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Yasukuni Shrine

Yasukuni Shrine
Yasukuni Shrine ????

The honden or main shrine

The Daichii Torii at Yasukuni Shrine by order of the Meiji Emperor.[3] This shrine was intended to commemorate the soldiers of the Boshin War who fought and died to bring about the Restoration.[4] It was one of several dozen war memorial shrines built throughout Japan at that time as part of the government-directed State Shinto program. In 1879, the shrine was renamed Yasukuni Jinja. [5] This would become one of State Shinto’s principal shrines, as well as the primary national shrine for commemorating Japan’s war dead. The name Yasukuni, a quotation from the classical-era Chinese text Zuo Zhuan, literally means "Pacifying the Nation" and was chosen by the Meiji Emperor.[6] The name is still formally written as ????, using obsolete (pre-war) kyūjitai character forms. After Japan’s defeat in World War II, the US-led Occupation Authorities issued the Shinto Directive. This directive ordered the separation of church and state and effectively put an end to State Shinto. Yasukuni Shrine was then forced either to become a secular government institution or a religious institution that is independent from the Japanese government. It was decided that the shrine would become a privately funded religious institution. Since that decision in 1946, Yasukuni Shrine has continued to be privately funded and operated.[7] Shinto rites are performed at the shrine, which, according to Shinto belief, houses the kami, or spirits, of all Japanese, former colonial subjects (Korean and Taiwanese) and

Information Type Imperial Shrine Dedicated to Those who lost their lives while serving Japan Founded Founder(s) Priest(s) Address Phone Website June 1869 Emperor Meiji Nanbu Toshiaki 3-1-1, Kudankita, Chiyoda Tokyo ?102-8246 +81 (03) 3261-8326 Homepage

Glossary of Shinto Yasukuni Shrine (????, Yasukuni Jinja) is a Shinto shrine located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is dedicated to the kami (spirits) of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan.[1] Currently, its Symbolic Registry of Divinities lists the names of over 2,466,000 enshrined men and women whose lives were dedicated to the service of Imperial Japan, particularly to those killed in wartime.[2] It also houses one of the few Japanese War Museums dedicated to World War II. There are also commemorative statues to mothers and animals who sacrificed in the war.

History
The site for the Yasukuni Shrine, originally named Tōkyō Shōkonsha (?????) was chosen

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civilians who died in service of the emperor while participating (forced or willing) in the nation’s conflicts which occurred prior to 1951.

Yasukuni Shrine
November 23 - Niinamesai (Festival of First Fruits) December 23 Tenno gotanshin Hoshukusai (Birthday of the Current Emperor) The first, 11th and 21st day of each month - Tukinamisai Everyday - Asa Mikesai, Yu Mikesai, Eitai Kagurasai (Perpetual Kagura Festivals)[8]

Annual Celebrations

Enshrined Kami
According to Shinto beliefs, by enshrining kami Yasukuni Shrine provides a permanent residence for the spirits of those who have fought on behalf of the emperor. Unlike a traditional Shinto shrine in which each kami occupies its own seat in the shrine, Yasukuni has all enshrined kami occupying the same single seat. There are over 2,466,000 enshrined kami currently listed in the Yasukuni’s Symbolic Registry of Divinities. This list includes soldiers, as well as women and students who were involved in relief operations in the battlefield or worked in factories for the war effort.[2] Enshrinement is not exclusive to people of Japanese descent. Currently, Yasukuni Shrine has enshrined 27,863 Taiwanese and 21,181 Koreans.[9]

The Mitama Festival at Yasukuni Shrine

Yasukuni Mitama Lanterns January 1 - Shinnensai (New Year’s Festival) February 11 - Kenkoku Kinensai (National Foundation Day) Anniversary of the day on which Japan’s first Emperor, Jinmu, is said to have founded the Japanese nation. February 17 - Kinensai (Spring Festival for Harvest) April 21-23 - Shunki Reitaisai (Annual Spring Festival) April 29 - Showasai (Showa Festival) Emperor Showa’s birthday June 29 - Gosoritsu Kinenbisai (Founding Day) Commemoration of the founding of Yasukuni Jinja July 13-16 - Mitama Matsuri - A mid summer celebration of the spirits of the ancestors. The entry walk is decorated with 40 foot high walls of 29000 or more lanterns, and thousands of visitors come to pay resepcts to their lost relatives and friends. October 17-20 - Shuki Reitaisai (Annual Autumn Festival) November 3 - Meijisai (Emperor Meiji’s Birthday)

Eligible categories
As a general rule, the enshrined are limited to those who died while serving Japan during armed conflicts, so civilians who died during wars are not included, apart from a handful of exceptions. In order to be considered to be added to the list of enshrined, the dead must fall into at least one of the eligible categories: 1. Military personnel, and civilians employed by the military, who were: • killed in action, or died as a result of wounds or illnesses sustained while on duty outside the Home Islands (and within the Home Islands after September 1931) • missing and presumed to have died as a result of wounds or illnesses sustained while on duty • died as a result of war crime tribunals which have been ratified by the San Francisco Peace Treaty 2. Civilians who participated in combat under the military and died from resulting

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Conflict Description Year(s)

Yasukuni Shrine
# of Notes Enshrined
[11]

Boshin War and Japanese civil war Meiji Restoration Satsuma Rebellion Taiwan Expedition of 1874 Imo Incident Japanese civil war Conflict with Paiwan people (Taiwanese aborigines) Conflict with Joseon Rebel Army over Korea

1867–1869 7,751 1877 1874 1882 1894–95 1901 1904–05 6,971 1,130

[11]

[11]

more than [12][13] 10 13,619 1,256 88,429
[11]

First Sino-Japan- Conflict with Qing-China over Korea ese War Boxer Uprising Russo-Japanese War World War I Eight-Nation Alliance’s invasion of China Conflict with Russian Empire over Korea and Manchuria Conflict with German Empire (Central Powers) over Shandong, a Chinese province

[11] [11]

1914–1918 4,850

[11]

Jinan Incident

Conflict with China (Kuomintang) over Jin- 1928 an, a Chinese sub-provincial city 1931 Conflict with China Conflict with the Allied forces and involvement in the Pacific theater

185 17,176

[11]

Mukden Incident Leading to the occupation of Manchuria Second SinoJapanese War World War II

[14][11] [14][11]

1937–1941 191,250 1941–1945 2,133,915 Total

[14][11]

2,466,532 [11]

wounds or illnesses (includes residents of Okinawa) 3. Civilians who died, or are presumed to have died, in Soviet labor camps after the war 4. Civilians who were officially mobilized or volunteered (such as factory workers, mobilized students, Japanese Red Cross nurses and anti air-raid volunteers) who were killed while on duty 5. Crew who were killed aboard Merchant Navy vessels 6. Crew who were killed due to the sinking of exchange ships (i.e. Awa Maru) 7. Okinawan schoolchildren evacuees who were killed (i.e. the sinking of Tsushima Maru) 8. Officials of the governing bodies of Karafuto Prefecture, Kwantung Leased Territory, Governor-General of Korea and Governor-General of Taiwan Although new names of World War II-dead are added to the shrine every year, no deaths due to conflicts occurring since Japan signed

the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951 have qualified for enshrinement. Therefore, the shrine does not include members of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces who have died on duty in subsequent conflicts. Enshrinement is carried out unilaterally by the shrine. Some families from foreign countries such as South Korea have requested that their relatives be delisted on the grounds that enshrining someone against their beliefs in life constitutes an infringement of the Constitution.[10] The Yasukuni priesthood, however, has stated that once a kami is enshrined, it has been ’merged’ with the other kami occupying the same seat and therefore cannot be separated.

Kami by conflict
Japan has participated in ten other conflicts since the Boshin War in 1869. The following table chronologically lists the number of kami enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine (as of October 17, 2004) from each of these conflicts.

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The shrine does not include the Tokugawa shogunate’s forces (particularly from the Aizu domain and Satsuma Province) who died during the Boshin War and Satsuma Rebellion because they are considered enemies of the emperor. This exclusion, which includes the ancestors of current Chief Priest Nanbu Toshiaki, is deeply resented in both areas.

Yasukuni Shrine
roof was renovated in 1989. The white screens hanging off the ceiling are changed to purple ones on ceremonial occasions.[15] The honden is the main shrine where Yasukuni’s enshrined kami reside. Built in 1872 and refurbished in 1989, it is where the shrine’s priests perform Shinto rituals. The building is generally closed to the public.[16] The building located directly behind the honden to the east is know as the Reijibo Hōanden. It houses the Symbolic Registry of Divinities (???, Reijibo)—a handmade Japanese paper document that lists the names of all the kami enshrined and worshiped at Yasukuni Shrine. It was built of quakeproof concrete in 1972 with a private donation from Emperor Hirohito.[17] In addition to Yasukuni’s main shrine buildings, there are also two peripheral shrines located on the precinct. Motomiya is a small shrine that was first established in Kyoto by sympathizers of the imperial loyalists that were killed during the early weeks of the civil war that erupted during the Meiji Restoration. Seventy years later, in 1931, it was moved directly south of Yasukuni Shrine’s honden. Its name, Motomiya ("Original Shrine"), references the fact that it was essentially a prototype for the current Yasukuni Shrine.[18] The second peripheral shrine is the Chinreisha. This small shrine was constructed in 1965 directly south of the Motomiya. It is dedicated to those not enshrined in the honden—those killed by wars worldwide, regardless of nationality. It has a festival on July 13.[19]

Enshrinement of War Criminals
The main controversy arises out of the enshrinement of IMTFE war criminals between 1969 and 1978. See Controversies surrounding Yasukuni Shrine for a full discussion of this sensitive matter.

Precinct

Yasukuni Shrine’s honden There are a multitude of facilities within the 6.25 hectare grounds of the shrine, as well as several structures along the 4 hectare causeway. Though other shrines in Japan also occupy large areas, Yasukuni is different because of its recent historical connections. The Yūshūkan museum and several bronze statues are just a few of the features that differentiate Yasukuni from other Shinto shrines. The following lists describe many of these facilities and structures.

Shrine structures
On the shrine grounds, there are several important religious structures. The shrine’s haiden, Yasukuni’s main prayer hall where worshipers come to pray, was originally built in 1901 in order to allow patrons to pay their respects and make offerings. This building’s Chumon Torii

Torii and Gates
There are several different torii and gates located on both the causeway and shrine

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Yasukuni Shrine

Memorials
• : This statue honors all mothers who were forced to raise children in the absence of their husbands who were killed in war. It was donated to the shrine in 1974 by these mothers’ children.[26] • : A bronze statue representing a kamikaze pilot stands to the left of the Yūshūkan’s entrance. A small plaque to the left of the statue donated by the Tokkōtai Commemoration Peace Memorial Association in 2005 details the 5,843 men who died while executing attacks for the Tokkōtai.[27] • : These three life-sized bronze statues were all donated at different times during the second half of the 20th century. The first of the three that was donated, the horse statue was placed at Yasukuni Shrine in 1958 to honor the memory of the horses that served in the Japanese military. Presented in 1982, this statue depicting a pigeon atop a globe honors homing pigeons used by the military. The last statue, donated in March 1992, depicts a German shepherd and honors the soldiers’ canine comrades.[28] Opened, full bottles of water are often left at these statues. • : Created by Okuma Ujihiro in 1893, this statue is Japan’s first western-style bronze statue. It honors Ōmura Masujirō, a man who is known as the "Father of the Modern Japanese Army."[29] • : This modern looking monument is a spring dedicated to those who suffered from or died of thirst in battle.[30] • : This recent monument was erected at Yasukuni Shrine in 2005. It honors Indian judge Radha Binod Pal, the lone justice on the International Military Tribunal for the Far East’s trials of Japanese war crimes committed during World War II to find all the defendants not guilty.[31]

IshiTorii grounds. When moving through the grounds from east to west, the first torii visitors encounter is the Daiichi Torii. This large steel structure was the largest torii in Japan when it was first erected in 1921 to mark the main entrance to the shrine.[20] It stands approximately 25 meters tall and 34 meters wide and is the first torii. The current iteration of this torii was erected in 1974 after the original was removed in 1943 due to weather damage.[21] The Daini Torii is the second torii encountered on the westward walk to the shrine. It was erected in 1887 to replace a wooden one which had been erected earlier.[20] This is the largest bronze torii in Japan.[22] Immediately following the Daini Torii is the shinmon. A 6-meter tall hinoki cypress gate, it was first built in 1934 and restored in 1994. Each of its two doors bears a Chrysanthemum Crest measuring 1.5 meters in diameter.[23] West of this gate is the Chumon Torii, the last torii visitors must pass underneath before reaching Yasukuni’s haiden. It was recently rebuilt of cypress harvested in Saitama Prefecture in 2006.[24] In addition to the three torii and one gate that lead to the main shrine complex, there are a few others that mark other entrances to the shrine grounds. The Ishi Torii is a large stone torii located on the south end of the main causeway. It was erected in 1932 and marks the entrance to the parking lots.[25] The Kitamon and Minamimon are two areas that mark the north and south entrances, respectively, into the Yasukuni Shrine complex. The Minamimon is marked by a small wooden gateway.

Other buildings and structures
• : Originally built in 1882, this museum is located to the north of the main hall. Its name is taken from a saying -- "a virtuous man always selects to associate with virtuous people."[32] The museum houses many war relics, including a Zero Fighter plane and Kaiten suicide torpedo. It glorifies sacrifice and bravery, and like

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Memorial Statues

Yasukuni Shrine

Carrier Pigeon Commemoration Statue Women’s Sacrifices Commemoration the government due to its nationalistic interpretations of the war. : Almost 300 white doves live and are bred in a special dove cote located on the grounds of Yasukuni Shrine.[33] : This Japanese style strolling garden was created in the early Meiji Era. Its centerpiece is a small waterfall located in a serene pond. It was refurbished in 1999.[34] : In 1869, a sumo wrestling exhibition was held at Yasukuni Shrine in order to celebrate the shrine’s establishment.[35] Since then, exhibitions involving many professional sumo wrestlers, including several grand champions (yokozuna) take place at the Spring Festival almost every year. The matches are free of charge.[36] : Noh plays were first presented on the Shrine premises in 1878. The support of Empress Dowager Eishō and Empress Consort Haruko (now known as (Empress Shōken) ensured a permanent home for Noh at Yasukuni.[37]

•

•

• Kamikaze Pilot Commemoration Statue

•

Dog Commemoration Statue

See also
• Controversies surrounding Yasukuni Shrine • Yasukuni War Museum • List of Shinto shrines • Anti-Japanese sentiment • Japanese history textbook controversies • Japanese war crimes • Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea • Korean nationalism • Chinese nationalism • Mimizuka

Horse Commemoration Statue most war museums makes little mention of human suffering on both sides. The former prime minister, Junichiro Koizumi, has had to clarify in the Diet that Yūshūkan’s interpretation of history differs to that of

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Memorial Statues

Yasukuni Shrine

Monument of Justice Radha Binod Pal

The entrance to the Yūshūkan Ōmura Masujirō [4] "Yasukuni Shrine, Tokyo". Sacred Destinations. http://www.sacreddestinations.com/japan/tokyo-yasukunishrine.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [5] Ponsonby-Fane, p. 126. [6] "Yomiuri Shimbun: ???????????????????? ????????". http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/ feature/fe6700/fe_ya_05060901.htm. Retrieved on 2007-01-30. [7] Tetsuya, Takahashi. "Yasukuni Shrine at the Heart of Japan’s National Debate". Japan Focus. http://www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/2401. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [8] http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english [9] Nobumasa, Tanaka (2004-05-27). "Yasukuni Shrine and the Double Genocide of Taiwan’s Indigenous Atayal: new court verdict". Znet. http://www.zmag.org/content/ showarticle.cfm?ItemID=5937. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [10] "Suit filed over Korean soldiers enshrined at Yasukuni Shrine". 2001-06-29. http://findarticles.com/p/ articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2001_July_2/ ai_76443926. Retrieved on 2008-08-10.

Irei no Izumi Sculpture

Notes
[1] "History". http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/ english/about/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [2] ^ "Deities". http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/ english/about/deities.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [3] Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, pp. 118-134.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[11] ^ "????" (in Japanese). 2004-10-17. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/annai/. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [12] Japanese Cabinet Meeting document Nov, 1882 [13] Japanese Cabinet Meeting document Nov, 1882 p.2 left p.6 left ?????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? [14] ^ Breen, John (2005-06-03). "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory". Japan Focus. http://japanfocus.org/products/ details/2060. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [15] "Haiden (Main Hall)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/haiden.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [16] "Honden (Main Shrine)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/ english/precinct/honden.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [17] "Reijibo Hoanden (Repository for the Symbolic Registers of Divinities)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/reijubo.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [18] "Motomiya(Original Shrine)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/ english/precinct/motomiya.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [19] "Chinreisha (Spirit-Pacifying Shrine)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/chinreisha.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [20] ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 130. [21] "Daiichi Torii (First Shrine Gate or Great Gate)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/torii1.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [22] "Daini Torii (Second Shrine Gate)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/torii2.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [23] "Shinmon (Main Gate)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/shinmon.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. [24] "Chumon Torii (Third Shrine Gate)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/torii3.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-23.

Yasukuni Shrine
[25] "Ishi Torii (Stone Shrine Gate)". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/ishitorii.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. [26] "Statue of War Widow with Children". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/statue1.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. [27] "Kamikaze Pilot Statue". Kamikaze Images. http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/ kamikaze/monuments/yushukan/ index.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [28] "Statues honoring horses, carrier pigeons and dogs killed in war service". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/statue2.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. [29] "Statue of Omura Masujiro". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/ english/precinct/statue3.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. [30] "Day 7 - Independent Activities". Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/ishitorii.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. [31] "Monument of Dr. Pal". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/monument.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. [32] Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 131-132. [33] "Dove cote". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/dovecote.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. [34] "Shinchi Teien". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/shinike.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. [35] Ponsonby-Fane, p. 129. [36] "Sumo Ring". Yasukuni Shrine. http://www.yasukuni.or.jp/english/ precinct/sumoarena.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. [37] Ponsonby-Fane, pp.129-130.

References
• Nelson, John. "Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine".

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Journal of Asian Studies 62, 2 (May 2003): 445–467. • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1963). Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 36655 • Pye, Michael: "Religion and Conflict in Japan with Special Reference to Shinto and Yasukuni Shrine". Diogenes 50:3 (2003), S. 45–59. • Saaler, Sven: Politics, Memory and Public Opinion: The History Textbook Controversy and Japanese Society. München: Iudicium, 2005. ISBN 3891298498.

Yasukuni Shrine
Normalization". China Quarterly 124 (Dec 1990): 639–661. • Shibuichi, Daiki. "The Yasukuni Dispute and the Politics of Identity of Japan: Why All the Fuss?" Asian Survey 45, 2 (March–April 2005): 197–215. • Tamamoto, Masaru. "A Land Without Patriots: The Yasukuni Controversy and Japanese Nationalism". World Policy Journal 18, 3 (Fall 2001): 33–40. • Yang, Daqing. “Mirror for the Future of the History Card? Understanding the ‘History Problem’” in Chinese-Japanese Relations in the Twenty-first Century: Complementarity and Conflict, edited by Marie Söderberg, 10–31. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Further reading
• Breen, John. "The Dead and the Living in the Land of Peace: A Sociology of the Yasukuni Shrine". Mortality 9, 1 (February 2004): 76–93. • Breen, John. Yasukuni, the War Dead and the Struggle for Japan’s Past. Columbia University Press, 2008. ISBN 0231700423. • Nelson, John. "Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine". Journal of Asian Studies 62, 2 (May 2003): 445–467. • Sheftall, M. G. (2005). Blossoms in the Wind: Human Legacies of the Kamikaze. NAL Caliber. ISBN 0-451-21487-0. • Sturgeon, William Daniel (August 2006). Japan’s Yasukuni Shrine: Place of Peace or Place of Conflict? Regional Politics of History and Memory in East Asia. Dissertation.com. ISBN 1-58112-334-5.

External links
• Yasukuni Shrine official website (English) • Official page of the Japanese Foreign Ministry on the Yasukuni visits of PM Koizumi • A feature from The Japan Times on the chief priest of Yasukuni and his views of PM visits • Yasukuni Jinja photos and slideshow on the 60th anniversary of Japan’s surrender (2005) • Discussion of the impact of Prime Ministerial visits to Yasukuni Shrine • Audio/Video recordings of Professor Tetsuya Takahashi discussing his book Postwar Japan on the Brink: Militarism, Colonialism, Yasukuni Shrine at the University of Chicago Coordinates: 35°41′39″N 139°44′35″E / 35.69417°N 139.74306°E / 35.69417; 139.74306

The controversy
• Ijiri, Hidenori. "Sino-Japanese Controversies since the 1972 Diplomatic

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasukuni_Shrine" Categories: 1869 establishments, 1869 architecture, Buildings and structures in Tokyo, Shinto shrines in Tokyo, Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea, Military memorials and cemeteries This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 15:51 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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