth EAS

TBC

Meeting

Host

Location Date

ASEAN-Japan Tokyo Commemorative Japan Summit

11, 12 The ASEAN-Japan Commemorative Summit December was the first ASEAN summit held between 2003 ASEAN and a non-ASEAN country outside the region. To celebrate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of relationship between ASEAN and China To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of relationship between ASEAN and Republic of Korea

ASEAN-China Nanning 30, 31 Commemorative China October Summit 2006 ASEAN-KOREA Jeju-do Commemorative South Summit Korea 1, 2 June 2009

meetings have been held after the annual ASEAN Leaders’ Meeting.

Commemorative Summit
The Commemorative Summit is a meeting hosted by a country to strenghthen the relationship with ASEAN countries. It is usually held to celebrate a special occasion like the anniversary of the establishment of relationship. A non-ASEAN country invites the Heads of Government/State of ASEAN member countries and discuss how they get closer and cooperate in the future.

██ ASEAN full members ██ ASEAN observers ██ ASEAN candidate members ██ ASEAN Plus Three ███ East Asia Summit ██████ ASEAN Regional Forum first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: all the ASEAN members, Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the People’s Republic of China, the European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Timor-Leste, United States and Sri Lanka.[36] The Republic of

Regional Forum
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a formal, official, multilateral dialogue in Asia Pacific region. As of July 2007, it is consisted of 27 participants. ARF objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation, and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the region.[35] The ARF met for the

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China (also known as Taiwan) has been excluded since the establishment of the ARF, and issues regarding the Taiwan Strait is neither discussed at the ARF meetings nor stated in the ARF Chairman’s Statements.

ASEAN

Free Trade Area
The foundation of the AEC is the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), a common external preferential tariff scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN.[44] The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN concerning local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore.[45] When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999. The latecomers have not fully met the AFTA’s obligations, but they are officially considered part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry into ASEAN, and were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA’s tariff reduction obligations.[46]

Other meetings
Aside from the ones above, other regular[37] meetings are also held.[38] These include the annual ASEAN Ministerial Meeting[39] as well as other smaller committees, such as the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.[40] Meetings mostly focus on specific topics, such as defense[37] or the environment,[37][41] and are attended by Ministers, instead of heads of government.

Plus Three
The ASEAN Plus Three is a meeting between ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, and is primarily held during each ASEAN Summit.

Asia-Europe Meeting
The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996 with the intention of strengthening cooperation between the countries of Europe and Asia, especially members of the European Union and ASEAN in particular.[42] ASEAN, represented by its Secretariat, is one of the 45 ASEM partners. It also appoints a representative to sit on the governing board of AsiaEurope Foundation (ASEF), a socio-cultural organisation associated with the Meeting.

Comprehensive Investment Area
The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA) will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN. The main principles of the ACIA are as follows[47] • All industries are to be opened up for investment, with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules • National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions • Elimination of investment impediments • Streamlining of investment process and procedures • Enhancing transparency • Undertaking investment facilitation measures Full realization of the ACIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture, fisheries, forestry and mining is scheduled by 2010 for most ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam) countries.[47]

ASEAN-Russia Summit
The ASEAN-Russia Summit is an annual meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia.

Economic Community
ASEAN has emphasized regional cooperation in the “three pillars” of security, sociocultural and economic integration.[43] The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration, aiming to create an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015.[44] The AEC would have a combined population of over 560 million and total trade exceeding US$ 1,400 billion.[43]

Trade in Services
An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in December 1995.[48] Under AFAS, ASEAN Member States enter into successive rounds of negotiations to liberalise trade in services with the aim of submitting increasingly higher levels of commitments. The negotiations result in commitments that

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are set forth in schedules of specific commitments annexed to the Framework Agreement. These schedules are often referred to as packages of services commitments. At present, ASEAN has concluded seven packages of commitments under AFAS.[49]

ASEAN
development when ASEAN is consolidating, integrating and transforming itself into a community. It is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift," he added, referring to climate change and economic upheaval. Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s." The charter’s aims included: 1. "Respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of member states". 2. "Peaceful settlement of disputes". 3. "Non-interference in member states internal affairs". 4. "Right to live without external interference".[59] However, the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter,[60] and also set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries who violate citizens’ rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.[61]

Single Aviation Market
The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (SAM), proposed by the ASEAN Air Transport Working Group, supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting, and endorsed by the ASEAN Transport Ministers, will introduce an open-sky arrangement to the region by 2015.[50] The ASEAN SAM will be expected to fully liberalize air travel between its member states, allowing ASEAN to directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the world, and also freeing up tourism, trade, investment and services flows between member states.[50][51] Beginning 1 December 2008, restrictions on the third and fourth freedoms of the air between capital cities of member states for air passengers services will be removed,[52] while from 1 January 2009, there will be full liberalization of air freight services in the region, while[50][51] By 1 January 2011, there will be liberalization of fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities.[53]

Free Trade Agreements With Other Countries
ASEAN has concluded free trade agreements with China, Korea, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.[54] In addition, it is currently negotiating free trade agreement with India (conclusion expected in April 2009)[55] and with the European Union.[56] Taiwan has also expressed interest in an agreement with ASEAN but needs to overcome diplomatic objections from China.[57]

Cultural activities

Charter
On 15 December 2008 the members of ASEAN met in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community".[58] The charter turns ASEAN into a legal entity and aims to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that "This is a momentous

Logo of the S.E.A. Write Award The organization hosts cultural activities in an attempt to further integrate the region. These include sports and educational

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activities as well as writing awards. Examples of these include the ASEAN University Network, the ASEAN Center for Biodiversity, the ASEAN Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, and the Singapore-sponsored ASEAN Scholarship.

ASEAN
Currently AUN comprises 21 Participating Universities.[66]

Official song
• - the official regional anthem of ASEAN, music by Kittikhun Sodprasert and Sampow Triudom Thailand; Lyrics by Payom Valaiphatchra Thailand. • or ASEAN Hymn, music by Ryan Cayabyab Philippines. • , an ASEAN song, composed by Candra Darusman Indonesia.

S.E.A. Write Award
The S.E.A. Write Award is a literary award given to Southeast Asian poets and writers annually since 1979. The award is either given for a specific work or as a recognition of an author’s lifetime achievement. Works that are honored vary and have included poetry, short stories, novels, plays, folklore as well as scholarly and religious works. Ceremonies are held in Bangkok and are presided by a member of the Thai royal family.

Sports
Southeast Asian Games
The Southeast Asian Games, commonly known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multisport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia.

ASAIHL
ASAIHL or the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning is a non-governmental organization founded in 1956 that strives to strengthen higher learning institutions, espescially in teaching, research, and public service, with the intention of cultivating a sense of regional identity and interdependence.

ASEAN Para Games

Heritage Parks
ASEAN Heritage Parks[62] is a list of nature parks launched 1984 and relaunched in 2004. It aims to protect the region’s natural treasures. There are now 35 such protected areas, including the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park and the Kinabalu National Park.[63]

List

Scholarship
The ASEAN Scholarship is a scholarship program offered by Singapore to the 9 other member states for secondary school, junior college, and university education. It covers accommodation, food, medical benefits & accident insurance, school fees, and examination fees.[64]

Logo of the ASEAN Para Games The ASEAN Para Games is a biennial multisport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. The Games, patterned after the Paralympic Games, are played by physically-challenged athletes with mobility disabilities, visual disabilities, who are amputees and those with cerebral palsy.

University Network
The ASEAN University Network (AUN) is a consortium of Southeast Asian universities. It was originally founded in November 1995 by 11 universities within the member states.[65]

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ASEAN Heritage Sites Site Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park Myanmar Apo Natural Park Philippines Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Indonesia Gunung Mulu National Park Malaysia Hoang Lien Sa Pa National Park Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Myanmar Kaeng Krachan National Park Khakaborazi National Park Myanmar Kinabalu National Park Malaysia Kon Ka Kinh National Park Lorentz National Park Indonesia Mu Ko Surin-Mu Ko Similan Marine National Park Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park Vietnam Lampi Marine National Park Komodo National Park Thailand Kerinci Seblat National Park Vietnam Iglit-Baco National Park Ha Long Bay Gunung Leuser National Park Country Site Ao Phang-nga Marine National Park Ba Be National Park

ASEAN

Country Thailand Vietnam

Indonesia Vietnam

Philippines Inlé Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Myanmar Indonesia Khao Yai National Park Thailand

Indonesia Myanmar Meinmhala Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary Myanmar Laos

Thailand Nam Ha Protected Area Vietnam Preah Monivong (Bokor) National Park

Cambodia

Puerto Princesa Subterranean River Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve National Park Philippines Singapore Taman Negara National Park Malaysia Tasek Merimbun Wildlife Sanctuary Tubbataha Reef Marine Park Philippines Virachey National Park Cambodia Keraton Yogyakarta Indonesia Malaysia. The Games re-emerges as the 2010 Asian Para Games in Guangzhou, China. The 2010 Asian Para Games will debut shortly after the conclusion of the 16th Asian Games, using the same facilities and venue made disability-accessible. The inaugural Asian Para Games, the parallel event for athletes with physical disabilities, is a multi-sport event held every four years after every Asian Games. Brunei Thung Yai-Huay Kha Khaeng National Park Ujung Kulon National Park Indonesia Thailand Tarutao Marine National Park Thailand

FESPIC Games/ Asian Para Games
The FESPIC Games, also known as the Far East and South Pacific Games for the persons with disability, was the biggest multi-sports games in Asia and South Pacific region. The FESPIC Games were held nine times and bowed out, a success[67] in December 2006 in the 9th FESPIC Games in Kuala Lumpur,

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ASEAN

Football Championship
The ASEAN Football Championship is a biennial soccer competition organised by the ASEAN Football Federation, accredited by FIFA and contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia nations. It was inaugurated in 1996 as Tiger Cup, but after Asia Pacific Breweries terminated the sponsorship deal, "Tiger" was renamed "ASEAN".

Notes

Criticism
Western countries have criticized ASEAN for being too soft in its approach to promoting human rights and democracy in the junta-led Myanmar.[68] Despite global outrage at the military crack-down on peaceful protesters in Yangon, ASEAN has refused to suspend Myanmar as a member and also rejects proposals for economic sanctions.[69] This has caused concern as the European Union, a potential trade partner, has refused to conduct free trade negotiations at a regional level for these political reasons.[70] International observers view it as a "talk shop",[71] which implies that the organization is "big on words but small on action".[72] During the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu, several activist groups staged anti-globalization and anti-Arroyo rallies.[73] According to the activists, the agenda of economic integration would negatively affect industries in the Philippines and would cause thousands of Filipinos to lose their jobs.[74] They also viewed the organization as imperialistic that threatens the country’s sovereignty.[74] A human rights lawyer from New Zealand was also present to protest about the human rights situation in the region in general.[75] ASEAN has agreed to an ASEAN human rights body which will come into force in 2009. The Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand want this body to have an enforcement capacity, however Singapore, Vietnam, Burma, Laos and Cambodia do not.

See also
• • • • • • • ASEAN Common Time ASEAN kecil Asian Monetary Unit List of ASEAN countries by GDP (nominal) Mekong-Ganga Cooperation SEA-EU-NET Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

[1] "Overview". ASEAN. http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-12. [2] Search Voice of America [3] "NLS/BPH: Other Writings, The ABC Book, A Pronunciation Guide". 8 May 2006. http://www.loc.gov/nls/other/ ABC.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-12. [4] ASEAN-10: Meeting the Challenges, by Termsak Chalermpalanupap, ASEAN Secretariat official website. Retrieved 27 June 2008. [5] Bangkok Declaration. Wikisource. Retrieved 14 March 2007. [6] Overview, ASEAN Secretariat official website. Retrieved 12 June 2006. [7] Bernard Eccleston, Michael Dawson, Deborah J. McNamara (1998). The AsiaPacific Profile. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-17279-9. http://books.google.com/ books?visbn=0415172799&id=l07akyd6DAC&pg=RA1-PA311&lpg=RA1-PA311&ots=Xgq yVhEn5Fwu3d8iih0OA. [8] Muthiah Alagappa (1998). Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford: Stanford University Press (US). ISBN 0-8047-3347-3. http://books.google.com/ books?id=1t2DRZeDVx8C&printsec=frontcover&dq= [9] "ASEAN secretariat". ASEAN. 23RD JULY 1999. http://www.aseansec.org/ 3839.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-12. [10] "Background Note:Brunei Darussalam/ Profile:/Foreign Relations". United States State Department. http://www.state.gov/ r/pa/ei/bgn/2700.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. [11] ^ Carolyn L. Gates, Mya Than (2001). ASEAN Enlargement: impacts and implications. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-081-3. [12] East Asia Economic Caucus. ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 14 March 2007. [13] ^ Whither East Asia? Asian Views. Retrieved 14 March 2007. [14] Asia’s Reaction to NAFTA Nancy J. Hamilton. CRS - Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 14 March 2007. [15] Japan Straddles Fence on Issue of East Asia Caucus International Herald tribune. Retrieved 14 March 2007. [16] "Regional Financial Cooperation among ASEAN+3". Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mof.go.jp/english/if/

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[29] "ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand Free Trade Agreement - NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Mfat.govt.nz. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Trade-andEconomic-Relations/Trade-Agreements/ Asean/index.php. Retrieved on 2009-05-21. [30] "Asean, Australia, New Zealand Sign Free-Trade Deal (Update1)". Bloomberg.com. 2009-02-27. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aul8rxM98Jg4. Retrieved on 2009-05-21. [31] ^ ASEAN Structure, ASEAN Primer [32] Denis Hew (2005). Roadmap to an Asean Economic Community. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-347-2. [33] "Chairman’s Statement of the First East Asia Summit Kuala Lumpur". ASEAN. 14 December 2005. http://www.aseansec.org/18104.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-12. [34] "Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment". ASEAN. 21 November 2007. http://www.aseansec.org/21116.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-12. [35] About Us, ASEAN Regional Forum official website. Retrieved 12 June 2006. [36] Official Website of Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 3 August 2008. [37] ^ ASEAN Calendar of Meetings and Events November 2006, ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 13 March 2007. [38] BBC country profile/Asean leaders, BBC. Retrieved 13 March 2007. [39] ASEAN Ministerial Meetings, ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 13 March 2007. [40] [1], ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved 16 March 2007. [41] "Malaysians have had enough of haze woes". The Malaysian Bar. http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/ content/view/4967/2/. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. [42] Lay Hwee Yeo (2003). Asia and Europe: the development and different dimensions of ASEM. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-30697-3. [43] ^ "Overview". Aseansec.org. http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-21. [44] ^ Sim, Edmund "Introduction to the ASEAN Economic Community",

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http://www.taiyonoie.or.jp/fespic/. 2006-12-07. Retrieved on 2009-05-21. http://www.kilusangmayouno.org/asean[68] "ADB president calls for building Asian protests-cebu-will-also-underscoreeconomic integration". Peace Journalism. massive-opposition-charter-change. 2007-01-03. http://peacejournalism.com/ Retrieved on 2007-03-06. ReadArticle.asp?ArticleID=16729. [75] "NZ rights lawyer to join protests at Retrieved on 2007-04-03. ASEAN summit". News and Press. [69] "Japan Cancels Myanmar Grant". 2006-12-07. http://www.laborrights.org/ Associated Press. 2007-10-17. press/TUV/brian3_eiler_120706.htm. http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iyRetrieved on 2007-03-06. MfhLN9Q7MwtQ1VlrvexLjr2dAD8SA9CS00. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. [70] Silp, Sai (2007-02-15). "Burma an Issue • ASEAN Secretariat Retrieved on 13 March in Asean-EU Trade Talks". The Irawaddy 2007. News Magazine Online Edition. • ASEAN Regional Forum Retrieved on 13 http://www.irrawaddy.org/ March 2007. aviewer.asp?a=6693&z=163. Retrieved • BBC Country Profile/Asean Retrieved on on 2007-03-04. 13 March 2007. [71] "Malaysian foreign minister says ASEAN Summits is no ’talk shop’". 2005-12-05. • 14th ASEAN Summit http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ • 13th ASEAN Summit Singapore official mi_m0WDQ/is_2005_Dec_5/ site. Retrieved on 16 September 2007. ai_n15900039. Retrieved on 2007-03-06. • 12th ASEAN Summit Retrieved on 13 [72] "BBC Country/Internatonal Organization March 2007. Profile: Association of Southeast Asian • 11th ASEAN Summit 12 December-14, Nations". BBC News. 2007-01-11. 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia official site. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/ Retrieved on 13 March 2007. country_profiles/4114415.stm. Retrieved • 11th ASEAN Summit 12 December–14, on 2007-03-06. 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved [73] "About 100 militants stage protest vs on 13 March 2007. Asean Summit in Cebu". GMA News. ASEAN organizations 2007-01-13. http://www.gmanews.tv/ • ASEAN official directory of ASEAN video/3465/About-100-militants-stageorganizations protest-vs-Asean-Summit-in-Cebu. • ASEAN Law Association Retrieved on 2007-03-06. • ASEAN Ports Association [74] ^ "ASEAN protests in Cebu will also • US-ASEAN Business Council underscore massive opposition to Charter Change". Kilusang Mayo Uno.

External links

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