Lease Poultry Contract

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          by Paul Nalewajko

    Urbs/Geog 515: Race, Poverty, and the Environment

Professor Raquel Pinderhughes, Urban Studies & Environmental
                      Studies Programs

                 San Francisco State University

                          Spring 2004

Public has the permission to use the materials herein, but only if
   author(s), course, university, and professor are credited.


     To Provide an Introduction to the Poultry Industry and the
      Delmarva Region.

     To Account for the Economic Contributions and Impacts for the
      Delmarva Region and the Community

     To Describe The Poultry Industry Community and Labor Force.

     Explain the Socio-Economic Inequalities and Struggles for the
      Community and Labor Force.

     To Describe the Industry’s Environmental Injustice Towards the
      Community and Consequent Struggles.

     To Illustrate the Harmful Public Health Impacts by the Poultry
      Industry upon the Community and Consequent Struggles.

     To Provide Recommendations to Improve the Quality of Poultry
      Industry Conditions.

During lectures throughout the semester I have
perceived and comprehended the nature of the
environment, environmental issues, and social
movements regarding the totality of surrounding
conditions. Tools of analysis will be used to
understand the cradle to grave industry effects. I
will be investigating the poultry industry impacts
for the Delmarva Region which is an the area of the
Chesapeake Bay comprised of the Eastern Shore of
Maryland, Delaware, and the Virginia borders.

Poultry is one of the major success stories in U.S.
agriculture, largely due to consumer preferences
for diet and health reasons. Of all the livestock
sectors, it has achieved the greatest increase in
production efficiency, whether measured in terms
of cost, feed efficiency, or output per worker.
Translated to consumers, the real cost of poultry
products has decreased more than any other
livestock product. The result is that poultry is the
only livestock sector that has achieved a growing
market share as well as increasing per capita
consumption over the last three decades. Indeed,
during the early 1990s, consumption of chicken
surpassed that of beef, making it the most
consumed meat in the United States. In addition,
the U.S. poultry industry is highly competitive as
the world’s largest producer and exporter of poultry
meat. In 2001, U.S. poultry meat production
totaled 50 billion pounds, with a farm gate value of   4
$24.6 billion – the third largest sector in
The most economically significant part of the poultry industry is the raising of
broiler chickens for meat. The birth of the modern broiler industry took place
on the Delmarva Peninsula in the early 1920s. During the 1920s and 1930s,
Delmarva south of Wilmington was an economically depressed region.
Broilers provided a desperately needed cash crop that was increasingly in
demand in the urban markets of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. By the
mid-1930s, two out of every three broilers in the U.S. were raised in
Delmarva. The growth of Delmarva broiler production stimulated the
expansion of local hatcheries, breeding operations, and feed companies, and
eventually local processors

 A large increase in the production of commercial broilers continued during
the latter half of the twentieth century, but with the most significant gains in
other growing regions. Delmarva is now ranked as the sixth-largest chicken
producing area in the nation. For the year of 2002, 2,500 local farm families
produced 587 million chickens. The chickens are processed and prepared for
market in 12 processing plants owned by four of the nation’s top poultry

Gross regional product, like its national
counterpart, is the most widely used
measure of an area’s economic activity. In
2001, gross regional product in Delmarva
was estimated at $19.18 billion, or about
3.9 percent of the combined Delaware-
Maryland-Virginia gross state product of
$497.6 billion. Personal income – composed
of wages, salaries, proprietors’ income, and
other labor income earned by job-holders
working in the Delmarva region – was
valued at $18.4 billion in 2001.
Employment, including full- and part-time
wage and salary employees and self-
employed workers, totaled 395,610 in
Delmarva, or about 4.9 percent of the
combined three-state total, in 2001.

The broiler industry is a key component of the Delmarva economy not only
because of its own sales volume but also through its effects in related
industries. Most closely related economically to broiler processing is
Delmarva farming. Poultry is by far Delmarva’s leading agricultural product,
accounting for almost two-thirds of farm output value. Residents by the
thousands are employed by the plants, the peninsula’s 15 hatcheries, 10 feed
mills, or in industry related jobs. There has been a study by poultry
professionals that the industry creates 7.2 jobs elsewhere.

The crucial dependence of Delmarva farming on the broiler industry is shown
more starkly in the case of the most broiler-intensive counties on the lower
Eastern Shore of Maryland along with Kent and Sussex Counties in Delaware
and Accomack in Virginia. In those counties three-fourths the value of farm
production is generated by poultry and most of the rest by crops fed to
poultry. Poultry and grain together accounted for 88 to 96 percent of the
value of farm output in Maryland’s four lower Eastern Shore counties in 1997.

In the progress of research I
discovered overwhelming and
harmful evidence caused by the
industry processes. The elite of
the poultry industry companies
is the only group that benefits,
they are reaping the positive
factors of the business like high
profits and working in
comfortable office environments.
Hence, The negative impacts
consequently affect the low-        A poultry industry community
income people, people of color      in Georgetown, MD.
and their communities in regards
to social and economic
disproportion. Additionally, the
people of the industry and
surrounding communities are
adversely affected in regards to
environmental and health issues.

Please review the research,
familiarize yourself with the
community, and note the
devastating impacts that harm
many and protect a few.             Newly immigrated and going to work for

                     AND LABOR FORCE

A profile of the lower wage earners for the poultry industry estimates that African-
Americans make up the majority of poultry workers. However, for the Delmarva
region there is a high concentration of Mexican immigrants becoming involved.
Additionally, Latinos are mentioned to be 40% of the workforce at Perdue chicken
farms. Women comprise about 50% of the workforce.

         A member of the poultry community.
                                                         UFCW Local 789

The Delmarva peninsula has changed over time and experienced a shift from
White American poultry workers by African-Americans, in turn, have been
partially replaced by Latino immigrant workers. Indeed, industry management
often prefers Latino workers because they are willing to work very hard without
complaint. Bill Saterfield, Delmarva’s Poultry Industry’s Executive Director
states “Latinos are appreciated of all the workers, especially the Hispanics.
Their willingness and enthusiasm is better than others.”

        Chicken workers waiting for jobs.      A migrant worker searches for a
                                               poultry job.


   Class lectures led to the discussion of
  the “precautionary principle”, a factor
  that proves the industry’s ability to
  realize the processes and their impacts.
  However, in the course of research, the
  evidence found leads us to believe the
  poultry industry lacks the precautionary
  principle. Findings revealed allegations
  ranging from health and safety issues
  to potential violations of labor laws.
  Whole service providers who work
  closely with poultry workers are aware
  of and willing to speak about problems
  experienced in poultry processing
  plants. Many poultry workers were
  reluctant to complain about work-
  related problems, out of a stated fear
  of job loss or other forms of employer
  retaliation.(The Public Justice Center,

An investigation that was conducted by The
Department of Labor found that 60% of poultry
companies cheat workers out of failing to comply
with the overtime and record keeping requirements
of the Fair Labor Standards Act, included are the
poultry industry based in the Delmarva region. The
violations found by the DOL included failure to pay
for all hours and unlawful deductions from pay. For
example, the DOL reported that:

Over 60% of plants failed to pay overtime to chicken
crews for hours worked over 40.

51% of plants failed to pay for time spent in job-
related pre- and post-liminary tasks (such as
donning and doffing safety equipment).

Over 30% of plants failed to pay for brief breaks
taken during the work day.

54% of plants charged employees for required
clothing and protective equipment.

At Chestertown Foods, a
poultry processing plant,
six undocumented
workers under the age of
16 were arrested during
an INS raid in March

Suffering of poultry workers
within the companies located in the
Delmarva region has increased as
company profits have grown. The
poultry industry has taken
advantage of the non-immigrant
status of workers.

Despite the overvalued appreciation for minority workers by the industry,
there has been little growth in the hourly wages of poultry workers, who earned
little more than $7 hour in 1995, which is 60% less than average for
manufacturing workers. A tremendous gap between the growth in the
industry’s productivity and the growth in hourly wages. While the value of
production between 1985 and 1995 doubled, average hourly earnings rose less
than half the growth in the value of production, and the real average hourly
earnings for poultry workers have actually dropped since 1995 from $5.92/hour
to $5.73/hour in 1995.(The Public Justice Center, 1995).

                             A Delmarva chicken farmer

The low wages are inevitable due to the unfair practices of poultry companies
upon poultry growers. There is a lack of bargaining power for the poultry
growers with the major poultry companies such as Perdue and Tyson. They
must accept the companies demands, or they do not get a new flock of
chickens placed in their houses.

For example, “Under a typical growing contract, the grower must provide the
land, buildings, equipment, utilities and labor in raising the chickens until ready
for slaughter. The company controls of the inputs that determine the ultimate
profit of the grower, including chickens, feed and medication. Although the
company retains ownership of the chickens at all times, the grower incurs all
responsibility for the disposal of chicken manure and dead chickens.” –“The
contract is good for only one flock of chickens (6-10 weeks), and may be
changes at any time at the whim of the company. After making large capital
investments of about $250,000 or more in poultry houses and other equipment,
growers have no choice but to sign the contracts and comply with the
company’s demands.” (Eisenberg, 1998).
The National Contract Poultry Growers Association conducted studies
and revealed that while poultry companies enjoy a 0% to 30% return
on their investment, the most poultry farmers can hope for is a 1% to
3% return, despite the fact that the growers invest over 50% of the
capital needed to grow the chickens. According to studies by The
National Contract Growers Institute, poultry growers earn well below
minimum wage and over 71.6% of poultry farmers have incomes
below poverty level from their poultry operations and qualify for food
stamps. (Eisenberg, 1998).

Investigations and the application of
labor laws seemed to prevail for the
following suit. Chicken catchers won
back pay-Poultry giant Perdue Farms
agreed to pay on May 10, 2003 for $2.4
million dollars to settle a federal law suit
charging federal Fair labor Standard Act
and Maryland wage law violations,
brought on behalf of 100 chicken
catchers. Perdue will pay $1.7 million in
back overtime to the United Food and
Commercial Workers Local 27 members
who catch birds at Perdue plants in            A Perdue chicken catcher

Maryland, Virginia and Delaware.
(American Federation of Labor, 2003).

The U.S. Department of Labor's
Wage and Hour Division
assessed poultry-processing
concern Chestertown Foods Inc.
a penalty of $14,100 for 24 child
labor violations, including the
use of children to debone
chicken. The New Jersey
company, which has a plant
Maryland. since has terminated
the minors and said it would
comply with labor laws.

                           Chicken catchers working hard.

 We are aware that there is minor retribution for ignorance towards
workers. However, more improvements must be implemented for the
underserved communities. The poultry industry lacks representation for the
vulnerable workers. Fewer than 1/3 of poultry workers are represented by a
union. There is a high rate of turnover because of awful working conditions
and high rate injury. Rather than offering high wages for the high work
demand, the industry are planning contractual schemes, Foreign Labor
Contractors, and Welfare-to-Work programs to lower their costs. The profits
go right into the corporate elite’s pockets, the big companies lower their costs
and increase their profits and import a steady stream of workers willing to
that are blindly willing to endure the abusive conditions.

                   United Food and Commercial Workers.

We are aware that the negligence factor is present because top
industry professionals had prior knowledge to the actions that were
unfolding. Hence, the events could have been preventable and there
is lack of responsibility on the industry’s behalf. Hopefully organized
labor organizations, such as the UFCW, will gain more exposure,
represent, and protect more workers.

             THE LABOR FORCE

                    A relentless and inhumane environment

only inhuman hands could withstand the pain caused by as many as
40,000 daily repetitions of a single defined movement, such as the same
knife or scissors cut to slit open carcasses from anus to breast or the
same twist of the hand to yank out viscera at a grueling pace, set by
relentless conveyor belt and reinforced by circulating foreman, while the
workers are standing in pools of water and grease in temperatures that
range from freezing to 95 degrees and being pelted by flying fat globules
or dripping blood. (Linder, 1995)

The work environment is
inhumane in every aspect. The
employment of large numbers
of low-skill, low-wage workers
at all stages of production is
because poultry processing is
not fully automated.
Consequently, the working
conditions are appalling and a
threat to the health of workers

For example, ”When chickens
                                   Inside the slaughter house.
arrive at poultry plant, live
hangers shackle the birds by
their legs upside down, at 25 or
more birds per minute, while
the chickens scratch, peck and
defecate all over them.

                   TOWARDS THE COMMUNITY

Overwhelming amounts of pollution is affecting the land, water, and surrounding
communities of the Delmarva region. The pollution renders harmful effects to the
environment which are caused by the poultry industry.

                                   The Chesapeake Bay.

                    An overcrowded concentrated animal feeding operation.

The pollution is largely due to the overcrowding by CFO’s (Concentrated Animal
Feeding Operations). The top poultry companies such as Purdue, Tyson, and
many others are commonly using CFO’s, which are used so that chickens may
grow under confined conditions. Mass amounts of chickens are crowded into one
facility located on just a few acres.

CAFO’s produce massive amounts
of waste, including manure, urine,
excess feed, and dead animals,
which must be disposed of daily.
This commonly is done by storing
the waste in lagoons and holding
facilities that frequently overflow
as a result of exceeding the
holding capacity or because of
excessive rainfall. During these
events, this untreated waste flows
into nearby streams, wetlands, or
watersheds. This waste also is
spread on the nearby fields
bordering the waters of the
Chesapeake Bay as fertilizer,
which runs off into the nearby
waterways as nonpoint-source
pollution.”(Henry, 2003)

                                      Caged Chickens

Manure containing dietary antibiotics
from approximately 82 million
chickens is used to fertilize the fields
in the Pocomoke River Basin. The
Pocomoke River Basin is a tributary of
the Chesapeake Bay, in the Delmarva
Peninsula of Maryland. Runoff from
the agriculture fields on which the
manure is applied affects the ecology
of the Pocomoke River. The altered
ecology has been suggested as a
contributor to outbreak of toxic
microorganisms, Pfisteria picida,
resulting in large fish kills and human
health problems. Studies have been
conducted by The U.S Geological
Survey that resulted in evidence of
                                           A Chicken Manure Pit.
overwhelming levels of microbial
populations in the river bed sediment
of the Pocomoke.(Henry, 2003)

                            Fish with lesions.

The seepage in the water adds to poorer water quality that is a breeding
ground for infectious disease in the environment, one of which is
Pfiesteria Pisceda, a toxic dinoflagellate that has been associated with fish
lesions and mass amounts of fish kills in the Bay area. (Wright, 2000)

The deteriorating water quality is a major
concern. For the chicken raising areas and
surrounding communities; more than 1/3 of
the entire supply of well water exceeds EPA
safe drinking water standards for nitrate that
is found in large amounts of chicken feces
and carcasses (Mcnelly, 1999).

                                                   Algal blooms in the rivers and bay.

The reduction of water quality, through
nutrient loading of nitrate causing oxygen
depletion and eutrophication has led to algal
blooms and fish kills. The experts mention
that the chicken waste can also cause avian
botulism and cholera, which are major threats
to migratory birds. There is a huge roster of
by-products of CFO’s that contribute to
pollution including chemicals, ammonia and
hydrogen sulfide gases, hormones, medicines,
heavy metals, pesticides, and pathogens.                   A massive fish kill.
These pollutants threaten the health and
survival of humans, wildlife, and the land their
resistance relies on.
                           The beautiful Chesapeake Bay at sunset.

There is an overwhelming amount of methane gas emission from the chicken
manure in the poultry industry for the region and it contributes to global
warming, it is a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. The
Chesapeake Bay on the mid-Atlantic coast is rising twice as fast as the global
average rate of sea level rise. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003).

The changes in store are the loss of marshes, beaches, and islands are the
impacts of global warming in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Other changes also
are possible including warmer temperatures, increases in precipitation and more
damaging floods from coastal storms, lower water quality.

Environmental justice does
prevail, however in small doses.
For example, Hudson Foods, Inc.
agreed to pay $4 million I federal
fines and $2 million to curb
chicken water runoff in
Maryland’s waterways, the
largest water pollution settlement
in state history”-“ The agreement
may shift much of the financial             Caged chickens
cost of pollution control from
chicken farmers to the large scale
processors on Delmarva
Peninsula. Many officials believe
that processor liability is
necessary in order to limit further
outbreaks of the microbe Pfisteria
picicida. The company Hudson
Foods is now owned by Tyson
Foods, Inc. (Valentine, 1998)

                                      More chickens in confinement.


 The workers are subjected to
 repetitive motions and speed of the
 production line, some suffer from
 repetitive stress disorders, such as
 carpal tunnel syndrome.

 The painful damage to tendons and
 nerves that can permanently cripple
 fingers, hands, wrists, and shoulders,
 and has required thousands of poultry
 workers to undergo corrective surgery,
 makes it difficult or impossible for them
 to perform such simple motions or tasks
 as raising their arms above their heads,
 holding things, sweeping, washing
 dishes, or removing clothes from a
 washer machine as the worker injuries
 rise while business booms. (The Public      A worker inside a slaughter house.

 Justice Center,1992)

                              A corporate opportunist.

Workers suffer from back injuries, strains and sprains after slipping on
floors slick with water and poultry fat and grease. “Serious Citations”
have been issued by OSHA against Tyson Foods from 4 in 1996 to 46 in
1998, the number of serious citations against Perdue was 16 in 1996, 5
in 1997, and 29 in 1998.

The latest statistics indicate that the poultry industry recorded the fifth
highest rate of cumulative trauma disorders-535 per 10,000 workers. A
health hazard evaluation of a was performed at a Perdue processing plants
and revealed that 36% suffered from work related-injuries, while 20% had
current work-related injuries. Those working in high-exposure departments
such as eviscerating and deboning were four times as likely to have
experienced disorders as those in low-exposure jobs such as maintenance,
sanitation, and clerical. More than 99% in high exposure positions were
Latino and African-American, and 86% women, compared with 44% and 63%,
respectively, of the low-exposure participants. (The Public Justice
 Workers Dying

In July 1999, at Tyson’s Robards,
Maryland plant, 2 workers fell into
decomposing chicken parts and
suffocated and died from the methane
gas in tank.

On Oct. 8, 1999, sanitation worker
Charles Shepard was struck on the
head by rotating paddles and killed
while cleaning a chiller at Tyson’s
Berlin, Maryland plant.


The evidence of Pfiesteria Pisceda, a toxic
dinoflagellate that has been associated with fish
lesions and mass amounts of fish kills in the Bay
area has been suggested to effect human health
that was proven in laboratory studies. Humans
expose to Pfisteria suffered from memory loss,
confusion, and a variety of other health            Antibiotics only work for some.
symptoms including respiratory, skin, and
gastro-intestinal problems. (Wright, 2000)

The Center for Disease Control and
Prevention estimates that there are 76 million
instances of food borne illness and more than
5,000 food-related deaths annually in the U.S.,
which has proportionately affected the
communities of the Delmarva region. Every
year there are more than a million salmonella-
                                                    Medical treatment is necessary.
related cases of food poisoning, and 600 of
them are fatal.(PETA,2003)
Human illness is caused by antibiotics led by
drug resistant bacteria, due to the fact that
antibiotics are fed to chickens and only 20% is
metabolized, the other 80% ends up in feces.
The waste produced is fertilized in crops and
leaches into waterways in the Delmarva
Region, along with the drugs and bacteria it
contains. Environmental and human health
problems are developing as a result of this
unchecked use of antibiotics. A U.S. geological
                                                  An inspection of a chicken farm
study reveals that 14 antibiotics used in
animal agriculture and human medicine in
almost 50% of the waterways

One scientist examined poultry workers’
health and found that more than 40% of the
test subjects were infected with
campylobacter and that the bacteria was
“supersized and resistant to antibiotics. A
Consumer Reports Study of nearly 500
supermarket chickens found campylobacter in
42% and salmonella in 12%-and up to 90%
of the bacteria were resistant to

                                    Feed for the chickens.

             Arsenic is approved for use in animal feed!  The United States of
             Agriculture reports that young chickens contain 3 to 4 times more
             arsenic than other meat. The harmful substance is ingested by the
             consumers of the community! (PETA,2003)


We are fully aware of the devastating implications by the poultry industry
affecting race, poverty, and the environment of the urbanized Delmarva

Please consider a cost-benefit analysis and realize that even though the
industry may seem to be beneficial by increasing profits, jobs, efficiency of
production, yield of chickens, and impressing consumers with low prices, there
are costs. The costs are the negative impacts upon the social, economic, and
environmental conditions of the labor force and community involved in and
surrounded by the poultry industry.

Further change is desperately needed in order to preserve and protect the
vulnerable and underserved communities. Please review the following


 Improve Benefits for Workers:

 Provide more advancement opportunities for workers.
 The ability for workers to break the barriers of the
 “institionalized” structural components that promote

 Increase wages to an acceptable level that
 compensates the workers for the high demand and
 strenuous activity of the industry.

 We can stop eating chickens and spread the word to
 friends about the health, environmental, and social
 problems caused by raising chickens for foods. Maybe
 marinate tofu for the next barbeque and promote


  Promote Exchange of Information:

  The poultry industry of Delmarva experts in the
  engineering field recommend that a cross-pollination
  of the agriculture and engineering schools than the
  current situation. “if the EPA were to mandate a
  factory farm-based cleanup overnight, engineers
  would have to scramble to take advantage of a huge
  new market” mentions one engineer and says “low-
  tech solutions dominate” (Wright, 2000).

  Constant changes need to be made in order to assure
  the future health of our trust resources” (Henry, 2003).
  More examples are needed to convince the farming
  industry of laws addressing the unnatural confinement
  and conditions for raising chickens. In order to achieve
  the change events must be documented relating to
  concentrated animal feeding operations, the effects must
  be recorded, and invite the industry to participate in
  creating solutions. “Only by forming partnerships and
  working as a team will a strategy be formed that all
  players can endorse and enforce”(Henry, 2003)              39

 Focus on Renewable Resources:

 Chicken manure waste management
 programs are the focus by Perdue in
 Salisbury, MD. The program will manage
 collection and market the production of
 manure to fertilizer pellets. The process
 serves as an economic incentive for the big
 companies at the same time focusing on the         New taxes in the process.
 manure as a renewable substance.

 The state of Delaware law is discussing the
 taxation allocated to the user groups to aid in
 waste disposal and fund state inspections.

 Further promotion of nutrient management is
 a trend in the poultry industry. The emphasis
                                                   A nutrient management site.
 will be on establishing more goals and specific
 recommendations by the experts will be made
 on the most effective means to implement
 change, as well as areas future research
 should be focused. (Delaware Water
 Resources, University of Delaware).
References/ Bibliography:

  The American Federation of Labor, Work in Progress, Washington D.C., May 2003.

  The Australia Visa, The Changing Face of Delmarva, 1997-15rmn.asp, Western Australia, July 1997.

  Delaware Energy Task Force, Overview of Renewable Energy Resources in Delaware, Applied
  Energy Group, Inc., Wilmington, DE, October 2002.

  Eisenberg, Thompson Deborah, The Lord in the Kingdom of Big Chicken: Contracting and Workers
  Exploitation by the Poultry Industry, Public Justice Center, April 1998.

  Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change, Wildlife, and Wildlands,$File?CS_.pdf,
  June 2003., Poultry feed eyed as root of illnesses,
  89473220.htm. Salisbury, MD, February 2003.

 Henry, Mary G., Keynote Session: Perspectives on the Research Needs of Animal Feeding
  Operations, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, May 2003.

  Lewis, Jim, the Church up to Its Ears in Chicken,$43, February 2003.

References/ Bibliography:

  Linder, Marc, Playing Chicken with People: The Occupational Safety and Health Consequences
  Throughput Uber Alles, International Journal of Health Services, April, 1995.

  Mcnelly, Jim, Poultry’s Price: The Cost to the Bay, The Washington Post, August 1, 1999.

  People for Ethical Treatment of Animals(PETA), Chickens and Egg Farming: Abusive Industries,
  Norfolk, VA, January 2003.

  The Public Justice Center, The Disposable Workforce: A Worker’s Perspective, Washington D.C.,
  June 1992.

  Rhodes, Marla, Chicken Processing in Delmarva, Tufts University, Mass., November, 29, 1999.

  Ruckelhaus, Catherine and Goldstein, Bruce, From Orchards to the Internet: Confronting
  Contingent Work Abuse, National Employment Law Project, New York, NY, February 2002.

  United Poultry Concerns, Intensive Poultry Production: Fouling the
  Environment, Machinpongo, VA, March 1998.

  Valentine, Paul, Poultry Processor Pays $6 Million in Water Pollution Settlement, Washington Post,
  May 9, 1998

  Wright, Andrew, A Foul Mess, Biogas Works, Washington D.C., May 2000.

 Slide 1, 37- Pictures of Chickens,
 Slide 3- Chesapeake Bay Program,
 Slide 4, 25-26- Justice for Animals,
 Slide 5, 13- Economy and Money,
 Slide 7-8, 32- The Baltimore Sun,
 Slide 9, 10,16, 22, 28, 32- Washington Post,
 Slide 11- United States of America Department of Labor,
 Slide 11- Time,
 Slide 12- Chestertown Foods, search for company name.
 Slide 14- Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc.,
 Slide 15- National Contract Poultry Growers Association,
 Slide 17-19, 24, 30-,
 Slide 21- Tyson Foods, Inc.,
 Slide 27-28--USGS: Science for a Changing World,
 Slide 23, 29-John Tobin Photography,
 Slide 31- Science and Medicine Photography,
 Slide 33- Chicken Feed: The World of Chickens,
 Slide 36-,


Thank-you to the 2004 Spring Class of
 Race, Poverty, and the Environment
for providing inspiration and support
      to complete the research.


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