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Midwest hip hop

Midwest hip hop
Midwest hip hop Stylistic origins Cultural origins Typical instruments Mainstream popularity Hip hop, Dance music Early 1990s, Midwestern United States Prominent drum machine Turntable - rapping - Sampler synthesizer - human beatboxing Became a staple of popular music in the mid-to-late 1990s; still remaining dominant through the 21st century.

Midwest hip hop is hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. In contrast with its East Coast, West Coast and Southern counterparts, Midwest hip hop has very few constants. Its first dose of national popularity in the mid-90s was associated with fast-paced styles of rappers such as Twista (Chicago), Eminem (Detroit), and Bone Thugs-n-Harmony (Cleveland). These artists became the first to introduce Midwest hip hop that rivaled the popularity of West and East Coast styles. However, subsequent acts which have since risen to national prominence such as Nelly, D12, and Kanye West share very few similarities. It is because these lack of constants between acts from different cities (and sometimes even between artists from the same city) that it can be extremely difficult to define a "typical" Midwest sound. One characteristic of Midwest hip hop is that beat tempos can range from 90 to about 180, while East Coast’s beat tempo is 90-120, West Coast is 100-120, and Southern rap is 80-110. Prozak, as stated in his DVD "The Hitchcock of HipHop", says that the Midwest’s style often revolves around "Dark beats and lyrics".

Detroit
Detroit is one of the most recognizable cities that have a rap/hip hop origin. After hip hop originated in the late 70s and gained popularity through time, Detroit was home to a

vibrant underground hip hop scene by the 1990s. The first Detroit hip hop artists to gain major notice included Esham, Kid Rock and Insane Clown Posse.[1][2] There are places within the city that have created ’rap battles,’ such as the Hip Hop Shop. In these rap battles, two MC’s battle and attack each other with rhyming words as if those words were used as fists. Slum Village has an origin in the city. In the mid 1990s, rap superstar Eminem was an underground Detroit rapper and released two albums before making it big. These two albums were Infinite and The Slim Shady EP. Later, in 1999, he released his major-label debut album The Slim Shady LP, heavily based on Aftermath Entertainment’s production by Dr. Dre. His second album, The Marshall Mathers LP, became the fastest selling hip hop album in history, breaking the record of Snoop Dogg. DeShaun Holton, known as rapper Proof before he was deceased, was also a Detroit rapper and Eminem’s closest friend. Proof, as well, had an origin in Detroit being born and raised in the city. He was part of the rap group D12, but also made two solo albums which were Searching For Jerry Garcia and I Miss The Hip Hop. Proof was shot and killed in a gunfight at a Detroit nightclub on April 11, 2006, taking numerous bullet wounds to the head. News reports said he almost survived. Cities with a tough life such as Detroit contain artists who often tend to use gangsta rap in their lyrics. These artists show it through their hard beats in music, experience of living in a place with a high crime rate, and their lyrics involving drugs, guns, and poverty. Much of these lyrics are also controversial as well. Two of the most controversial rappers (Eminem and Insane Clown Posse) are from Detroit. Despite Detroit being over 80% black, many of the most famous white rappers, including Eminem, Kid Rock, and Insane Clown Posse, are from Detroit. It’s true on what these rap artists represent, but they let people know not to follow this way of life. Freestyle rapping is used a lot in Detroit, as if it was a priority to most people there since they freestyle whenever. D12, standing for Dirty Dozen or Detroit Twelve, was the group

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created by Proof and Eminem and is produced by Shady Records, Eminem’s successful record label. The members consisting of the group were all good friends and knew each other early in Detroit. Besides Eminem and former member Proof, are all the other members of D12, which are Bizarre, Kon Artis, Kuniva, and Swift, are all Detroit MCs, hence the name D12. In the 1990s, Proof called up Eminem one day and gave him the idea of creating this rap group, so that they would have their own version of the Wu Tang Clan, but in Detroit instead. However, Proof and Eminem could did not gather twelve MCs. Instead, they gathered six, but created the idea that each member had a dual personality making alter egos for themselves which technically created twelve of them. However, Proof and former member Bugz, were both gunned down and deceased. Even before Kon Artis joined the group, he produced for them. Rappers in Detroit have a different style of their own, and it’s unique and essential to the hip hop there. Eminem, D12, Obie Trice, Royce da 5’9, and others use this style in their music. Obie Trice made his major-label debut in Shady Records, as he released Cheers, followed by Second Round’s On Me. Royce da 5’9, another Detroit rapper, made his debut with his album Rock City (Version 2.0). Before that, Royce was part of the underground rap duo "Bad Meets Evil" with fellow Detroit MC Eminem. Royce was known as the "Bad" half, and Eminem was known as the "Evil" half. Trick Trick is a Detroit rapper, and has collaborated with Eminem to make a couple concept songs about Detroit. MC Breed has an origin of both Flint, Michigan and Detroit. He’s made many albums and some compilation albums. His song "I Gotta Get Mine" featured 2pac, and became an attention-getting single. However, MC Breed died suddenly in his sleep November 22, 2008.[3] He was on life support for two days in September after he collapsed during a game of pick-up basketball due to kidney failure. It is unclear if prior health complications were the cause of death. [4]

Midwest hip hop
rapping group associated with Twista,and the latter of which was a group with a decidedly down-home, country sound. Chicago soon became known for more than fast rapping with the rising popularity of Common Sense, protege of producer No I.D., who put flippant battle raps over a jazzy backdrop. Other rappers in this vein included Vakill, who also gained some notoriety in Chicago. Da Brat, a female Chicago native, also had a hit in this period with Jermaine Dupri’s label So So Def. In 2004, Chicago producer and rapper Kanye West broke the scene with his multi platinum debut, College Dropout on Roc-AFella Records. He became an industry commodity, reworking and repopularizing WuTang producer RZA’s style of speeding up Soul instrumental and vocal samples to fit hip hop beats. The style became known as "chipmunk soul". The same year, West produced two hits for Twista, "Slow Jamz" and "Overnight Celebrity"; these led to the rapper’s first platinum release, Kamikaze. Also in 2004, Italian American rapper Mikie Da Poet put the spotlight on Chicago Hip Hop and opened up an international eye with his live Fox News performance. In 2005, Common (having dropped the "Sense" from his name) signed with Kanye’s GOOD Music, West also being a student of No I.D. This led to Be, Common’s second gold album, which some said revitalized his career. Kanye attempted to push longtime associate Rhymefest, a Chicago battle rapper and ghostwriter; his support helped carve the MC a local niche and some national attention. A guest spot on West’s 2006 second album, Late Registration, also solidified the buzz of up-and-coming Chicago rapper Lupe Fiasco, whose debut album Food & Liquor was the #1 rap album in the country upon its release. His later album The Cool directly references his Chicago roots. Chicago is currently home to a thriving underground rap-music scene. Popular blogs such as have become a "vital nerve center" for the local underground rap music scene. [5] A 2009 film, I Am Hip Hop: The Chicago Hip Hop Documentary documented the underground rap-music scene in Chicago from 2004-2009.

Chicago
Chicago has harbored several locally popular acts since the early 1990s, including Do or Die,mr.two6nine (of Kalamazoo, Michigan), Crucial Conflict; the former being a fast-

Cleveland
In the early 1990s, 5 drop outs formed the unit Bone Enterpri$e and took a one way bus

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ticket to Compton. They went searching for Eazy E, a pioneer of gangsta rap, and signed to his label. They were signed to Ruthless when they got back to Cleveland for a concert, where they performed for Eazy on the spot. They changed their name to Bone Thugs N Harmony consisting of Flesh-NBone, Layzie Bone, Wish Bone, Krayzie Bone, Bizzy Bone. They created a style never heard in hip hop , a rapid-fire flow and melodic mesh of harmonizing vocals, a style they called the Flow Motion. They released their LP Creepin on ah Come Up with the smash single "Thuggish Ruggish Bone" and "Foe tha Love of $" featuring Eazy E. They later surprise the world with their unique styles use on cd’s like E. 1999 Eternal with hits like 1st Of Tha Month" and "Tha Crossroads" and Art of War’s "Look Into My Eyes" and "If I Could Teach The World" in which gave them win their first AMA. They were the first Midwest rappers to go platinum, which lead to a conflict with Chicago rappers as Twista, Do or Die, and Crucial Conflict about stealing their style. They are also the only ones to collaborate with greats hip hop "Hall of Famers" like The Notorious BIG ("Notorious Thugs"), Tupac ("Thug Luv"), Big Pun, and Eazy E while they were all living, and have sold more than 40 million records only in the U.S. Today they have their own label after contractual difficulties with Ruthless records. Their new album, Strength and Loyalty, was released May 2007 with their smashing hit "I Tried" winning their second AMA. The hiphop legendaries have reunited and are cited to release an album early-mid 2009. Today, in 2008, most Northeast Ohio (NEO) Hip-Hop has either a faux-southern sound (usually from inner city Cleveland/Akron), while the City of Youngstown (on the PA Line) preserves a more classic vibe. Nearby the city of Akron produced Chino Nino who collaborated with Juvenile and B.G. on the track U.P.T. to da Top on his album Get Wet. However, both the Eastern and Western sides of Cleveland itself hold light to a Conscious Hip Hop sound coined by artists such as Mos Def, Common & Talib Kweli, While the southern portion of the city holds more to a flashier glameier side of hip hop. The city being a major metropolis, typically the city has a feel that is much more East Coast. Some say Detroit meets Philly, than St. Louis or any other undeniably "Midwestern" place. To consider the cultures or subcultures of

Midwest hip hop
Cleveland and Kansas City "of the same region" is simple and archaic. The Hip-Hop, as well as the food, language, and values of these cities and their surrounding metropolitan areas are remarkably different. The terms Great Lakes, Rustbelt, Mideast, "Northern", North-Central, or Northeastern Interior are much accurate and clear in the study of music of the cities between Philadelphia and Denver. Currently, The NEO hip hop scene is exploding with artists such as the recent booming Poetic Republic. Kid Cudi of Shaker Heights made a major splash in the hip-hop world in 2009 with the electro hop track Day ’n’ Nite. The track has been a hit across the globe, specifically the UK, where it reached #2. It’s continuing to gain popularity in the States and Canada. Cleveland being named as xxlmag.com top 10 hip hop cities and with Ohio being named as Americas most hip-hop states, and having the full support of Cleveland Cavaliers star small forward LeBron James’s imprint, DeamLife Ent., Cleveland and the whole Northeast Ohio music scene showing itself as a force in Midwest as well as mainstream hiphop

Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri has many well known rappers such as Tech N9ne, Kutt Calhoun, Skatterman & Snug Brim, and Big Krizz Kaliko, most of theese artists are signed with Strange Music, a Kansas City based record label owned by Travis O’Guin and Tech N9NE. Another notable Kansas City rapper is Mac Lethal who signed to the Rhymesayers Entertainment imprint and helped create his own Black Clover Record label.

Milwaukee
Milwaukee hip hop dates back to the early 80’s, but it first received national attention in 1992 when Arrested Development-whose front-man, Speech, is a native of the citystrung together a set of commercially successful hits. Until the end of the 1990’s, the Milwaukee scene was largely confined to the city’s (predominantly black) North Side. However, as members of the hip hop generation began to attend college in the early 2000’s, cultural organizations at the University of Wisconsin-

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Milwaukee began to invite acts such as dead prez and Talib Kweli to perform on the East Side campus. The success of these shows led to local groups with similar followings, such as Black Elephant and Rusty P’s being booked for on-campus sets as well. This, in turn, opened the door for the local acts to play off-campus venues on the East Side such as Onopa (now Stonefly) Shank Hall, Up & Under and BBC that had previously been off limits to hip hop (presumably due to the stereotypes associated with such crowds). Meanwhile, Memphis club music was rapidly finding its way to Milwaukee’s North Side via Southern transplants and North Siders who either had relatives and/or attended college in the area. During this time Coo Coo Cal, who had a more typical Midwestern quick-tongued style (albeit, with a noticeably slower delivery) enjoyed moderate commercial success with his debut single “My Projects” and the follow-up “How Does It Feel”. The result is a more artistically driven scene that is centered on the East Side, and a more commercially driven scene that is centered on the North Side . The East Side scene is characterized by socially and politically charged lyrics, neosoul influences and the relatively common use of live instrumentation. Some of these acts include Dameon Ellzey, Def Harmonic, Element Everest, Haz Solo, Dylan Thomas, Raze, Gambit, Rusty P’s, Sose, JC Poppe, and Taste Emcees. A collective of several emcees, producers, and a DJ recently came together to form a supergroup known as The House of M, which has led to further callaborations between different Milwaukee artists, helping to make the local scene a more successful cooperative then it had been in the past. The members of the House of M are: Gambit, A.P.R.I.M.E., Trellmatic, D-Matikk, Lou-Tang, Ecko, DJ Deadbeat, Dana Coppafeel (also a member of KingHellBastard), and Dylan Thomas. The use of live bands by many of these acts has also influenced some Milwaukeebased soul bands such as Growing Nation and Urban Sol to incorporate MC’s into their acts. Conversely, the North Side scene is characterized by its gritty lyrics, southern club music influences and willingness to follow commercial trends. The most successful artists such as J DUB and MECH and DREZ coming from Milwaukee’s North Side, Paper Cha$e who has close ties to Milwaukee

Midwest hip hop
legend, ’Pimpin Ken’. Paper Cha$e has been cameoed on a variety of UGK music videos such as, "Get Throwed" & "International Player’s Anthem". He was featured in a 2008 article of Ozone Magazine’s Patiently Waiting which earned him a spot in Milwaukee’s most influential rap artists. Acts such as Rico Love, and Miko have had (or been featured on) commercially successful singles in recent years. Streetz & Young Deuces , 2006 Get Em Magazine Award Winners, have gained national support by putting out mixtapes with the Hittmenn Djs, Core Djs, Future Star Djs & Shadyville Djs. Milwaukee also has a very diverse group of rappers and the most notable white rapper in the city would be Dana Coppafeel, but there are many more that remain unknown. The Mil is also home to Baby Drew, the "ghetto hero." The city is also home to producers such as D.J Sixteen, Big Poppi,the Lmntlyst, The Surgeon (who is affiliated with Nelly and Derrty ENT) Swift G (produced for Arista Records), Big City (Midwest Funk/ Xrated), JR Da Supastar, Dash D.U.B. of Duce Duce Entertainment, Scottie Knoxx, J Billa (Ghost-town), Durty Mouf , Double R (from Bone Thugs family), Big Hank, and Komossi, the gangsta rapper/producer who invented the "R.S.B" style or ride, slide & bounce sometimes compared to what’s called gangsta bounce but with a more roller coaster ride effect look out for more new artist because Mil-Town is building up to be the next movement in Hip-Hop. For the past several years Milwaukee has hosted a local event called The Miltown Beatdown which served as a beat showcase/battle for local area producers. This has been another tool that has helped to join the North and East side styles together.

Minneapolis-St. Paul
Although strictly underground, there existed a sub-terraean hip hop culture in the Twin Cities starting as early as 1981. Similar to the development of hip hop in the South Bronx, Twin Cities rap started as humble parties with a DJ and an emcee.[6] A DJ named Travitron was comparable to the DJ Kool Herc of the Twin Cities area. Shows took place at many venues, most notoriously Club Hip Hop on Selby Avenue in St. Paul. Other artists and DJs include Disco T, Verb X, Brother Jules, Delite, and Truth Maze. The

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first real album to come out of the Twin Cities was called The I.R.M. Crew, released in 1985. Graffiti and b-boy crews were also existent in the city. This is the world that the current movers of Twin Cities Hip Hop were brought up in. The main movers of Twin Cities Hip Hop came together to form the group Headshots, a precursor to the Rhymesayers Entertainment label. Members of this group included Slug, I Self Devine, Micranots, Musab, Siddiq, and Ant. Slug was one of the main artists to move into the foreground, setting the tone for the style of music to follow in the years to come. Since the emergence of Rhymesayers Entertainment, the Minneapolis hip hop scene has seen the local hip-hop scene erupt with talent including Brother Ali, Eyedea, the Doomtree collective which includes emcees:P.O.S., Sims, Dessa, Mike Mictlan and Cecil Otter. Other notable Minneapolis artists include Heiruspecs, Toki Wright, Mujah Messiah, Knonam, M.anifest, Trama, Big Quarters, Franz Diego, St. Paul Slim, Prof, Carnage, Illuminous 3, Kanser, Maria Isa, Los Nativos and the Unknown Prophets The Twin Cities Celebration of Hip-Hop is an annual event hosted by Yo! The Movement, bringing together people from all walks of life to celebrate the power of community through hip-hop culture. Over the past five years nearly 20,000 people from around the world have taken part in the festival and conference. Another notable annual event is Soundset which started its first year on Memorial Day Weekend in May of 2008. It features several big name hip hop acts and had over 14,000 in attendance. For 2009, the Soundset music festival is expected to be much larger. Some of the notable performing acts include Atmosphere, Pharcyde, Brother Ali, P.O.S., MF Doom, Freeway & Jake One, Immortal Technique, Eyedea & Abilities The Cunninlynguists, Sage Francis, El-P, Heiruspecs, Buck 65, Haiku D’Etat, Blue Scholars, Sims of Doomtree, I Self Devine, One Be Lo, Unknown Prophets, Mike Mictlan & Lazerbeak of Doomtree, Toki Wright, Grieves, Awol One and they are expecting an even larger turnout.

Midwest hip hop

St. Louis
At the same time, St. Louis rapper Nelly hit it with the smash single and album, Country Grammar in 2000. Nelly and his St. Lunatics collectively went on to a career driven by commercial singles. In 2001 the St. Lunatics (Nelly,Ali,Murphy Lee,Kyjuan,City Spud& Slo’Down) released their debut album Free City with hits such as "Summer in the City" and "Midwest Swing". Then Ali released his solo album Heavy Starch in 2002 and Murphy Lee released his solo album Murphy’s Law in 2003. In 2004, FLAME, also from St. Louis, became the first national Christian hip hop artist from the Midwest. FLAME has been nominated for Dove Awards, Stellar Award, and most recently a 2009 Grammy Award for Best Gospel Rap/ Rock Album of the Year. Gospel singer Praiz’ also hit the St. Louis scene with his 2006 crossover hit "Deliver Me" in 2005. Da Banggaz, a trio which consists of 2 males and a female, are a locally acclaimed hip hop group from St. Louis whose style and lyrics seems more southern and fight orientated, similar to that of Atlanta’s Crime Mob. St. Louis native chingy signed to Atlanta rapper Ludacris’ label DTP. Jibbs, received his major deal at age 15 gaining popularity with hits such as Chain Hang Low and King Kong, the latter featuring Texas rapper Chamillionaire. Another St. Louisian, J-Kwon, gained popularity at the age of 17 with the controversial single Tipsy. Akon (born in St. Louis but raised in Senegal, Africa) is known for his African melodic singing is also a native of St. Louis. Rapper Huey received recognition with the smash hit Pop, Lock & Drop It from his 2007 album Notebook Paper at the age of 18. St. Louis also has a hip hop scene that is known both underground and locally. Many are associated with the local movement called "The New St. Louis" including a local indie record label called "7fourteen Entertainment". Many St. Louis artists are normally associated with native production label "Track Boyz" who produced for both J-Kwon and Jibbs. One of the first rappers to claim St Louis was Sylk Smoove. He released the self entitled album in 1991, produced by Trak Productions.

Omaha
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Midwest hip hop
Entertainment include Blitz, Bru’tal and Ka$h. V the Noble One and Trey Lane are also noted for putting together a series of local rap battles called "Rap Wars." Notable Native American battle-rapper Maniac the Siouxpernatural also lives in Sioux Falls and has released several albums under the Nightshield Entertainment record label.

Madison, WI
Madison, WI has a relatively small underground Hip hop scene. The CREST (AD, Jack Cracker) have been bringing regional and national artists to the liberal city for over ten years. These artists include Eyedea & Abilities, Juice, One Be Lo, Pigeon John among many others. Jack Cracker gained battle fame by his two top four finishes in Scribble Jam. The CREST is signed to Uprising Records and the single "Heart Shaped Box" is featured on 2K games "NBA 2K7". DJ Pain 1 and Starr form local group Fallguys and host Saturday nights on the local Hip hop station 93.1 Jamz. DJ Pain 1 also produced a track for Young Jeezy on his gold selling 2008 release. Artists such as L.O.S.T.S.O.U.L.S, Smokes, DLO, Profound, dumate, STINK TANK, RSP, and Reigny Day Productions are also local favorites. Madison party scene is included in many lyrics. Madison is greatly influenced by neighboring Milwaukee’s scene.

Current and future trends
While the Midwest recently lost some of its most supported acts, namely Proof of D12 and J Dilla, other artists stand to uphold the area’s scene. Royce da 5’9", long eluded by commercial fame, is currently working on an album with DJ Premier and may sign with Nas’s The Jones Experience; Lupe Fiasco has announced his next album, anticipated by a (mostly internet-based) cult following. Kanye West and Common have also both announced their next albums on GOOD Music, to be released sometime in ’07. Bone Thugs-N-Harmony are also releasing their 7th studio album Uni5 with the newly reunited full fiveman roster. This is the first time in over a decade that the full group has worked together on an album. [7] (Flesh-N-Bone is in jail liable for parole in 2008 and Bizzy Bone who left the group and is now back, has released an album this year titled A Song for You. On May 7, 2007 Strength and Loyalty was released of Interscope/Full Surface, with the singles I Tried feat. Akon, and Lil L.O.V.E.. with appearances from one time rival Twista, Mariah Carey, The Game, Akon, and many more plus production from Swizz Beatz. Early 2008, hip hop duo , Streetz & Young Deuces hit it big with their single "Dougie" & "Dat Guy" independently distributed through itunes and Rhapsody. With the success of these club driven track they have caught the attention of several major record labels.

Sioux Falls, SD
Sioux Falls, SD also has a fairly small underground hip hop scene. The most notable act includes Soulcrate Music (A-Def, Dirtdee & DJ Absolute) who are signed to Kansas City based rapper Mac Lethal’s Black Clover Records. They have since been on several tours since the summer of 2008 with labelmates Mac Lethal and Grieves. They have released several albums independently and under their record label. Some of these include: Obviously Bothered, A-Def Eisenhauer, DirtDee and Cardboard Cut-Outs No. 1 as well as a Limited Edition CD they released in May of 2009. The popularity of Soulcrate Music has been built upon their live performances. They have shared the stage with several notable acts including Atmosphere, 311, Brother Ali and more. Sioux Falls also features V the Noble One and Trey Lane who are the faces of Flame-On Entertainment - a loose collection of Sioux Falls rappers. Trey Lane’s albums include "Built 4 This EP" "The Standard" and "More Than Music." V the Noble One’s solo album which was released in the Spring of 2008 is titled "Heavy Is The Head That Wears The Crown." V the Noble One is also known for his mixtapes and albums he did with a previous group called the Noblemen and Young Noble collective. Other members of Flame-On

List of notable artists
• • • • • • ABK Atmosphere Big Herk Big Krizz Kaliko Black Milk Blaze Ya Dead Homie • • • • • • • Jibbs JC Poppe J-Kwon Kanye West Kid Cudi King Gordy Kutt Calhoun

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• Bone Thugs-nHarmony (Krayzie Bone, Layzie Bone, Wish Bone, Flesh Bone, Bizzy Bone) • Brother Ali • Chingy • Common • The Cool Kids • Crucial Conflict • Current Events • Da Brat • Dead Bodies • DJ Abilities • DJ Clay • Do or Die • Doomtree • Elzhi • Eminem • Esham • Eyedea • Eyedea & Abilities • FLAME • GLC • Gerald Walker • Heiruspecs • Hot Stylz • Huey • Insane Clown Posse • J Dilla • MC Breed • MC Juice • Nelly • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lupe Fiasco Obie Trice Oddjobs P.O.S. Project Born Proof Prozak RSP Rah-Rah Ray Cash Rhymefest Rico Love Royce Da 5’9" Rusty Pelicans Shawnna Skatterman & Snug Brim Smokes Soopa Villainz St. Lunatics Streetz & Young Deuces Tech N9ne The Dayton Family Trick Trick Twista Twiztid Unknown Prophets Yung Berg

Midwest hip hop

References

[1] "Film exaggerates the support early hiphop had in Detroit.". Detroit Free Press. November 8, 2002. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/ summary_0286-8920875_ITM. Retrieved on 11 April 2009. [2] "Before Eminem, there was Esham". Chicago Tribune. December 9, 2003. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ chicagotribune/access/ 487244521.html?dids=487244521:487244521&FMT Retrieved on 11 April 2009. [3] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/26/ arts/music/26breed.html [4] http://www.ballerstatus.com/article/ news/2008/11/5852/ [5] http://www.chicagoreader.com/features/ stories/sharpdarts/090129/ [6] Scholtes, Peter S. (2004-08-18). "One Nation, Invisible: The Untold Story of TC hip hop, 1981-1996". City Pages 25 (1237). ISSN 0744-0456. http://citypages.com/databank/25/1237/ article12383.asp. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. [7] http://www.hiphopdx.com/index/news/ id.8190/title.bone-thugs-n-harmonyreunite-for-uni-5-concert

External links
• A journey through Detroit Hip Hop • MWC - Midwest Rap Network

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