Chemical Formula - Fadh2 - DOC

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					BIOLOGY 204                                                             ANTELOPE VALLEY COLLEGE
GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY                                                                FALL 2008
INSTRUCTOR: Dr A. Hemsley

THEORY TEST 1                                                           100 POINTS

STUDENT NAME: ___________________________________
STUDENT I.D. NUMBER: _____________________________

•   Perusal time = 10 minutes
•   Test time = 90 minutes
•   ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
•   Read ALL questions carefully during perusal time, you may write if you wish.
•   Use the back of each sheet if you do not have enough writing space, but please label each answer.
•   Question subheadings are NOT of equal points value.
•   Points allocated for each subheading are shown at the end of the question.
                                                 GOOD LUCK!

QUESTION 1 (Total =10 points)
Match entries in the left column with answers from the lettered choices in the right column. Write your letter choice
to the far left of each question in the spaces provided. Use each answer only ONCE. (1 Point per correct pair)

_____ 1. Avirulent microbe used in the first vaccine                           a.      Lavoisier

_____ 2. Microbiologist who discovered antibiotics from soil bacteria          b.      Prokaryotes

_____ 3.Theory proposing that life forms could only arise from                 c.      Cowpox virus
               pre-existing life forms

_____ 4. Domain whose members contain a true nucleus                           d.      Fungi

_____ 5. Cells that lack a nucleus                                             e.      Bacteria

_____ 6. Virulent microbe against which Jenner developed the first vaccine     f.      Biogenesis Theory

_____ 7. Kingdom whose members have a chitin cell wall                         g.      Dubos

_____8. Scholar who believed oxygen was needed for spontaneous                 h.      Protists
               generation

_____ 9. Domain whose members are prokaryotic                                  i.      Eukarya

_____ 10. Kingdom whose members are all single celled eukaryotes               j.      Smallpox virus

                                                                                                               page 1
QUESTION 2 (Total =10 points)


a. Explain the concept of selective toxicity when considering the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs. Give
   an example of an antimicrobial drug with poor selective toxicity and another which works more selectively.
                                                                                                    (5)




b.     Pasteur is arguably the “Da Vinci” or “everyman” of microbiology. Describe at least two of the major
       contributions he made to advance this field of science.                                   (5)




                                                                                                         page 2
QUESTION 3 (Total =20 points)
A.     Give a brief description of the following terms:                                 (6)
       Acid / Base




       Macromolecule




       Enzyme




B.     Glutamic acid, an amino acid, has the following chemical formula:

               COOH

               (CH2 )2                                       Atomic weight H = 1
                             O                                             C = 12
       NH2     C         C                                                 O = 16
                             OH                                            N = 14
               H

What is the molecular weight of Glutamic acid? Show your working.                              (4)




What is the weight of 4 moles of Glutamic acid? Show your working.                             (5)




Glutamic acid is one of the components need to manufacture MSG, a seasoning and flavor enhancer. How many
molecules are present in 6 moles of glutamic acid? (Avogadro’s number = 6.02 x 10 23)             (5)




                                                                                                            Page 3
QUESTION 4 (Total =20 points)

A.   How is the nonpolar nature of the plasma membrane an advantage to microbial cells?                       (4)




B.   Describe two advantages that a glycocalyx may provide bacterial cells                                    (4)




C.   Explain why the Gram positive cell is believed to be physically stronger and the Gram negative cell is
     considered to be chemically more resistant.
                                                                                                              (4)




D.   Bacterial cells can divide in a little as 30 minutes whereas eukaryotic cells usually take up to 18 - 24 hours to
     divide. Suggest 2 possible characteristics or differences between the cell types that help to explain why this is
     so.              (4)




E.   Describe 2 specific roles played by ions within cells                                            (4)




                                                                                                                page 4
QUESTION 5 (Total =20 points)
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. (1 point per correct sentence)

1.       One structure that bacteria can use for motility is the ____________________________.

2.       A sticky polymer attached to outside of the bacterial cell wall is the ____________________________.

3.       Appendages that bacteria use for attachment are known as ____________________________.

4.       The cell wall of Gram positive bacteria contains small amounts of the substance known as
         ____________________________.

5.       The variable thickness of the bacterial cell wall gives a differential color staining reaction when the

         ____________________________ stain is applied .

6.       ____________________________ is a waxy material found in the wall of bacteria that cause tuberculosis.

7.       The bacterial electron transport chain is located in the ____________________________.

8.       Some microbes (like the Penicillium mold) are able to produce ______________________ which can kill other
      microbes.

9.        ____________________________ microscopy is the commonest method for viewing stained specimens.

10.      ____________________________ microscopy views bacteria such as Treponema illuminated against a dark
         background.

11.      ____________________________ microscopy uses ultraviolet light instead of visible light.

12.      ____________________________ microscopy visualizes internal cellular components due to refractive
         differences.

13.      _____________________________________________ uses two light beams and often computer-colorizes
         resultant images .

14.      Two genera that form endospores are ____________________________ and ____________________________.

15.      ________________________ lenses focus the X-rays used by the electron microscope

16.      Bacteria that use simple inorganic substances and chemical energy to synthesize their organic requirements
         are called _________________________.

17.      The energy producing potential of nutrient molecules is related to the number of ____________atoms that they
         possess.

18.      Sequential oxidation/reduction reactions are known as ___________________________ reactions.

19.      The difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration lies in the type of
         _______________________________________.

20.      In the metabolic process known as _________________________________, the terminal electron acceptor is an
         organic molecule.
                                                                                                                   page 5
QUESTION 6 (Total =20 points)

A.   Give a brief description of the process of the Krebs cycle. In your answer be sure to include mention of the
     fate of the carbon atoms entering the cycle, and the types (and numbers) of energy containing molecules
     which are derived. Include a description of where the substrate molecules for the Krebs cycle came from.
                                                                                                    (8)




B.   Describe 2 ways in which FERMENTATION differs from RESPIRATION?                                        (4)




C.   Describe the role of NADH and FADH2 in energy extraction processes.                                    (4)




D.   Explain why Lactobacillus grows slowly, even under ideal nutritional conditions.                       (4)




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