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Haitian Creole language

Haitian Creole language
Haitian Creole Kreyòl ayisyen Spoken in Haiti (Official), Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, France[1] 7,389,066[2] 62 Creole language French Creole Antillean Creoles Haitian Creole

Total speakers Ranking Language family

Partly due to efforts of Félix MorisseauLeroy, since 1961 Haitian Creole has been recognized as an official language along with French, which had been the sole literary language of the country since its independence in 1804. The official status was upheld under the country’s 1987 constitution. The use of Creole in literature has been small but is increasing. Morisseau was one of the first and most influential authors to write in Creole. Since the 1980s, many educators, writers and activists have emphasized pride and written literacy in Creole. Today numerous newspapers, as well as radio and television programs, are produced in Creole.

Official status Official language in Regulated by Haiti

Like many creole languages, Creole was originally perceived as simply a corruption of a European language (French). This perception was connected to racialist attitudes about the linguistic capabilities of African slaves.[4] More recent approaches to creole languages in general see them resulting largely from the sociolinguistic setting; slaves speaking various African languages and European plantation managers needed a way to communicate. A language with mostly French vocabulary[5] but with a grammar derived from the various African languages arose. An example of this difference between French and Creole is the use of preverbal particles te and a to mark the past and future tenses, respectively, instead of conjugation. Creole has also kept maintained the meaning of French words at the time of its origin while their cognates in French have been replaced or had semantic shifts. A good example is the sentence "Ki jan ou rele?" (’What is your name?’) which corresponds to French "Comment vous appelez-vous?". Although a French person wouldn’t understand that phrase, every word is of French origin: qui/what, genre/manner, vous/you, héler/to call or "What manner call (yourself)?". In France, the verb héler has been replaced by appeler.[6][7]

No official regulation

Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 ht hat hat

Haitian Creole language (kreyòl ayisyen), often called simply Creole or Kreyòl (pronounced [kɣejɔl]), is a language spoken in Haiti by about 7.0 million people (as of 2001), which is nearly the entire population, and via emigration, about 400,000 speakers who live in the Bahamas, Cuba, Canada, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, and United States[2]. The language is notable for being the most widely spoken creole language in the world.[3] Haitian Creole is one of Haiti’s two official languages, along with French. It is a creole based primarily on 18th Century French with various influences, most notably West African and Central African languages (including some Arabic), Taino, Portuguese, Spanish, and some English. African and French influence is strongest, as those were the two populations in contact during the development of Creole.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haitian Creole language
do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition, there is a Haitian Creole radio station operating in Havana.[8] The language is also spoken by over 150,000 Haitians (although estimates believe that there are over a million speakers due to a huge population of illegal aliens from Haiti[9]) who reside in the neighboring Dominican Republic [10], although the locals do not speak it.

Usage outside of Haiti
Haitian Creole is used widely among Haitians who have relocated to other countries, particularly the United States and Canada. Some of the larger populations include those in Montreal, Quebec (where French is an official language), and parts of New York City, Boston, and Central and South Florida (Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and Palm Beach). To reach out to the large Haitian population, government agencies have produced various public service announcements, school-parent communications, and other materials in Haitian Creole. For instance, Miami-Dade County in Florida sends out paper communications in Haitian Creole in addition to English and Spanish. In the Boston area, the Boston subway system and area hospitals and medical offices post announcements in Haitian Creole as well as English. North America’s only Creole-language television network is HTN, based in Miami. The area also has more than half a dozen Creole-language AM radio stations. There is controversy over whether to teach Creole in Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Many argue Creole is a peasant language that is not fully developed for literary purposes; others argue it is important for children to learn a written form of their parents’ native tongue. Haitian language and culture is taught in many colleges in the United States as well as in the Bahamas. Indiana University has a Creole Institute [3] founded by Dr. Albert Valdman where Haitian Creole, among other facets of Haiti, are studied and researched; the University of Kansas, Lawrence has an Institute of Haitian studies, founded by Dr. Bryant Freeman. Additionally, the University of Massachusetts-Boston, Florida International University, and University of Florida offer seminars and courses annually at their Haitian Creole Summer Institute. Brown University, Columbia University, and University of Miami are also offering classes in Haitian Creole. The University of Oregon and Duke University will soon be offering classes as well. Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba, where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Where consonants appear in pairs, the left to the left is voiceless. Consonant phonemes of Haitian Creole[11]

Bilabial Labio- Dental/ PostPa dental Alveolar Alveolar Nasal Plosive Affricate Fricative Approximant f v s z l m p b n t d tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ j

1. /ŋ/ is not originally a Haitian Creole phoneme, but appears in English loanwords (eg. bèl filing ’good feeling’). 2. In some orthographic representations of Haitian Creole, <r> is used for both /ɣ/ and /w/, since [ɣ] only occurs before front vowels and [w] before back vowels. However, some modern orthographies use both <r> and <w> since the difference is phonemic. Haitian Creole has ten vowels: seven oral vowels and three (or five) nasal variants*. Orthographically, open-mid vowels carry a grave accent to distinguish them form closemid vowels (eg. <e> for /e/ and <è> for /ɛ/). <n> behind <a, e, o> indicates nasalization. However, if a vowel before <n> carries a grave accent, the vowel is oral (eg. <on> = /ɔ̃/, but <òn> = /ɔn/). *The status of the nasal closed vowels in Haitian Creole has been disputed. Marcel D’Ans claims that these vowels cannot be phonemically nasal, while Robert A. Hall, Jr.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vowel Phonemes of Haitian Creole[12] Front Close Close-Mid Open-mid Open i (ĩ) e ɛ ɛ̃ a ã Central

Haitian Creole language

Back u (ũ) o ɔ ɔ̃

and others argue that they are in fact phonemes.[13]

The word nèg and the word blan
Despite similar words in French (nègre = a black man; blanc = white person), the meanings they carry do not apply in Haiti. The term nèg is generally used for any man, regardless of skin color (i.e. like "guy" or "dude" in American English). Blan is generally used for foreigner. It is not used to refer just to white foreigners, but foreigners of other skin colors as well. Etymologically, the word nèg is derived from the French "nègre" and is cognate with the Spanish negro ("black", both the color and the people) There are many other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin, such as grimo, bren, wòz, mawon, etc. However, such labels are considered offensive by some Haitians, because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system.

Most of the lexicon is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology. Often, the French definite article was retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la lune ("the moon") was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin.

[1] A banana which is short and fat, not a plantain and not a conventional banana; regionally called "hog banana" or "sugar banana" in English. [2] The gap between a person’s two front teeth.

Nouns derived from trade marks
Many trade marks have become common nouns in Haitian Creole (as happened in English with "aspirin" and "kleenex", for example). • kòlgat or "pat" (Colgate) — "toothpaste" • jilèt (Gillette) — "razor" • panpèz or "kouchèt" (Pampers) — "nappy" or (Am) "diaper" • kodak (Kodak) — "camera" • frijidè (Frigidaire) - "refrigerator" • dèlko (Delco) - "generator" • iglou or"Tèmòs" (Igloo) - "cooler" • chiklèt (Chiclets) - "gum" • kyouteks (Cutex) - "nail polish" • djip (Jeep)- "SUV"

Haitian Creole grammar differs greatly from French and inflects much more simply: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no grammatical gender — meaning that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun. The primary word order (SVO) is the same as French, but the variations on the verbs and adjectives are minuscule compared to the complex rules employed by French. Many grammatical features, particularly pluralization of nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain suffixes (postpositions) like yo to the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as what should be used to connect the suffixes to the word: the most popular alternatives are a dash, an apostrophe or a space. It makes matters more complicated when the "suffix" itself is shortened, perhaps making only one letter (such as m or w).

New words from English
Haitian Creole speakers have adopted some English words. Fè back to move backwards,"rekile" is the old word and napkin are two examples, Tòchon is the old word.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Creole bagay bannann bekàn Bondye dèyè diri fig lakay IPA /bagaj/ /bãnãn/ /bekan/ /bõdje/ /dɛjɛ/ /diri/ /fig/ /lakaj/ Origin Fr. banane, "banana" Fr. bécane /bekan/ Fr. Bon Dieu /bõdjø/ Fr. derrière /dɛʁjɛʁ/ Fr. du riz /dy ʁi/ Fr. figue /fig/ (?)Fr. cahutte /kayt/ English "plantain" "bicycle"

Haitian Creole language

(?)Fr. bagage, "baggage" "thing"

"God! Good Lord!" "behind" "rice" "banana" "house" "hog banana" [nb 1]

kiyèz, tchòk, /kijɛz, tʃɔk, poban pobã/ kle kle kola konnflek lin makak matant moun mwen nimewo etazini piman pann pwa chenèt tonton vwazen zwazo ye /kle/ /kle kola/ /kõnflek/ /lin/ /makak/ /matãt/ /mun/ /mwɛ̃/ /nimewo/ /etazini/ /pimã/ /pãn/ /pwa/ /ʃenɛt/ /tõtõ/ /vwazɛ̃/ /zwazo/ /je/ Fr. clé /kle/, "key"

"wrench" or "key"

Fr. clé /kle/, "key" + Eng. "bottle opener" "cola" En. "corn flakes" Fr. lune /lyn/ Fr. macaque /makak/ Fr. ma tante, "my aunt" Fr. monde Fr. moi /mwa/ or /mwɛ/, "mwen meme" Fr. numéro /nymeʁo/ Fr. États-Unis /etazyni/ Fr. piment /pimã/ Fr. pendre /pãdʁ/ Fr. pois /pwa/, "pea" Fr. (Antilles) la quénette fr. tonton Fr. voisin /vwazɛ̃/ Fr. oiseau /wazo/ Fr. yeux /jø/ "breakfast cereal" "moon" "monkey" "aunt" "people/person" "me","I","myself" "number" "United States" a very hot pepper "to hang" "bean" "ackee"(not Jamaican Ackee), "chenette", "guinip", "gap" [nb 2] "uncle" "neighbor" "bird" "eye" Fr. caoutchouc, "rubber" "tire"

kawoutchou /kawutʃu/

There are six pronouns, one pronoun for each person/number combination. There is no difference between direct and indirect. Some are obviously of French origin, others are not. (*) sometimes ou is written as w - in the sample phrases, w indicates ou. (**) depending on the situation.

Plural of nouns
If a noun is definite, it is pluralized by adding yo at the end. If it is indefinite, it has no plural marker, and its plurality is determined by context.

Possession is indicated by placing the possessor after the item possessed. This is similar to the French construction of chez moi or


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
person/number 1/singular 2/singular 3/singular 1/plural 2/plural 3/plural Haitian Creole liv yo machin yo Fi yo mete wòb Haitian Creole lajan li "fanmi mwen" or "fanmi m" kay yo papa ou" or "papa w" chat Pyè chèz Mari zanmi papa Jan papa vwazen zanmi nou Haitian Creole yon kouto yon kravat Haitian Creole kravat la liv la kay la Haitian Creole lanp lan bank lan chez lui which are "my place" and "his place", respectively. Creole mwen ou (*) li nou nou or vou (**) yo y English the books the cars The girls put on dresses. English "his/her money" my family Short form m w l n French je, me, moi tu, te, vous il, elle nous vous ils, elles, eux

Haitian Creole language
English "I", "me" "thou", "you" (sing.) "he", "she" "we", "us" "you" (pl.) "they", "them"

"their house" or "their houses" your father Pierre’s cat Marie’s chair Jean’s father’s friend our friend’s neighbor’s father English a knife a necktie English the tie the book the house English the lamp the bank

Definite article
There is also a definite article, roughly corresponding to English "the" and French le/la. It is placed after the noun, and the sound varies by the last sound of the noun itself. If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by an oral vowel, it becomes la: If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a nasal vowel, it becomes lan:

Indefinite article
The language has an indefinite article yon, roughly corresponding to English "a/an" and French un/une. It is derived from the French il y a un, (lit. "there is a/an/one"). It is used only with singular nouns, and it is placed before the noun:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haitian Creole kouto a peyi a Haitian Creole fanmi an mi an Haitian Creole chien an pon an Haitian Creole machin nan telefòn nan madanm nan Haitian Creole jaden sa (a) bèl Haitian Creole sa se zanmi mwen sa se chien frè mwen Haitian Creole Li ale travay le maten Li dòmi le swa Li li Bib la Mwen fè manje Nou toujou etidye English This garden is beautiful. English this is my friend English the knife the country English

Haitian Creole language

the family the wall English the dog the bridge English the car the telephone the woman

this is my brother’s dog English He goes to work in the morning. He sleeps in the evening. She reads the Bible. I make food. We study all the time. As in English, it may also be used as a pronoun, replacing a noun:

If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by an oral consonant, it becomes a: If the last sound is an oral vowel and is preceded by a nasal consonant, it becomes an: If the last sound is a nasal vowel, it becomes an: If the last sound is a nasal consonant, it becomes nan:

Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitive, but they are spelled phonetically. As indicated above, there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tense are indicated by the use of tense markers.

"This" and "that"
There is a single word sa that corresponds to French ce/ceci or ça, and English "this" and "that". As in English, it may be used as a demonstrative, except that it is placed after the noun it qualifies. It is often followed by a or yo (in order to mark number):

The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole by two words, se and ye.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haitian Creole Li se frè mwen Mwen se doktè Sa se yon pye mango Nou se zanmi Haitian Creole Se yon bon ide Se nouvo chemiz mwen Haitian Creole L ap vin bòfrè m Mwen vle vin yon doktè S ap ay vin yon pye mango N ap vin zanmi Haitian Creole "Ayisyen mwen ye" = "Mwen se Ayisyen" Ki moun sa ye? Kouman ou ye? Haitian Creole M gen yon zanmi malad Zanmi mwen malad. Haitian Creole Mwen genyen lajan nan bank lan Haitian Creole Gen anpil Ayisyen nan Florid Gen yon moun la Pa gen moun la Mwen genyen match la English English English he is my brother I am a doctor

Haitian Creole language

That is a mango tree we are friends English That is a good idea This is my new shirt English He will be my brother-in-law I want to become a doctor That will become a mango tree We will be friends English I am Haitian Who is that? How are you?

I have a sick friend. My friend is sick. English I have money in the bank.

There are many Haitians in Florida. There is someone here. There is nobody here. I won the game. stative verbs. So, malad means "sick" and "to be sick":

The verb se (pronounced as the English word "say") is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative: The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se: For the future tense, such as "I want to be", usually vin "to become" is used instead of se. "Ye" also means "to be", but is placed exclusively at the end of the sentence, after the predicate and the subject (in that order): The verb "to be" is not overt when followed by an adjective, that is, Haitian Creole has

"to have"
The verb "to have" is genyen, often shortened to gen.

"there is"
The verb genyen (or gen) also means "there is/are"


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haitian Creole Èske ou konnen non li? Haitian Creole M pa konnen kote li ye Haitian Creole Mwen konn fè manje Li pa konn li fransè Haitian Creole Kouman ou fè pale kreyòl? Mari konn fè mayi moulen. Haitian Creole Mwen ka ale demen Petèt m ka fè sa demen Haitian Creole Mwen pale kreyòl Haitian Creole mwen manje ou manje li manje nou manje yo manje English English

Haitian Creole language

Do you know his name? English I don’t know where he is."

I know how to cook (lit. "I know how to make food") He can’t read French (lit. "He doesn’t know how to read French.") English How did you learn to speak Haitian Creole? Marie knows how to make cornmeal. English I can go tomorrow. Maybe I can do that tomorrow. English I speak Haitian Creole English I ate you ate he/she ate we ate they ate

Èske ou konn ale Ayiti? Have you been to Haïti? (lit. "Do you know to go to Haiti?")

"to know"
There are three verbs which are often translated as "to know", but they mean different things. Konn or konnen means "to know" + a noun (cf. French connaître). Konn or konnen also means "to know" + a fact (cf. French savoir). (note pa = negative) The third word is always spelled konn. It means "to know how to" or "to have experience". This is similar to the "know" as used in the English phrase "know how to ride a bike": it denotes not only a knowledge of the actions, but also some experience with it. Another verb worth mentioning is fè. It comes from the French faire and is often translated as "do" or "make". It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.

"to be able to"
The verb kapab (or shortened to ka, kap’ or ’kab) means "to be able to (do something)". It refers to both "capability" and "availability", very similar to the French "capable".

Tense markers
There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole. In the present non-progressive tense, one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs: Note that when the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markers, it is generally understood as referring to the past: (Note that manje means both "food" and "to eat" -- m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food".). For other tenses, special "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are: Simple past or past perfect:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tense marker te tap (or "t ap") ap a pral ta Tense simple past past progressive present progressive future Annotations

Haitian Creole language

a combination of te and ap, "was doing" With ap and a, the pronouns nearly always take the short form (m ap, l ap, n ap, y ap, etc. some limitations on use

near or definite translates to "going to" future conditional future a combination of te and a, "will do"

mwen te manje - "I ate" or "I had eaten" ou te manje - "you ate" or "you had eaten" li te manje - "he/she ate" or "he/she had eaten" nou te manje - "we ate" or "we had eaten" yo te manje - "they ate" or "they had eaten" Past progressive: mwen t ap manje - "I was eating" ou t ap manje - "you were eating" li t ap manje - "he/she was eating" nou t ap manje - "we were eating" yo t ap manje - "they were eating" Present progressive: m ap manje - "I am eating" w ap manje - "you are eating" l ap manje - "he/she is eating" n ap manje - "we are eating" y ap manje - "they are eating" Note: For the present progressive ("I am eating now") it is customary, though not necessary, to add "right now": M ap manje kounye a - "I am eating right now" Also, Those examples can mean "will eat" depending on the context of the sentence.

M’ap manje apres mwen priye - "i will eat after i pray" / Mwen p’ap di sa - "I will not say that" Near or definite future: mwen pral manje - "I am going to eat" ou pral manje - "you are going to eat" li pral manje - "he/she is going to eat" nou pral manje - "we are going to eat" yo pral manje - "they are going to eat" Future: N a wè pita - "See you later" (lit. "We will see (each other) later) Other examples: Mwen te wè zanmi ou yè - "I saw your friend yesterday" Nou te pale lontan - "We spoke for a long time" Lè li te gen uit an... - "When he was eight years old..." M a travay - "I will work" M pral travay - "I’m going to work" N a li l demen - "We’ll read it tomorrow" Nou pral li l demen - "We are going to read it tomorrow" Mwen t ap mache e m wè yon chyen - "I was walking and I saw a dog" Additional time-related markers: fèk - recent past ("just")


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
sòt - similar to fèk They are often used together: Mwen fèk sòt antre kay la - "I just entered the house" A verb mood marker is ta, corresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense: Yo ta renmen jwe - "They would like to play" Mwen ta vini si mwen te gen yon machin - "I would come if I had a car" Li ta bliye w si ou pa t la - "He/she would forget you if you weren’t here"

Haitian Creole language
• yon kenèp - Mamoncillo a.k.a. Spanish lime • yon lougawou - a werewolf, bad witch • yon mambo/manbo - a female witch • yon bòkò - a male witch • yon ongan - a Vodou priest • move - bad (i.e., "move moun," a bad person), fighty (a person that is ready to fight or beat someone up) • pale/parle - to talk / to speak • yon pyebwa - tree (lit. wood foot, from Fr. pied de bois) • sa (è) bon pour ou - that’s good for you • sa ka fèt / sa k ap fèt - how’s it going? • yon timoun - a kid ("little person") • yon zonbi/zombi - a ghost (from Africa, zombi)

Negating the verb
The word pa comes before a verb (and all tense markers) to negate it: Woz pa vle ale - "Rose doesn’t want to go" Woz pa t vle ale - "Rose didn’t want to go"

Sak vid pa kanpe - You can’t work without food. (Literally: An empty sack does not stand) Ti tig se tig - Even a young tiger is still a tiger. Si ou wè di ou ka wè tete foumi - Anything is possible. (Literally: If you look hard enough you’ll see the teats of an ant)

Examples Words and phrases
• yon anana - a pineapple (from Arawak, anana and now used in France ananas) • Anakaona - ? (from Arawak, Anacaona, who was a Taino princess) • anpil - a lot, many (from Fr. "en pile", lit. in piles, in great amounts) • bonjou - good day / good morning • bonswa - good evening (bonswa is typically said after 12:00 noon or at sundown) • Byensi - "Of course" (from Fr. "Bien sûr") • chadèk - grapefruit (from Fr. Chadèque or pamplemousse) • cheri - darling • cho - hot, temperamental (also used as an adj. i.e. "Fi sa a cho anpil", That lady’s really hot! or That girl is rude/slutty.) • fè - to make, to do • fòl - crazy, only in reference to women (a crazy person - yon moun fou (fòl)) • fou - crazy, for reference to either gender (a crazy person - yon moun fou (fòl)) • gwo - big; also, to be fat ("li gwo", he is fat or big.)

[1] hat/view?searchterm=Haitian%20Creole [2] ^ Raymond G. Gordon, Jr. (ed.). "Haitian Creole French". Ethnologue. show_language.asp?code=hat. Retrieved on 22-12-2008. [3] creolenatllangofhaiti.html [4] Degraff (2005:547) [5] Degraff (2005:562), citing Fattier (1998) and Degraff (2001), states that the "overwhelming majority of HC morphemes, whether free or bound, have French etyma." [6] [1] [7] [2] [8] Haiti in Cuba [9] Illegal Haitians deported [10] Languages of Dominican Republic [11] Bruce Lee Johnson and Gérard AlphonseFérère (1972). "Haitian Creole: Surface phonology". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 2 (02): 35–39. doi:10.1017/S0025100300000475.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haitian Creole language Exceptionalism", Language in Society 34 displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1795516&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0025100300000475. (4): 533-591 [12] Gerard Alphonse Ferere (1977). • Fattier, Dominique (1998), "Contribution à "Neglected front rounded phonemes in l’étude de la genèse d’un créole: L’Atlas Haitian Creole". Journal of the linguistique d’Haïti, cartes et International Phonetic Association 7 commentaires (Dissertation)", Language (01): 23–27. doi:10.1017/ in Society (Université de Provence) S0025100300001584. displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1797456&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0025100300001584. • Haitian Creole dictionary (Haitian [13] Gerard Alphonse Ferere (1983). Community Dictionary Project) "Nasalized vowels and semiconsonants in • Haitian Creole dictionary Haitian Creole". Journal of the • UN Declaration of Human Rights in International Phonetic Association 13 Haitian Creole (02): 76–81. doi:10.1017/ • RFI — Kréyòl Palé Kréyòl Konprann (radio S0025100300002577. program) • Common Creole Words and Phrases displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1796588&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0025100300002577. • Haitian Creole online test • Haitian Kréyòl grammar • What is Haitian Creole? (By Hugues St.Fort) • Degraff, Michel (2001), "Morphology in • Haitian Creole English Dictionary from Creole genesis: Linguistics and ideology", Webster’s Online Dictionary - the Rosetta in Kenstowicz, Michael, Ken Hale: A life in Edition language, Cambridge: MIT Press, • Haitian Proverbs pp. 52-121 • Projects in Haitian Creole • Degraff, Michel (2005), "Linguists’ Most • Unofficial Haitian creole AcademyDangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Creole Masterches initiative

External links


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