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Yale Law School

Yale Law School
Yale Law School

Established: Type: Endowment: Postgraduates: Location: Dean: Website:

1843 Private US$1.2 billion 700 New Haven, Connecticut, USA Harold Koh www.law.yale.edu

Presidential nominees Sargent Shriver and Joe Lieberman are also graduates. Current U.S. Supreme Court Justices Clarence Thomas and Samuel Alito are alumni of the school, as is former Attorney General Michael Mukasey. Other former Supreme Court Justices who were alumni include Potter Stewart, Byron R. White, Abe Fortas, Sherman Minton, George Shiras, Henry Baldwin, David Davis, and William Strong. The school’s law library, Lillian Goldman Law Library, contains over 1,000,000 volumes. The law school’s flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal, which is often the most cited law journal in the world.[2]

Culture

Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Established in 1843, the school offers the J.D., LL.M., J.S.D., and M.S.L. degrees in law. It also hosts visiting scholars and a number of legal research centers. The school’s prestige and small size make its admissions process the most selective of any United States law school. Yale has been ranked as the number one law school by U.S. News and World Report in every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings.[1] Among other luminaries, former U.S. President William Howard Taft was a professor of constitutional law at the school from 1913 until he resigned to become Chief Justice of the United States in 1921. Presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton received their law degrees at Yale Law School later in the century, and the law school’s library has been memorialized as the meeting place of Bill and fellow student and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. Former Democratic Vice

The Sterling Law Building The institution is known for its scholarly orientation; a relatively large number of its graduates (14%) choose careers in academia within five years of graduation, while a relatively low number (49%) choose to work in law firms. Another feature of Yale Law School’s culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service.[3] A similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation.[4] Its 7.5-student-to-faculty ratio is the lowest among U.S. law schools.[5] Yale Law School does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student

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unrest in the late 1960s.[6] Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system. For their remaining two and a half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system. Similarly, the school does not officially rank its students. It is also notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U.S. schools require. Unusually, Yale Law allows first-year students to represent clients through one of its numerous clinics; other law schools typically offer this opportunity only to second- and third-year students. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools, mostly accept student editors without a competition. The only exception is YLS’s flagship journal, the Yale Law Journal, which holds a two-part admissions competition each spring, consisting of a four or five-hour "bluebooking exam," followed by a traditional writing competition. Although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number. Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Law & Policy Review, the Yale Journal on Regulation, and the Yale Journal of International Law.

Yale Law School

Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Hitchcock as co-proprietor of the school in 1824. In 1826, Yale named Daggett to be professor of law in Yale College, where he lectured to undergraduates on public law and government. The Yale Law School remained fragile for decades. At the death of Samuel Hitchcock in 1845 and again upon the death of his successor, Henry Dutton, in 1869, the University came near to closing the School.

History
Early 19th century
The Yale Law School traces its origins to the earliest days of the 19th century, when law was learned by clerking as an apprentice in a lawyer’s office. The first law schools, including the one that became Yale, developed out of this apprenticeship system and grew up inside law offices. The future Yale Law School formed in the office of New Haven lawyer Seth Staples, who owned an exceptional library (an attraction for students at a time when law books were scarce) and began training apprentices in the early 1800s. By the 1810s, his law office had a fullfledged law school. Samuel Hitchcock, one of Staples’ former students, became a partner at the office and later, the proprietor of the New Haven Law School. The New Haven Law School affiliated gradually with Yale from the mid-1820s to the mid-1840s. Law students began receiving Yale degrees in 1843. David Daggett, a former U.S. senator from Connecticut, joined

Late 19th century revival
The revival of Yale Law School after 1869 was led by its first full-time dean, Francis Wayland, who helped the School establish its philanthropic base. It was during this time that the modern law library was organized. It was also during this period that The Yale Law Journal was started and Yale’s pioneering efforts in graduate programs in law began; the degree of Master of Laws was offered for the first time in 1876. In the last decades of the 19th century, Yale began to articulate for its Law School two traits that would come to be hallmarks. First, it would be small and humane, bucking the trend toward large law-school

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enrollments and impersonal faculty-student relations. Second, it would take an interdisciplinary approach to teaching the law, first bringing professors from other University departments to teach in the Law School, and later in the 20th century, pioneering the appointment to the law faculty of professors ranging from economics to psychiatry. This led Yale Law School away from the preoccupation with private law that then typified American legal education, and toward serious engagement with public and international law.

Yale Law School

Late 20th--early 21st century
The law school’s Dean, Harold Koh, has made human rights a focus of the law school’s work, building on a tradition that has developed over the past two decades. Robert Bernstein, the founder of Human Rights Watch, is affiliated with the law school in several ways, and the organization’s current executive director Kenneth Roth is an alum. Yale has taken a lead in defending detainees at Guantanamo Bay through its 9/11 clinic. On March 23, 2009, the White House announced the appointment of Dean Koh to the State Department as a legal adviser. Kate Stith was appointed by Yale University President Richard Levin to serve as acting Dean of the Law School.[8]

Legal Realism movement
After 1900, Yale Law School began to shape legal scholarship. In the 1930s, Yale Law School contributed to the movement known as legal realism, which has reshaped the way American lawyers understand the function of legal rules and the work of courts and judges. The realists directed attention to factors not captured in the rules, ranging from the attitudes of judges and jurors to the nuances of the facts of particular cases.[7] Under the influence of realism, American legal doctrine has become less conceptual and more empirical. Under Dean Charles Clark (1929-1939), the School built a faculty that included such legendary figures as Thurman Arnold, Edwin Borchard, future U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, future U.S. Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas, Jerome Frank, Underhill Moore, Walton Hamilton, and Wesley Sturges. Clark was the moving figure during these years in crafting the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the foundation of modern American procedure.

Admissions
Yale Law School enrolls under 200 new students a year, one of the smallest numbers among U.S. law schools. Its small class size and prestige combine to make its admissions process very selective. It is considered the most competitive law school in the U.S. to gain admission. More of its admitted students decide to attend (i.e., yield) than those of Stanford and Harvard. Half of the class that entered in 2006 had a GPA above 3.91 (out of 4.0) and an LSAT score above 173 (out of 180 possible points) or 99th percentile. [9] After an initial round of screening by the admissions department, approximately 25% of applications are independently evaluated by three different faculty members. Each application is scored from 2-4 at the discretion of the reader. All applicants with a perfect 12 (i.e., a 4 from all three faculty members) are admitted, upon which they are immediately notified by the school. There are also 50-80 outstanding students admitted each year without going through this review process.[10][11] The LL.M. Program at Yale is amongst the smallest and most selective graduate law programs in the United States. Yale admits around 25 LL.M. students every year, and the program is usually limited to those students who intend to pursue a career in legal academia.

Law and policy movement
In the 1950s and 1960s, the School became renowned as a center of policy-oriented legal studies, inter-disciplinary legal studies, and constitutional law, taxation, commercial law, international law, antitrust law and economics. In recent decades, the pace of curricular innovation has, if anything, quickened, as the School has developed new strengths in such fields as comparative constitutional law, corporate finance, environmental law, gender studies, international human rights, and legal history, as well as an array of clinical programs.

Deans of Yale Law School
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Yale Law School
Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability Stephen L. Carter, author of a number of books, including the novel The Emperor of Ocean Park Jules L. Coleman, noted legal philosopher Mirjan Damaska, comparative law and criminal procedure scholar Drew S. Days, III, former United States Solicitor General John J. Donohue III, noted economist and legal scholar Robert Ellickson, property law scholar and author of "Order Without Law" William Eskridge, Jr., pioneer of the field of statutory interpretation and long-time advocate of civil rights for gays and lesbians Owen M. Fiss, liberalism and free speech scholar Dan M. Kahan, criminal law and evidence scholar, director of the Yale Supreme Court Advocacy Clinic Harold Hongju Koh, Dean of the law school (2004-2009) and former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in the Clinton administration (1998-2001) John Langbein, legal historian and trust and estates scholar Jonathan R. Macey, corporate/banking law scholar W. Michael Reisman, scholar of public international law, human rights, and trade Jed Rubenfeld, constitutional theorist and criminal law scholar Vicki Schultz, scholar of employment law, antidiscrimination law, feminist legal theory Kate Stith, constitutional law and criminal procedure expert Ralph K. Winter, Jr., senior circuit judge and former chief judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Michael Wishnie, clinical professor, expert on immigration

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• • • • • Yale Law School library 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1873—1903 1903—1916 1916—1927 1927—1929 1929—1939 1940—1946 1946—1954 1954—1955 1955—1965 1965—1970 1970—1975 1975—1985 1985—1994 1994—2004 2004—2009 2009 Francis Wayland III Henry Wade Rogers Thomas Walter Swan Robert Maynard Hutchins Charles Edward Clark Ashbel Green Gulliver Wesley Alba Sturges Harry Shulman Eugene Victor Rostow Louis Heilprin Pollak Abraham Samuel Goldstein Harry Hillel Wellington Guido Calabresi Anthony Townsend Kronman Harold Hongju Koh Kate Stith (Acting) •

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Current prominent faculty
• Bruce Ackerman, constitutional and political science scholar and op-ed writer • Akhil Amar, constitutional scholar, writer and consultant to the television show The West Wing • Ian Ayres, author of Why Not? and frequent commentator on NPR’s Marketplace program • Jack Balkin, First Amendment scholar, legal blogger, founder and director of the Yale Information Society Project • Aharon Barak, former president of the Israeli Supreme Court from 1995 to 2006 • Guido Calabresi, judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and former Dean, Yale Law School • Amy Chua, author of New York Times bestseller World on Fire: How Exporting

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Notable alumni
Among the Yale Law School’s most notable living alumni are former U. S. President Bill Clinton, Supreme Court Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas, former High Court of Australia Justice Sir Daryl Dawson AC KBE CB QC, former U.N. ambassador John R. Bolton, former First Lady and former U.S.

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Senator from New York, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, U.S. Senators Joseph Lieberman and Arlen Specter, former National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley, Newark mayor Cory Booker, law professor and blogger Glenn Reynolds, law professor Alan Dershowitz, televangelist Pat Robertson, actor/ economist Ben Stein, and former Attorney General Michael Mukasey.

Yale Law School
[6] Kalman, Laura, Yale Law School and the Sixties: Revolt and Reverberations (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2005) [7] See generally Nascent Legal Realism, 1916-1927; The Heyday of Legal Realism, 1928-1954. [8] http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/ view/28203 [9] "LSAC 2008 Edition Data, Yale Law School". http://officialguide.lsac.org//SearchResults/ SchoolPage_PDFs/ABA_LawSchoolData/ ABA3987.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. [10] "The Official YLS Admissions Blog". http://blogs.law.yale.edu/blogs/ admissions/archive/2007/11/08/thesecret.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. [11] "Law School Description - LSAC Official Guide to ABA-approved Law Schools". http://officialguide.lsac.org/ SearchResults/ SchoolPage.aspx?sid=177. Retrieved on 2008-02-13.

Notes
[1] 2009 Top-law-schools.com("Since US News began ranking schools, Yale Law School has always held the #1 position, and for good reason: it is unanimously considered one of the preeminent centers of legal studies in the world...."). See also ABA Journal, "It’s Official: Yale Law School Tops US News Rankings," Apr. 23, 2009 (2010 rankings). [2] Law journals’ ranking, Washington & Lee Law School. [3] Statement of Dean Harold H. Koh, “Yale Law School Expands Public Interest Program, Financial Support for Graduates,” April 14, 2008. [4] "Despite the intense competition for federal clerkships among the top law students of the country, a staggering 40% of Yale graduates go on to clerk after graduation, a number which has no comparison with any other school." 2009 Top-law-schools.com. [5] See 2009 Top-law-schools.com.

External links
• • • • • • • • Yale Law School Yale Information Society Project The Yale Law Journal The Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, & Ethics The Yale Journal of International Law The Yale Journal of Law and Feminism Yale Law and Policy Review Yale Law School Sculptural Ornamentation

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yale_Law_School" Categories: Yale Law School, Yale University schools, Law schools in Connecticut This page was last modified on 24 May 2009, at 15:00 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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