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United States presidential inauguration

United States presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States. The only inauguration element mandated by the United States Constitution is that the President make an oath or affirmation before that person can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades, speeches, and balls. This day, now known as Inauguration Day, was on March 4 from 1798 until 1933. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term). From the presidency of Martin Van Buren through Jimmy Carter, the primary Inauguration Day ceremony took place on the Capitol’s East Portico. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol’s West Front. The inauguration of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed a regularly-scheduled Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. The War of 1812 and World War II caused two inaugurations to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

Inauguration Day 2009 on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol.

Barack Obama being sworn in as President of the United States by Chief Justice John G. Roberts, 2009.

Inaugural ceremonies
President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush lead the inaugural parade down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, 2005 The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City[1] where he was sworn in by Robert Livingston, the Chancellor of the State of New York.[2] In

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1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which only officially become the federal capital that year.[3] Inauguration day was originally on March 4, four months after election day, but this was changed to noon on January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment in 1933.[3] The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon’s second inauguration were marred by the passing of former president Lyndon Johnson two days after the inauguration. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. Because of the construction work on the center steps of the East Front, Johnson’s casket was taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state. When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol.[4] Inauguration Day is a Federal holiday observed only by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia; Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland; Arlington and Fairfax Counties in Virginia, and the cities of Alexandria and Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees and students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event.

United States presidential inauguration

Locations
All but one of the inaugural ceremonies were held at the building housing the United States Congress. Washington gave his first address at Federal Hall in New York City and his second address in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Adams also gave his in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Jefferson gave both of his addresses at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. and all addresses since then have been given there, except for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fourth address, which he gave at the White House. Depending on the weather the ceremonial swear-in can be held outside or inside of the Capitol building.

Dates

Organizers
Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol have been organized by the Congressional Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.[5] The U.S. military have participated in Inauguration Day ceremonies since George Washington, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task ForceArmed Forces Inaugural Committee). The Presidential Inaugural Committee is the legal entity which raises and distributes funds for events other than the ceremony such as the balls and parade.[6]

Invitation to the January 20th 2009 inauguration of President Barack Obama. Inuagural ceremonies have been held on five different calendar dates in the year: April 30, March 4, March 5, January 20, January 21. Washington gave his first address on April 30, 1789 and his second one on March 4, 1793, which was the commencement date for presidential terms. This March 4 date was changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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United States presidential inauguration
allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[7] This is followed by four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail, Columbia." At noon, the new presidential term begins. At about that time, the president-elect takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution: “ I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States. ”

Sunday exceptions
From the years 1793 to 1933, the addresses were given on March 4 with only four exceptions. Because March 4 fell on a Sunday in each of their respective inaugural years, Monroe, Taylor, Hayes and Wilson each gave an address on Monday, March 5. Since 1937, addresses have been given on January 20 with only two exceptions (other than following a premature end to the Presidential term). Presidents Eisenhower and Reagan each gave an address on Monday, January 21. The next inauguration day that will fall on a Sunday is January 20, 2013.

Attendees
In addition to public, the attendees at the ceremony generally include Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, high-ranking military officers, and other dignitaries. The outgoing president usually attends the inauguration, barring those cases where succession was due to his death. There have been four exceptions: • John Adams did not attend Jefferson’s inauguration. • John Quincy Adams did not attend Jackson’s inauguration. • Andrew Johnson did not attend Grant’s inauguration. • Richard Nixon left Washington, DC before his resignation took effect, and did not attend Ford’s inauguration.

Ceremony elements
Oaths of office
Since 1937, the vice president-elect takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the president-elect; before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The Vice-President-elect takes the oath first. Unlike the president, the United States Constitution does not specify an oath of office for the Vice President. Several variants of the oath have been used since 1789; the current form, which is also recited by Senators, Representatives and other government officers, has been used since 1884: “ I, AB, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and ”

According to a single source, Washington Irving’s biography of George Washington, in the first inauguration President Washington added the words "so help me God" after accepting the oath, although there is no contemporary evidence of this. However, the only contemporaneous source that fully reproduced Washington’s oath completely lacks the religious codicil.[8] The first newspaper report that actually described the exact words used in an oath of office, Chester Arthur’s in 1881,[9] repeated the "query-response" method where the words, "so help me God" were a personal prayer, not a part of the constitutional oath. The time of adoption of the current procedure, where both the Chief Justice and the President speak the oath, is unknown. There is no requirement that any book, or in particular a book of sacred text, be used to administer the oath, and none is mentioned in the Constitution. With the use of the Bible being customary for oaths, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, a Bible was generally used. Several Presidents were sworn in on the George Washington Inaugural Bible. On some occasions, the particular passage to which it was opened has been recorded, as below. Only one president, Franklin Pierce, is definitely known to have affirmed rather than sworn; there are conflicting reports concerning Herbert Hoover, but the use of a Bible is recorded and suggests that he swore in the

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usual fashion. Barack Obama used the Lincoln Bible for his swearing in.[10] The presidential oath has been administered by 15 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, and two New York state judges. Immediately following the presidential oath, the bands play four ruffles and flourishes and "Hail to the Chief", followed by a 21-gun salute from howitzers of the Presidential Salute Battery, 3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard).

United States presidential inauguration
Mass, and state funerals, it is the only time the president, vice president, and both houses of Congress congregate in the same location.

Parade

Inaugural address
Newly sworn-in presidents usually give a speech referred to as an inaugural address. Until William McKinley’s first inaugural address in 1897, the president elect traditionally gave the address before taking the oath; McKinley requested the change so that he could reiterate the words of the oath at the close of his address. Four presidents gave no address: Tyler, Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, and Arthur. In each of these cases, the incoming President was succeeding a President who had died in office, and was not elected as president in the next election. Gerald Ford addressed the nation via broadcast after taking the oath, but he characterized his speech as "Not an inaugural address, not a fireside chat, not a campaign speech--just a little straight talk among friends."[11] Fifty-four addresses have been given by thirty-seven presidents. George Washington’s second address was the shortest (135 words), and William Henry Harrison delivered the longest (8,495 words).

The Inaugural Parade on Pennsylvania Avenue passes the Presidential reviewing stand in front of the White House in January 2005. Since Thomas Jefferson’s second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan in his second inauguration in 1985 due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. Reagan paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue during his first inauguration, in 1981, amidst the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. In 1977, Jimmy Carter walked from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have only walked a part of the way.

Religious elements
Since 1937, the ceremony has incorporated two or more prayers. Musical works and poetry readings have been included on occasion. Further information: Inaugural ceremony prayers (US presidential) .[12]

Prayer service
A tradition of a national prayer service, usually the day after the inauguration, dates back to George Washington and since Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the prayer service has been held at the Washington National Cathedral.[13]

Other elements
Congressional luncheon
Since 1953, the president and vice president have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. Other than at State of the Union addresses, the Red

Security
The security for the inaugural celebrations is a complex matter, involving not only the Secret Service, but other Federal law enforcement agencies, Immigration and

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Customs Enforcement-Office of Federal Protective Service (ICE-FPS), all five branches of the Armed Forces, the Capitol Police, and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC). Federal law enforcement agencies also sometimes request assistance from various other state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States. One issue is the ability of protesters to engage in free speech while providing protection for the government officials at risk for assassination or bodily harm.

United States presidential inauguration

List of inaugural ceremonies
This is a list of the 56 inaugural ceremonies. For a list of the 72 instances when the oath of office has been taken, see Oath of office of the President of the United States.

See also
• United States presidential inaugural addresses • Inauguration • Andrew Jackson 1829 presidential inauguration • January 20, 2005 counter-inaugural protest • Barack Obama 2009 presidential inauguration • State of the Union Address • U.S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration

References
[1] "Exhibit: President George Washington’s inaugural address". National Archives and Records Administration. 1998-08-17. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/ american_originals/inaugura.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. "George Washington’s first inauguration took place at Federal Hall in New York City [...] George Washington’s first inaugural address, April 30, 1789" [2] "President George Washington’s first inaugural speech (1789)". Our documents. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/ doc.php?flash=false&doc=11. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. "Before the assembled crowd of spectators, Robert Livingston,

Chancellor of the State of New York, administered the oath" [3] ^ "Inaugural history: inauguration 2001". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/ newshour/inauguration/history.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. "Thomas Jefferson was the first president to be sworn in as president in Washington DC, which did not officially become the US capital until 1801. [...] Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1933, the day of inauguration was changed by constitutional amendment from March 4 to Jan. 20 to speed the changeover of administrations." [4] Foley, Thomas (January 25, 1973). "Thousands in Washington Brave Cold to Say Goodbye to Johnson". The Los Angeles Times: p. A1. [5] "Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies - Official Website.". http://inaugural.senate.gov/ cmte/. [6] "PIC records". National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/guidefed-records/groups/274.html#top. [7] See: 5 U.S.C. § 3331; see also: Standing Rules of the Senate: Rule III [8] Documentary History of the First Federal Congress, Vol. 15, pages 404-405 [9] "The New Administration: President Arthur Formally Inaugurated" (pdf). The New York Times. 1881-09-22. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archivefree/ pdf?res=980DE1D9103CEE3ABC4B51DFBF66838A6 Retrieved on 2009-01-19. [10] "President-elect Barack Obama to be Sworn in Using Lincoln’s Bible". Presidential Inaugural Committee. 2008-12-23. http://www.pic2009.org/ blog/entry/presidentelect_barack_obama_to_be_sworn_in_using_lincolns_ [11] "Gerald R. Ford’s Remarks on Taking the Oath of Office as President". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/ speeches/740001.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-18. [12] ""Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance"". http://fpc.state.gov/40871.htm.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Date President Location Balcony of Federal Hall New York, New York Senate Chamber Congress Hall Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

United States presidential inauguration
Scripture Verse Inaugural Addresses George Washington’s First Inaugural Address George Washington’s Second Inaugural Address John Adams’ Inaugural Address

Administered by[14]

April 30, George 1789 Washington

Robert Livingston Genesis 49:13 Chancellor of New Washington York Bible[15][16] William Cushing Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Unknown[17]

March 4, George 1793 Washington

March 4, John Adams 1797

House Cham- Oliver Ellsworth ber Congress Hall Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall

Unknown[17]

March 4, Thomas 1801 Jefferson

Unknown[17]

Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address Thomas Jefferson’s Second Inaugural Address James Madison’s First Inaugural Address James Madison’s Second Inaugural Address James Monroe’s First Inaugural Address

March 4, Thomas 1805 Jefferson

John Marshall

Unknown[17]

March 4, James 1809 Madison

House Cham- John Marshall ber, U.S. Capitol House Cham- John Marshall ber, U.S. Capitol

Unknown[17]

March 4, James 1813 Madison

Unknown[17]

March 4, James Monroe In front of John Marshall 1817 Old Brick Capitol (1st & A Sts., N.E.) now site of the Supreme Court Building March 5, James Monroe House Cham- John Marshall 1821 ber, U.S. Capitol March 4, John Q. Adams House Cham- John Marshall 1825 ber, U.S. Capitol

Unknown[17]

Unknown[17]

James Monroe’s Second Inaugural Address

None, used a John Quincy book of US law in- Adams’s stead of a Inaugural [18] Bible. Address

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March 4, Andrew 1829 Jackson East Portico, U.S. Capitol

United States presidential inauguration
Unknown[17] Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address Andrew Jackson’s Second Inaugural Address Martin Van Buren’s Inaugural Address William Henry Harrison’s Inaugural Address James K. Polk’s Inaugural Address Zachary Taylor’s Inaugural Address Franklin Pierce’s Inaugural Address James Buchanan’s Inaugural Address Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Ulysses S. Grant’s First Inaugural Address Ulysses S. Grant’s Second Inaugural Address

John Marshall

March 4, Andrew 1833 Jackson

House Cham- John Marshall ber, U.S. Capitol East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney

Unknown[17]

March 4, Martin Van 1837 Buren

Proverbs 3:17[19][17]

March 4, William H. 1841 Harrison

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Roger B. Taney

Unknown[17]

March 4, James K. Polk 1845 March 5, Zachary 1849 Taylor

East Portico, U.S. Capitol East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Roger B. Taney

Unknown

Roger B. Taney

Unknown

March 4, Franklin 1853 Pierce

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Roger B. Taney

None[20][21][17]

March 4, James 1857 Buchanan

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Roger B. Taney

Unknown[17]

March 4, Abraham 1861 Lincoln

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Roger B. Taney

Opened at random[17]

March 4, Abraham 1865 Lincoln

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Salmon P. Chase

Matthew 7:1, Matthew 18:7, Revelation 16:7[22] Unknown[17]

March 4, Ulysses S. 1869 Grant

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Salmon P. Chase

March 4, Ulysses S. 1873 Grant

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Salmon P. Chase

Isaiah 11:1-3[23]

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March 5, Rutherford B. 1877 Hayes East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) East Portico, U.S. Capitol

United States presidential inauguration
Rutherford B. Hayes’s Inaugural Address James A. Garfield’s Inaugural Address Grover Cleveland’s First Inaugural Address Benjamin Harrison’s Inaugural Address Grover Cleveland’s Second Inaugural Address William McKinley’s First Inaugural Address William McKinley’s Second Inaugural Address

Morrison R. Waite Psalms 118:11-13[23]

March 4, James A. 1881 Garfield

Morrison R. Waite Proverbs 21:1[23][24]

March 4, Grover 1885 Cleveland

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Morrison R. Waite Psalms 112:4-10[25]

March 4, Benjamin 1889 Harrison

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Melville W. Fuller

Psalms 121:1-6[23]

March 4, Grover 1893 Cleveland

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Melville W. Fuller

Psalms 91:12-16

March 4, William 1897 McKinley

In front of Melville W. Fuller Original Senate Wing U.S. Capitol East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller

2 Chronicles 1:10[26]

March 4, William 1901 McKinley

Proverbs 16[23]

March 4, Theodore 1905 Roosevelt

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Melville W. Fuller

James 1:22-23[23] Theodore Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address 1 Kings 3:9-11[23] William Howard Taft’s Inaugural Address Psalm 119[23] Woodrow Wilsons First Inaugural Address Woodrow Wilson’s Second Inaugural Address

March 4, William H. 1909 Taft

Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Melville W. Fuller

March 4, Woodrow 1913 Wilson

Edward D. White

March 5, Woodrow 1917 Wilson

East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Edward D. White

Psalm 46[27]

March 4, Warren G. 1921 Harding

Edward D. White

Micah 6:8 (Wash- Warren ington Bible)[23] Harding’s Inaugural Address

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March 4, Calvin 1925 Coolidge East Portico, U.S. Capitol

United States presidential inauguration
John 1[17] Calvin Coolidge’s Inaugural Address Herbert Hoover’s Inaugural Address Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address Franklin Roosevelt’s Second Inaugural Address Franklin Roosevelt’s Third Inaugural Address Franklin Roosevelt’s Fourth Inaugural Address Harry S. Truman’s Inaugural Address

William H. Taft

March 4, Herbert C. 1929 Hoover

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

William H. Taft

Proverbs 29:18[23]

March 4, Franklin D. 1933 Roosevelt

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Charles E. Hughes 1 Corinthians 13:13[28]

January Franklin D. 20, 1937 Roosevelt

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Charles E. Hughes I Corinthians 13

January Franklin D. 20, 1941 Roosevelt

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Charles E. Hughes I Corinthians 13

January Franklin D. 20, 1945 Roosevelt

South Portico, White House

Harlan F. Stone

I Corinthians 13

January Harry S. 20, 1949 Truman

East Portico, Frederick M. U.S. Capitol Vinson First inauguration to be televised[29] East Portico, U.S. Capitol Frederick M. Vinson

Matthew 5:3-11 and Exodus 20:3-17[30]

January Dwight D. 20, 1953 Eisenhower

Psalm 127:1 (Washington Bible) and II Chronicles 7:14 (West Point Bible)[31] Psalm 33:12[32] (West Point Bible)[33]

Dwight Eisenhower’s First Inaugural Address

January Dwight D. 21, 1957 Eisenhower

East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly)

Earl Warren

Dwight Eisenhower’s Second Inaugural Address John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address Lyndon Johnson’s Inaugural Address Richard Nixon’s First

January John F. 20, 1961 Kennedy

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Earl Warren

Closed family Bible[34] [35]

January Lyndon B. 20, 1965 Johnson January Richard M. 20, 1969 Nixon

East Portico, U.S. Capitol East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Earl Warren

Closed family Bible[36][17] Isaiah 2:4[28]

Earl Warren

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United States presidential inauguration
Inaugural Address

January Richard M. 20, 1973 Nixon

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Warren E. Burger

Isaiah 2:4[37]

Richard Nixon’s Second Inaugural Address Jimmy Carter’s Inaugural Address Ronald Reagan’s First Inaugural Address Ronald Reagan’s Second Inaugural Address

January Jimmy Carter 20, 1977

East Portico, U.S. Capitol

Warren E. Burger

Micah 6:8[38][39]

January Ronald 20, 1981 Reagan

West Front, U.S. Capitol

Warren E. Burger

II Chronicles 7:14[17]

January Ronald 21, 1985 Reagan

Rotunda, U.S. Capitol (public) West Front, U.S. Capitol

Warren E. Burger

II Chronicles 7:14[17]

January George H. W. 20, 1989 Bush

William Rehnquist Matthew 5[40][17] George H. W. Bush’s Inaugural Address William Rehnquist Galatians 6:8[17] Bill Clinton’s First Inaugural Address Bill Clinton’s Second Inaugural Address George W. Bush’s First Inaugural Address

January Bill Clinton 20, 1993 January Bill Clinton 20, 1997

West Front, U.S. Capitol West Front, U.S. Capitol

William Rehnquist Isaiah 58:12[41]

January George W. 20, 2001 Bush

West Front, U.S. Capitol

William Rehnquist Closed family Bible[42][17]

January George W. 20, 2005 Bush

West Front, U.S. Capitol

William Rehnquist Open family bible; George W. same one used in Bush’s Se2001 and 1989 cond Inaug[17] ural Address John G. Roberts Closed Lincoln Bible[44] Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address Inaugural Addresses (Texts from Wikisource)

January Barack 20, 2009 Obama[43]

West Front, U.S. Capitol

ZZZDate ZZZPresident ZZZLocation ZZZAdministered Scripture by[14] Verse[17]

[13] Knowlton, Brian (2009-01-21). "On His First Full Day, Obama Tackles Sobering Challenges". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/us/

politics/22obamacnd.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-28. [14] ^ Individual named is the U.S. Chief Justice, unless otherwise indicated [15] Opened at random due to haste.

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[16] Bowen, Clarence W. The History of the Centennial Celebration of the Inauguration of George Washington, N.Y. 1892, p. 72 [17] ^ "Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office". Architect of the Capitol. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/ pibible.html. [18] "Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance". US Department of State. 2005-01-13. http://fpc.state.gov/fpc/40871.htm. [19] Files of the Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress [20] Affirmed instead of swearing the oath. [21] Did not kiss Bible. [22] Wright, John. Historic Bibles in America, N.Y. 1905, p. 46 [23] ^ List compiled by Clerk of the Supreme Court, 1939 [24] One source (The Chicago Daily Tribune, Sept. 23, 1881, p. 5) says that Garfield and Arthur used the same passage, but does not indicate which one. [25] Opened at random by Chief Justice [26] Bible given to him by Methodist church congregation [27] Senate Document 116, 65th Congress, 1st Session, 1917 [28] ^ "Obama picks Bible for inauguration, but what verse?". CNN. 2008-12-24. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/12/ 24/inauguration.scripture/index.html. [29] "Inauguration of the President: Facts & Firsts". U.S. Senate. http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/ factsandfirsts/. Retrieved on December 13, 2008. [30] Facts on File, Jan. 16-22, 1949, p. 21. [31] New York Times, Jan. 21, 1953, p. 19 [32] New York Times, Jan. 22, 1957, p. 16. [33] http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/ chronology/ddeisenhower1957.cfm [34] http://www.jfklibrary.org/ Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/ John+F.+Kennedy+and+Ireland.htm [35] New York Times, Jan. 21, 1961, p. 8, col. 1. [36] Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court via phone July 1968 [37] Washington Post, Jan. 20, 1969, p. A1. [38] "Jimmy Carter Inaugural Address". Bartelby.com. 1977-01-20.

United States presidential inauguration
http://www.bartleby.com/124/ pres60.html. [39] Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1977, p. A17 [40] Washington’s Masonic Bible opened at random in the center; family Bible on top opened to Matthew 5 [41] Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1997, p. A14 [42] Inauguration staff. George W. Bush had hoped to use the Masonic Bible that had been used both by George Washington in 1789, and by the President’s father, George H. W. Bush, in 1989. This historic Bible had been transported, under guard, from New York to Washington for the inauguration but, due to inclement weather, a family Bible was substituted instead. [43] Resworn in the Map Room of the White House to correct words juxtaposed during the public ceremony and put to rest any concerns about the legitimacy of the oath. Shear, Michael (January 22, 2009). "Obama Sworn In Again, Using the Right Words". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2009/01/21/ AR2009012103685.html. Retrieved on 21 January 2009. [44] "Obama chooses Lincoln’s Bible for inauguration". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 28366102/.

Further reading
• Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Bartleby.com. 1989. ISBN 1-58734-025-9.

External links
• senate.gov chronology • Full texts of all U.S. Inaugural Addresses at Bartleby.com • Inaugural Speeches, 23 videos (access only in the US) • Presidential Oaths of Office (Library of Congress) • Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office, Library of Congress • Inauguration videos from Franklin D. Roosevelt - George W. Bush at YouTube from CSPAN • Inauguration video of Barack H. Obama at YouTube from CSPAN

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• Federal Hall, NYC - Site of the first inauguration in 1789 • Barack Obama / Joe Biden 2009 Inauguration Page

United States presidential inauguration
• Dwight D. Eisenhower’s 1953 presidential inauguration, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library • Dwight D. Eisenhower’s 1957 presidential inauguration, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library

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