Chicago__Il by zzzmarcus

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Coordinates: 41.888988°N -87.622833 41°53′20″N 87°37′22″W / 87.622833°W / 41.888988;
Coordinates: 41°52′55″N 87°37′40″W / 41.88194°N 87.62778°W / 41.88194; -87.62778 Country State Counties Settled Incorporated Government - Type - Mayor - City Council United States Illinois Cook, DuPage 1770s March 4, 1837 Mayor-council government Richard M. Daley Aldermen Manuel Flores Bob Fioretti Pat Dowell Toni Preckwinkle Leslie Hairston Freddrenna Lyle Sandi Jackson Michelle A. Harris Anthony Beale John Pope James Balcer George Cardenas Frank Olivo Ed Burke Toni Foulkes Joann Thompson Latasha Thomas Lona Lane Virginia Rugai Willie Cochran Howard Brookins Jr. Ricardo Muñoz Michael Zalewski Sharon Denise Dixon. Daniel Solis Billy Ocasio Walter Burnett, Jr Ed Smith Isaac Carothers Ariel Reboyras Ray Suarez Scott Waguespack Richard Mell Carrie Austin Rey Colón William Banks Emma Mitts Thomas Allen Margaret Laurino Patrick O’Connor Brian Doherty Brendan Reilly Vi Daley Thomas M. Tunney Patrick Levar Helen Shiller

City of Chicago

From top left: Chicago Theater, the Sears Tower, the University of Chicago, the skyline from the Museum Campus, Navy Pier, the Field Museum, and Crown Fountain in Millenium Park



Nickname(s): The Windy City, The Second City, Chi-Town, Hog Butcher for the World, City of Big Shoulders, The City That Works,and others found at List of nicknames for Chicago Motto: Latin: Urbs in Horto (English: City in a Garden), Make No Small Plans, I Will

Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois


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Eugene Schulter Mary Ann Smith Joe Moore Bernard Stone Representative Susana A. Mendoza (D) Edward J. Acevedo (D) Luis Arroyo (D) Cynthia Soto (D) Kenneth Dunkin (D) Esther Golar (D) Karen A. Yarbrough (D) LaShawn Ford (D) Arthur L. Turner (D) Annazette Collins (D) John A. Fritchey (D) Sara Feigenholtz (D) Greg Harris (D) Harry Osterman (D) John D’Amico (D) Joseph M. Lyons (D) Michael P. McAuliffe (R) Robert S. Molaro (D) Michael J. Madigan (D) Daniel J. Burke (D) Barbara Flynn Currie (D) Elga L. Jefferies (D) Monique D. Davis (D) Mary E. Flowers (D) Milton Patterson (D) Marlow H. Colvin (D) Constance A. Howard (D) Kevin Joyce (D) Maria Antonia Berrios (D) Richard T. Bradley (D) Deborah L. Graham(D) State senators Antonio Munoz (D) William Delgado (D) Mattie Hunter (D) Kimberly A. Lightford (D) Rickey R. Hendon (D) John Cullerton (D) Heather Steans (D) Ira Silverstein (D) Jeffrey Schoenberg (D) James DeLeo (D) Louis Viverito (D) Martin Sandoval (D) Kwame Raoul (D) Emil Jones III (D) James Meeks (D) Jacqueline Y. Collins (D) Donne Trotter (D) Edward Maloney (D) Iris Martinez (D) Representatives Jan Schakowsky (D) Bobby Rush (D) Luis Gutiérrez (D) Michael Quigley (D) Danny Davis (D) Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D) 237.0 sq mi (606.2 km2) Land Water Urban Metro

227.2 sq mi (588.3 km2) 6.9 sq mi (17.9 km2) 3.0% 2,122.8 sq mi (5,498.1 km2) 10,874 sq mi (28,163 km2) 586 ft (179 m) 2,836,659 (3rd U.S.) 12,649/sq mi (4,816/km2) 8,711,000 9,785,747 Chicagoan CST (UTC-6) CDT (UTC-5) 312, 773

- State House

Elevation Population (2007) - City - Density - Urban - Metro - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) Area code(s) Website

- State Senate

- U.S. House

Area - City

Chicago (pronounced /ʃɨˈkɑːɡoʊ/ or /ʃɨˈkɔːɡoʊ/) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Illinois, and is located along the southwestern shore of freshwater Lake Michigan. With over 2.8 million people, Chicago is the thirdmost populous city in the U.S., and the largest city in the Midwest. The Chicago metropolitan area (commonly referred to as Chicagoland) has a population of over 9.5 million people[1] living in three U.S. states (Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin) and was the third largest U.S. metropolitan area in 2000.[2] Chicago is 26th by population and 686th by population density among the world’s largest urban areas[3] and the fourth largest city in North America. After a series of wars with the local American Natives, Chicago was founded in 1833, near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The city became a major transportation and telecommunications hub in North America.[4] O’Hare International is the second busiest airport in the world. Chicago is also a major business, financial, and industrial center. The city is a stronghold of the Democratic Party, and Chicago has been home to influential politicians, including the first African-American President of the United States, Barack Obama. As of 2007, the city’s attractions, business, and commerce bring 44.2 million visitors annually.[5] Making use of its abundant resources, Chicago has a heritage for hosting major international, national, regional, and local events that include commerce, culture, entertainment, politics, and sports. On June 4, 2008, Chicago was chosen as one of the final four world city candidates to host the


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2016 Summer Olympics, and is the only American city on the list. Globally recognized,[nb 1] Chicago has numerous nicknames. These soubriquets reflect the impressions and opinions about historical and contemporary Chicago. The best known of these are: the "Windy City" with original reference to Chicagoans’ bluster about their city and lately for the climate of the city due to it bordering on a lake; "Chi-Town" ; " Second City",[nb 2] due to second ranking in many areas as well as Chicago’s ongoing intention to be number one;[7] and the "City of Big Shoulders", referring not to its numerous skyscrapers, but to the strong shoulders needed by men working in many of the early industries in Chicago, described by Carl Sandburg in poetry as butchers and tool makers and stackers of wheat and freight. [8]

Miami-Illinois name shikaakwa, meaning “wild leek.”[9][10][11] The sound shikaakwa in Miami-Illinois literally means ’striped skunk’, and was a reference to wild leek, or the smell of onions.[10] The name initially applied to the river, but later came to denote the site of the city.

Infrastructure and regional development

See also: Political history of Chicago

First settlers
See also: Origin of the name "Windy City" During the mid-18th century the area was inhabited by a [[Native Americans in the United States|native American tribe known as the Potawatomis, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples. The first known nonindigenous permanent settler in Chicago, Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable,a man of mixed African and European heritage born in Saint-Domingue (modern day Haiti), arrived in the 1770s, married a Potawatomi woman, and founded the area’s first trading post. In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over by some Native Americans in the Treaty of Greenville to the United States for a military post. In 1803 the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. The Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi later ceded additional land to the United States in the 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were eventually forcibly removed from their land following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of 350. Within seven years it grew to a population of over 4,000. The City of Chicago was incorporated on March 4, 1837. The name "Chicago" is the French rendering of the

Union Station in 1943 The city began its step toward regional primacy as an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago’s first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, opened in 1838, which also marked the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants abroad. Manufacturing and retail sectors became dominant among Midwestern cities, influencing the American economy, particularly in meatpacking, with the advent of the refrigerated rail car and the regional centrality of the city’s Union Stock Yards.[12] In February 1856, the Chesbrough plan for the building of Chicago’s and the United States’ first comprehensive sewerage system was approved by the Common Council.[13] The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. Untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, thence into Lake Michigan, polluting the


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primary source of fresh water for the city. The city responded by tunneling two miles (3 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage was largely resolved when Chicago reversed the flow of the river, a process that began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal leading to the Illinois River which joins the Mississippi River.

After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed a third of the city, including the entire central business district, Chicago experienced rapid rebuilding and growth.[14] During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world’s first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. Labor conflicts and unrest followed, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago’s lower classes led Jane Addams to be a co-founder of Hull House in 1889. Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work. The city also invested in many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities.

Chicago Fire

World’s Fair
In 1893, Chicago hosted the World’s Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world’s fair in history.[15] The University of Chicago was founded in 1892 on the same South Side location. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects Washington and Jackson Parks.

Artist’s rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871

20th century
The 1920s brought notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, including the notorious Al Capone, battled each other and law enforcement on the city streets during the Prohibition era. The 1920s also saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Arriving in the tens of thousands during the Great Migration, the newcomers had an immense cultural impact. It was during this wave that Chicago became a center for jazz, with King Oliver leading the way.[16] In 1933, Mayor Anton Cermak was assassinated while in Miami with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the late summer of 1942, during World War II, Chicago held a practice black-out. According to one witness, "the sirens sounded, the lights went out while airplanes flew overhead to spot violators". After about 30 minutes the beacon on top of the Palmolive Building came back on and the lights were quickly restored.[17]

The Chicago Water Tower, one of the few surviving buildings after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.


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On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world’s first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project.

O’Hare Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley’s tenure. When he died, Michael Anthony Bilandic was mayor for three years. His loss in a primary election has been attributed to the city’s inability to properly plow city streets during a heavy snowstorm. In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city’s first female mayor, was elected. She popularized the city as a movie location and tourist destination. In 1983 Harold Washington became the first African American to be elected to the office of mayor, in one of the closest mayoral elections in Chicago. After Washington won the Democratic primary, racial motivations caused a few Democratic alderman and ward committeemen to back the Republican candidate Bernard Epton, who ran on the slogan Before it’s too late, a thinly veiled appeal to fear.[18] Washington’s term in office saw new attention given to poor and minority neighborhoods. His administration reduced the longtime dominance of city contracts and employment by ethnic whites. Washington died in office of a heart attack in 1987, shortly after being elected to a second term. Current mayor Richard M. Daley, son of the late Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. He has led many progressive changes to the city, including improving parks; creating incentives for sustainable development, including green roofs; and major new developments. Since the 1990s, the city has undergone a revitalization in which some lower class areas have been transformed to higher priced and middle-class neighborhoods. The city has seen an upswing in population.

The Sears Tower, at 110 stories, stands as Chicago’s tallest building since its completion in 1974 and is the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere. Mayor Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Starting in the 1960s, many residents, as in most American cities, left the city for the suburbs. Structural changes in industry caused heavy losses of jobs for lower skilled workers. In 1966 James Bevel, Martin Luther King Jr., and Al Raby led the Chicago Open Housing Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, including full-scale riots, or in some cases police riots, in city streets. Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (which in 1974 became the world’s tallest building), McCormick Place, and

21st century
The city earned the title of "City of the Year" in 2008 from GQ for contributions in architecture and literature, its world of politics, and downtown’s starring role in the Batman movie The Dark Knight.[19] The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Chicago tied for 44th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[20]


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feet (176 m), while the highest point at 735 feet (224 m) is a landfill located in the Hegewisch community area on the city’s far south side.

See also: Lake Michigan and Chicago metropolitan area

Northward aerial view of Chicago during winter.

Lake Shore Drive next to Burnham Park on the South Side. Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago’s lakefront. Parks along the lakeshore include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park and Jackson Park; 29 public beaches are found all along the shore. Near downtown, landfills extend into the Lake, providing space for the Jardine Water Purification Plant, Navy Pier, Northerly Island and the Museum Campus, Soldier Field, and large portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Most of the city’s highrise commercial and residential buildings can be found within a few blocks of the lake.

Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois at the southwestern tip of Lake Michigan. It sits on the continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. The city lies beside Lake Michigan, and two rivers — the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side — flow entirely or partially through Chicago. The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal connects the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, which runs to the west of the city. Chicago’s history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region’s waterborne cargo, today’s huge lake freighters use the city’s Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake also provides another positive effect, moderating Chicago’s climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. When Chicago was founded in the 1830s, most of the early building began around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city’s original 58 blocks.[21] The overall grade of the city’s central, builtup areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. The average land elevation is 579 feet (176 m) above sea level. The lowest points are along the lake shore at 577

Chicago Harbor Lighthouse Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metro area, used primarily by copywriters, advertising agencies, and traffic reporters. There is no precise definition for the term "Chicagoland," but it generally means "around Chicago" or relatively local. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term,


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includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties; Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana; Lake, Porter, and LaPorte.[22] The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane and Will counties.[23] The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will counties.[24]

yearly rainfall is 50.86 inches set in 2008; 1983 was the wettest year before with 49.35 inches.[26]

A panoramic view of the Chicago Skyline stretching from Shedd Aquarium to Navy Pier taken from Adler Planetarium.

The city lies within the humid continental climate zone, and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm & humid with average high temperatures of 80-84°F (27-29°C) and lows of 61-65 °F (16-19°C). Winters are cold, snowy and windy with temperatures below freezing. Spring and Fall are mild with low humidity. According to the National Weather Service, Chicago’s highest official temperature reading of 107 °F (42 °C) was recorded on June 1, 1934. The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985. Along with long, hot dry spells in the summer, Chicago can suffer extreme winter cold spells. In the entire month of January 1977, the temperature did not rise above 31 °F (-0.5 °C). The average temperature that month was around 10 °F (-12 °C). Chicago’s yearly precipitation averages about 34 inches (860 millimeters). Summer is typically the rainiest season, with short-lived rainfall and thunderstorms more common than prolonged rainy periods.[25] Winter precipitation tends to be more snow than rain. Chicago’s snowiest winter on record was that of 1978–79, with 89.7 inches (228 cm) of snow in total. The winter of 2007-08, with more than 61 inches (155 cm) of snow, was the snowiest in nearly three decades, and the winter of 2008/2009 produced just over 50 inches (127 cm). This marked the first time in three decades that back-to-back winters produced 50 inches or more of snow. Average winter snowfall is normally around 38 inches (96.52 cm). The highest one-day snowfall total in Chicago history was 18.3 inches (46.5 cm) on January 3, 1999. Chicago’s highest one-day rainfall total was 6.63 inches (168.4 mm) on September 13, 2008.[26] The previous record of 6.49 inches (164 mm) had been set on August 14, 1987. The record for


Looking north from the North Michigan Avenue Bridge on Chicago’s ’Magnificent Mile’. The Wrigley Building and Tribune Tower are in the foreground with the John Hancock Center in the distance. See also: List of tallest buildings in Chicago and List of Chicago Landmarks

Buildings lining the Chicago River. The outcome of the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of


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the nation. Perhaps the most outstanding of these events was the relocation of many of the nation’s most prominent architects to the city from New England for construction of the 1893 World Columbian Exposition. In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building rose in Chicago ushering in the skyscraper era.[28] Today, Chicago’s skyline is among the world’s tallest and most dense.[29] Downtown’s historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building in the Loop, with others along the lakefront and the Chicago River. Once first on the list of largest buildings in the world and still listed twentieth, the Merchandise Mart stands near the junction of the north and south river branches. Presently the four tallest in the city are the Sears Tower, Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center. The city’s architecture includes lakefront high-rise residential towers, lowrise structures, and single-family homes. Industrialized areas such as the Indiana border, south of Midway Airport, and the banks of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal are clustered. Future skyline plans entail the supertalls Waterview Tower, and the Chicago Spire.

Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums and apartment buildings can be found in Chicago. Large swaths of Chicago’s residential areas away from the lake in the so-called "bungalow belt" are characterized by bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II. Chicago is also a prominent center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. One of Chicago’s suburbs is Oak Park, home to the late architect Frank Lloyd Wright.

Public art and monuments

Under City Stone (1972) in Hyde Park by Caryl Yasko is one of the many murals that can be found painted on the underpasses in Chicago. Chicago Avenue Pumping Station in the Old Chicago Water Tower District along the Magnificent Mile The 60602 zip code was named by Forbes as the hottest zip code in the country with upscale buildings such as The Heritage at Millennium Park (130 N. Garland) leading the way for other buildings such at Waterview Tower, The Legacy and Momo. Other new skyscraper construction may be found directly south (South Loop) and north (River North) of the Loop. Chicago is well known for its wealth of public art, including works by such artistic heavyweights as Chagall, Picasso, Miro and Abakanowicz that are all to be found outdoors. City sculptures additionally honor the many people and topics reflecting the rich history of Chicago. There are monuments to: • { Kazimierz Chodzinski } • { Bertel Thorvaldsen } • { Joseph Strachovsky }


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• several different monuments of { including by Czesław Dźwigaj } • { Albin Polasek } • { Preston Jackson } • { Augustus Saint Gaudens } • The featuring George Washington, Haym Salomon, and Robert Morris { Lorado Taft, completed by Leonard Crunelle } • { Carl Brioschi } • { Augustus Saint Gaudens } • { Omri Amrany and Lou Cella } • { Jerry McKenna } • A memorial to the { Mary Brogger } • A memorial to the { Alison Saar } There are also preliminary plans to erect a 1:1-scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski’s Art Nouveau statue of Frederic Chopin found in Warsaw’s Royal Baths along Chicago’s lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frederic Chopin’s birth.

The Loop contains downtown’s commercial, cultural, and financial institutions. The North Side is the most densely populated residential section of the city and the River North neighborhood features the nation’s largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of Manhattan. As a Polonia center, due to Chicago having the largest population of Poles outside of Warsaw, the city celebrates every Labor Day weekend at the Taste of Polonia Festival in Jefferson Park.[30] The South Side is also home to one of the city’s largest parades, the annual African American Bud Billiken Day parade and is the former home of the South Side Irish Parade. It is home to two of Chicago’s largest public parks. Jackson Park, which hosted the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893, is currently the site of the Museum of Science and Industry. Washington Park, which is connected to Jackson Park by the Midway Plaisance, is currently being considered as the primary site of the Olympic Stadium for the 2016 Summer Olympics if Chicago wins the bid. The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants of any U.S. city. Cultural attractions include Humboldt Park’s Puerto Rican Day festival, and the National Museum of Mexican Art in Pilsen.


Culture and contemporary life
See also: Visual arts of Chicago The city’s waterfront allure and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over one-third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods (from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the south). The North Side has a large gay and lesbian community. Two North Side neighborhoods in particular, Lakeview and the Andersonville area of the Edgewater neighborhood, are home to many LGBT businesses and organizations. The area surrounding the North Side intersections of Halsted, Belmont, and Clark is a gay district known as "Boystown". The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These include the Mexican villages such as Pilsen on 18th street and "La Villita" on 26th street, "Greektown" on South Halsted, "Little Italy" on Taylor Street,

Community areas by side Chicago is partitioned by the city into four main sections: Downtown (which contains the Loop), the North Side, the South Side, and the West Side. In the late 1920s sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas. The boundaries of these areas are more clearly defined than those of the over 210 neighborhoods throughout the city, allowing for better year-by-year comparisons.


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just west of Halsted, "Chinatown" on the near South Side, "Little Seoul" on and around Lawrence Avenue, a cluster of Vietnamese restaurants on Argyle Street and South Asian (Indian/Pakistani) on Devon Avenue.


Entertainment and performing arts

The Chicago Theatre See also: Theatre in Chicago and List of people from Chicago Chicago’s theatre community spawned modern improvisational theatre.[31] Two renowned comedy troupes emerged — The Second City and I.O. (formerly known as ImprovOlympic). Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Steppenwolf Theatre Company (on the city’s north side), the Goodman Theatre, and the Victory Gardens Theater. Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at theaters such as Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre, Bank of America Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Drury Lane Theatre Water Tower Place. Polish language productions for Chicago’s large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theatre in the Chicago area. Classical music offerings include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, recognized as one of the finest orchestras in the world,[32] which performs at Symphony Center. Also performing regularly at Symphony Center is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more diverse and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Ravinia A Chicago jazz club Park, located 25 miles (40 km) north of Chicago, is also a favorite destination for many Chicagoans, with performances occasionally given in Chicago locations such as the Harris Theater. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago is home to several other modern and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago. Other live music genre which are part of the city’s cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. The city is the birthplace of house music and is the site of an influential hip-hop scene. In the 1980s, the city was a center for industrial, punk and new wave. This influence continued into the alternative rock of the 1990s. The city has been an epicenter for rave culture since the 1980s. A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie. The city has also been spawning a critically acclaimed underground metal scene with various bands gaining national attention in the metal and hard rock world. Annual festivals feature various acts such as


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Lollapalooza, the Intonation Music Festival and Pitchfork Music Festival.

sculpture (known locally as "The Bean"). A Millennium Park restaurant outdoor transforms into an ice rink in the winter. Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain’s two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans’ faces, with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry’s detailed stainless steel band shell Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Behind the pavilion’s stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque.


Navy Pier, 3,000 feet (900 m) long, houses retail, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls, and auditoriums. Its 150-foot (46 m) tall Ferris wheel is north of Grant Park on the lakefront and is one of the most visited landmarks in the Midwest, attracting about 8 million people annually.[33] Chicago attracted a combined 44.2 million people in 2006 from around the nation and abroad.[5] Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago’s eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States’ third-largest convention destination. Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just south of Soldier Field. The historic Chicago Cultural Center (1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city’s Visitor Information Center, galleries, and exhibit halls. The ceiling of Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (11 m) Tiffany glass dome. Millennium Park, initially slated to be unveiled at the turn of the 21st century, and delayed for several years, sits on a deck built over a portion of the former Illinois Central rail yard. The park includes the reflective Cloud Gate

The Magnificent Mile host numerous shops and landmarks such as the Chicago Water Tower. In 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4-ha) lakefront park surrounding three of the city’s main museums: the Adler Planetarium, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Park which includes the renowned Art Institute of Chicago. Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. The Oriental Institute, part of the University of Chicago, has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and


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Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. Other museums and galleries in Chicago are the Chicago History Museum, DuSable Museum of African-American History, Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, Museum of Broadcast Communications and the Museum of Science and Industry.

largest municipal harbor system. In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years such as Ping Tom Memorial Park, DuSable Park and most notably Millennium Park. The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago’s parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city’s periphery, home to both the Chicago Botanic Garden and Brookfield Zoo.


See also: Chicago farmers’ markets, Chicago Dining, and Food Manufacturers of Chicago

Polish market in Chicago. Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties, all of which reflect the city’s ethnic and working class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza, although locally the Chicago-style thin crust is also popular; featuring a thinner than normal crust. There are very few pizzerias that specialize in true Chicago-style deep dish, the most prominent being Lou Malnati’s, Gino’s East and Giordano’s. The number of "authentic" Chicago pizzerias specializing in the thin crust version is much higher, with many being "Mom and Pop" style shops. Among the largest chains in Chicagoland with this area of specialty are Home Run Inn, Rosati’s and Aurelio’s. The Chicago-style hot dog, typically a Vienna Beef dog loaded with an array of fixings that often includes Chicago’s own neon green pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped

Portage Park on the Northwest side and Washington Square Park on the Near North Side. When Chicago incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto "Urbs in Horto", a Latin phrase which translates into English as "City in a Garden". Today the Chicago Park District consists of 552 parks with over 7,300 acres (30 km²) of municipal parkland as well as 33 sand beaches along Lake Michigan, nine museums, two world-class conservatories, 16 historic lagoons and 10 bird and wildlife gardens. Lincoln Park, the largest of these parks, has over 20 million visitors each year, making it second only to Central Park in New York City.[34] Nine lakefront harbors located within a number of parks along the lakefront render the Chicago Park District the nation’s


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off with celery salt. Ketchup on a Chicago hot dog is frowned upon.[35] There are two other distinctly Chicago sandwiches, the Italian beef sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef slowly simmered in an au jus served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera, and the Maxwell Street Polish, which is a kielbasa — typically from either the Vienna Beef Company or the Bobak Sausage Company — on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard and the optional sport peppers. Portillo’s is one of the most dominant chains among local restaurants specializing in Chicago-style cuisine. McDonald’s even adds its own downtown flavor, with their Rock-n-Roll McDonald’s. The grand tour of Chicago cuisine culminates annually in Grant Park at the Taste of Chicago, the largest food festival in the world which runs from the final week of June through Fourth of July weekend. Chicago features a number of celebrity chefs, a list which includes Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Jean Joho, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless, Chicago has in recent decades developed into one of the world’s premiere restaurant cities. Some of the most notable restaurants in Chicago are Gibson’s Steakhouse, The Berghoff, Harry Caray’s Steakhouse, Ditka’s Steakhouse, Hard Rock Chicago, and Goose Island Brewery.


Soldier Field

United Center Cubs of the National League play on the city’s North Side, in Wrigley Field, while the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in U.S. Cellular Field on the city’s South Side. Chicago is the only city in North America that has had more than one Major League Baseball franchise every year since the American League began in 1900. The Chicago Bears, one of the two remaining charter members of the NFL, have won thirteen NFL Championships. The other remaining charter franchise also started out in Chicago, the Chicago Cardinals, now the Arizona Cardinals . The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field on Chicago’s lakefront. Due in large part to Michael Jordan, the Chicago Bulls of the NBA are one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world. With Jordan leading them, the Bulls took six NBA championships in eight seasons during the 1990s (only failing to do so in the two years of Jordan’s absence). The Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL, who began play in 1926 have won three Stanley Cups. The Blackhawks also hosted the 2008-2009

See also: Arlington Park and Category:Sports in Chicago, Illinois

Wrigley Field Chicago was named the Best Sports City in the United States by The Sporting News in 1993 and 2006.[36] The city is home to two Major League Baseball teams: the Chicago


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Winter Classic. Both the Bulls and Blackhawks play at the United Center on the Near West Side. The Chicago Fire soccer club are members of Major League Soccer. The Fire have won one league and four US Open Cups since their inaugural season in 1998. In 2006, the club moved to its current home, Toyota Park, in suburban Bridgeview after playing its first eight seasons downtown at Soldier Field and at Cardinal Stadium in Naperville. The club is now the third professional soccer team to call Chicago home, the first two being the Chicago Sting of the NASL (and later the indoor team of the MISL); and the Chicago Power of the NPSL-AISA. The Chicago Red Stars of Women’s Professional Soccer also play in Toyota Park in Bridgeview, Illinois. The Chicago Rush, of the Arena Football League, The Chicago Bandits of the NPF and the Chicago Wolves, of the AHL, also play in Chicago; they both play at the Allstate Arena. The Chicago Sky of the WNBA, began play in 2006. The Sky’s home arena is the UIC Pavilion. The Chicago Slaughter of the CIFL began in 2006 and play at the Sears Centre. The Chicago Storm began play in 2004 in the MISL until 2007 when they moved to the XSL. The Chicago Storm also play at the Sears Centre. The Chicago Machine, a Major League Lacrosse team, has been playing since 2006. Their home field is Toyota Park, but they are playing their 2009 season opener and closer at Soldier Field.[37] The Chicago Marathon has been held every October since 1977. This event is one of five World Marathon Majors.[38] In 1994 the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field. Chicago was selected on April 14, 2007 to represent the United States internationally in the bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics.[39][40] Chicago also hosted the 1959 Pan American Games, and Gay Games VII in 2006. Chicago was selected to host the 1904 Olympics, but they were transferred to St. Louis to coincide with the World’s Fair.[41] On June 4, 2008 The International Olympic Committee selected Chicago as one of four candidate cities for the 2016 games. Chicago is also the starting point for the Chicago Yacht Club Race to Mackinac, a 330-mile (530 km) offshore sailboat race held each July that is the longest annual

freshwater sailboat race in the world. 2008 marks the 100th running of the "Mac." At the collegiate level, Chicago and its suburb, Evanston, have two national athletic conferences, the Big East Conference with DePaul University, and the Big Ten Conference with Northwestern University in Evanston.


Harpo Studios, headquarters of talk show host Oprah Winfrey. See also: Chicago International Film Festival The Chicago metropolitan area is the thirdlargest media market in North America (after New York City and Los Angeles).[42] Each of the big four (CBS, ABC, NBC, and FOX) United States television networks directly owns and operates a station in Chicago (WBBM, WLS, WMAQ, and WFLD, respectively). WGN-TV, which is owned by the Tribune Company, is carried (with some programming differences) as "WGN America" on cable nationwide and in parts of the Caribbean. The city is also the home of many talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show (on WLS) and Jerry Springer (on WMAQ), while Chicago Public Radio produces programs such as PRI’s This American Life and NPR’s Wait Wait... Don’t Tell Me!. PBS on TV in Chicago can be seen on WTTW (producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop’s Play-Along, and The McLaughlin Group, just to name a few) and WYCC. There are two major daily newspapers published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the former having the larger circulation. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers such as the Chicago Reader, the Daily


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Southtown, the Chicago Defender, the Chicago Sports Weekly, the Daily Herald, StreetWise, The Chicago Free Press and the Windy City Times. The city has pushed hard to make Chicago a filming-friendly location. After a long drought of interest from Hollywood movies, Spider-Man 2 filmed a scene in Chicago. Since then, progressively more movies have filmed in Chicago, most notably the massive blockbuster success The Dark Knight, which was a follow up to Batman Begins, which also shot in Chicago. Currently every major news station (WBBM, WLS, WMAQ, WFLD, and WGN-TV) in Chicago is airing their news in High Definition with WFLD (Fox) making the final switch.

most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification.[44] Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index.[45] Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for six of the past seven years.[46] In 2008, Chicago placed 16th on the UBS list of the world’s richest cities.[47] Chicago is a major world financial center, with the second largest central business district in the U.S. The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The city is also home to three major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which includes the former Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT). Perhaps due to the influence of the Chicago school of economics, the city also has markets trading unusual contracts such as emissions (on the Chicago Climate Exchange) and equity style indices (on the US Futures Exchange). The city and its surrounding metropolitan area are home to the second largest labor pool in the United States with approximately 4.25 million workers.[48] Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city’s economy. Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare Financial Services division of General Electric. Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago’s pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Though the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city’s economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center. Late in the 19th Century, Chicago was part of the bicycle craze, as home to Western


The Chicago Board of Trade Building at night Chicago has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the nation — approximately $440 billion according to 2007 estimates.[43] The city has also been rated as having the


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Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs,[49] while early in the 20th Century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907.[50] Chicago is a major world convention destination. The city’s main convention center is McCormick Place. With its four interconnected buildings, it is the third largest convention center in the world. Chicago also ranks third in the U.S. (behind Las Vegas and Orlando) in number of conventions hosted annually.[51] In addition, Chicago is home to eleven Fortune 500 companies, while the metropolitan area hosts an additional 21 Fortune 500 companies.[52] The state of Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies.[53] The city of Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims one Dow 30 company as well: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network at Loughborough University in England classified Chicago as an "alpha− world city" in a 2008 study.[54][55]

During its first century as a city, Chicago grew at a rate that ranked among the fastest growing in the world. Within the span of forty years, the city’s population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million by 1890. By the close of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world,[57] and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century. Within fifty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population had tripled to over 3 million.[58] As of the 2000 census, there were 2,896,016 people, 1,061,928 households, and 632,909 families residing within Chicago. More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population density of the city itself was 12,750.3 people per square mile (4,923.0/km²), making it one of the nation’s most densely populated cities. There were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075.8 per square mile (1,959.8/km²). Of the 1,061,928 households, 28.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were nonfamilies. The median income for a household in the city was $38,625, and the median income for a family was $46,748. Males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. Below the poverty line are 19.6% of the population and 16.6% of the families. At the 2007 U.S. Census estimates, Chicago’s population was: 38.9% White (30.9% non-Hispanic-White), 35.6% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 5.3% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 21.3% some other race and 1.6% two or more races. 28.1% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[59] The main ethnic groups in Chicago are African American, Irish, German, Italian, Mexican, English, Bulgarian, Greek, Chinese, Slovak, Lithuanian, Polish, Bosnian, Czech, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian, and Puerto Rican. Poles in Chicago constitute the largest Polish population outside of the Polish capital of Warsaw.[30] The Chicago Metropolitan area is also a major center for those of Indian ancestry.

Historical Populations[56] Census Population Rank %± year 1840 4,470 92 -1850 29,963 24 570.3% 1860 112,172 9 274.4% 1870 298,977 5 166.5% 1880 503,185 4 68.3% 1890 1,099,850 2 118.6% 1900 1,698,575 2 54.4% 1910 2,185,283 2 28.7% 1920 2,701,705 2 23.6% 1930 3,376,438 2 25.0% 1940 3,396,808 2 0.6% 1950 3,620,962 2 6.6% 1960 3,550,404 2 -1.9% 1970 3,366,957 2 -5.2% 1980 3,005,072 2 -10.7% 1990 2,783,726 3 -7.4% 2000 2,896,016 3 4.0% 2007 2,836,658 3 -2.0%


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations.[60] For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States, with Chicago’s Democratic vote the state of Illinois tends to be "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent the rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago’s public school funding. Although Chicago includes less than 25% of the state’s population, eight of Illinois’ nineteen U.S. Representatives have part of the city in their districts. Former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley’s mastery of machine politics preserved the Chicago Democratic Machine long after the demise of similar machines in other large U.S. cities.[61] During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington. Since 1989, Chicago has been under the leadership of Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November.

Because of Chicago’s large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced. Various Christian denominations such as diverse Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches are found throughout the area along with adherents of Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá’í, and others.

Law and government

A Critical Mass gathering on the Daley Plaza, with Chicago City Hall in the background and Chicago Picasso on the right See also: List of Chicago city departments and Political history of Chicago Chicago is the county seat of Cook County. The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. In addition to the mayor, Chicago’s two other citywide elected officials are the clerk and the treasurer. The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance usually adopted each November. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions. During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago’s politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization dominated by ethnic ward-heelers. During


Chicago police officers in Marquette Park.


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Murders in the city peaked first in 1974, with 970 murders when the city’s population was over three million people (resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000), and again in 1992 with 943 murders, resulting in a murder rate of 34 per 100,000.[62] After adopting crime-fighting techniques recommended by Los Angeles and New York City Police Departments in 2004,[63] Chicago recorded 448 homicides, the lowest total since 1965 (15.65 per 100,000.) Chicago’s homicide tally remained steady throughout 2005, 2006, and 2007 with 449, 452, and 435 respectively, and the overall crime rate in 2006 continued the downward trend that has taken place since the early 1990s.[64] However, in 2008, homicides rebounded to 510.[65] Like other school districts in larger cities, Chicago has struggled with school violence.

are: Brother Rice High School, Loyola Academy, St. Ignatius College Prep, St. Scholastica Academy, Mount Carmel High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, and St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School. In addition to Chicago’s network of 32 Lutheran Schools,[67] Chicago also has private schools run by other denominations and faiths such as Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Rogers Park, and the Fasman Yeshiva High School in Skokie, a nearby suburb. There are also a number of private schools run in a completely secular educational environment such as: Latin School, University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, Francis W. Parker School, Chicago City Day School in Lake View, and Morgan Park Academy. Chicago is also home of the prestigious Chicago Academy for the Arts, an arts high school focused on 6 different categories of the arts, Media Arts, Visual Arts, Music, Dance, Musical Theatre and Theatre. It has been heralded as the best arts high school in the country. Children commute from as far away as South Bend, Indiana every day to attend classes.


Colleges and universities

Lincoln Park High School There are 680 public schools, 394 private schools, 83 colleges, and 88 libraries in Chicago proper. Chicago Public Schools (CPS), is the governing body of a district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selectiveadmission magnet schools. The school district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,000 students (2005 stat.), ranks as third largest in the U.S.[66] Private schools in Chicago are largely run by religious groups. The two largest systems are run by Christian religious denominations, Roman Catholic and Lutheran, respectively. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates the city’s Roman Catholic schools, including Jesuit preparatory schools. Some of the more prominent examples of schools run by the Archdiocese

The University of Chicago seen from the Midway Plaisance, a long stretch of parkland that bisects the campus Since the 1890s, Chicago has been a world center in higher education and research. Six universities in or immediately adjoining the city - the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, DePaul University, University of Illinois Chicago, Loyola University Chicago, and the Illinois Institute of Technology are among the major doctorate-granting research universities in the United States.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The University of Chicago, established in 1891, is a private university located in Hyde Park on the city’s South Side. The university has had 82 Nobel Prize laureates among its faculty and alumni.[68] The university also maintains the Pritzker School of Medicine, the University of Chicago Law School, and the Booth School of Business. Northwestern University, established in 1851, is a nonsectarian, private, research university located in the adjacent northern suburb of Evanston. The University maintains the Kellogg Graduate School of Management, the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, the McCormick School of Engineering, the Bienen School of Music, and the Medill School of Journalism. Northwestern also has a downtown Chicago campus, with the Feinberg School of Medicine and School of Law, both being located in the city’s Streeterville neighborhood. Northwestern is a member of the Big Ten Athletic Conference. The University of Illinois at Chicago, a nationally ranked public research institution, is the largest university within the city.[69] UIC boasts the nation’s largest medical school.[70] State funded universities in Chicago (besides UIC) include Chicago State University and Northeastern Illinois University. The city also has a large community college system known as the City Colleges of Chicago. Prominent Catholic universities in Chicago include Loyola University and DePaul University. Loyola, established in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College, has campuses on city’s North Side as well as downtown, and a Medical Center in the West suburban Maywood, is the largest Jesuit university in the country while DePaul, a Big East Conference university is the largest Catholic university in the U.S. Loyola University Chicago is a private Jesuit university. The Illinois Institute of Technology is a private Ph.D.-granting technological university. The main campus is established in Bronzeville, and is home to renowned engineering and architecture programs. The university was host to world-famous modern architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for many years. IIT also maintains a formal academic and research relationship with the Argonne National Laboratory. The IIT Institute of Design is located downtown, and the Stuart School of Business and Chicago-Kent College of Law are located within the city’s financial district. IIT shares its main campus with the

VanderCook College of Music, the only independent college in the country focusing exclusively on the training of music educators, and Shimer College, a private liberal arts college which follows the Great Books program. Lake Forest College is Chicago’s national liberal arts college. North Park University is located in Chicago’s Albany park neighborhood, it enrolls a little over 3,000 students and has been listed on US News’ college review as one of the best universities in the Midwest. The Chicago area has the largest concentration of seminaries and theological schools outside the Vatican. The city is home to the Catholic Theological Union, Chicago Theological Seminary, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, McCormick Theological Seminary, Hebrew Theological College, Meadville Lombard Theological School, North Park Theological Seminary, the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, the Moody Bible Institute, Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, and Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary. Founded on the principles of social justice, Roosevelt University was named in honor of president Franklin D. Roosevelt, two weeks after his death. It houses the Theatre and Music Conservatories under the Chicago College of Performing Arts. Rush Medical College, now part of Rush University, was the first institution of higher learning chartered in Illinois and one of the first medical schools to open west of the Alleghenies. Fine and performing arts programs in Chicago may be pursued at the The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, The American Academy of Art and Columbia College Chicago. The Cooking and Hospitality Institute of Chicago, became affiliated with Le Cordon Bleu of Paris in June 2000.

Chicago is the major transportation hub in the United States. It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore.[71] Additionally, it is the only city in North America in which six Class I railroads meet.[72] As of 2002, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as


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Chicago Yellow Cab CTA Brown Line congestion by about one third.[75] This is also expected to have a positive impact on passenger rail and road congestion, as well as create new greenspace.[76] Chicago is the largest hub of passenger rail service in the nation. Many Amtrak long distance services originate from Union Station. Such services terminate in New York, Seattle, Portland, New Orleans, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Antonio, and Washington, D.C. Amtrak also provides a number of short-haul services throughout Illinois and toward nearby Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Saint Louis, and Detroit. Nine interstate highways run through Chicago and its suburbs. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with four of them named after former U.S. Presidents. Traffic reports tend to use the names rather than interstate numbers. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace. The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the city of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the ’L’ (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midway Airport and O’Hare Airport. The CTA’s rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24 hour service which makes Chicago one of the few cities in the world (and one of only two American cities) to offer rail service every day of the year for 24 hours around the clock. A new subway/elevated line, the Circle Line, is also in the planning stages by the

O’Hare International Airport Terminal 1 Concourse B/C tunnel

Metra train at Ogilvie Transportation Center it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days).[73] About onethird of the country’s freight trains pass through the city, making it a major national bottleneck.[74] Announced in 2003, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency (CREATE) initiative is using about $1.5B in private railroad, state, local, and federal funding to improve rail infrastructure in the region to reduce freight rail


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CTA. Metra operates commuter rail service in Chicago and its suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares the railway with the South Shore Line’s NICTD Northern Indiana Commuter Rail Service, providing commuter service between South Bend and Chicago. Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. Bicycles are permitted on all CTA and Metra trains during non-rush hours and on all buses 24 hours. Chicago offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities, such as miles of onstreet bike lanes, 10,000 bike racks, and a state-of-the-art central bicycle commuter station in Millennium Park. The city has a 100-mile (160 km) on-street bicycle lane network that is maintained by the Chicago Department of Transportation Bike Program and the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation.[77] In addition, trails dedicated to bikes only are built throughout the city. Chicago is served by Midway International Airport on the south side and O’Hare International Airport, the world’s second busiest airport, on the far northwest side. In 2005, O’Hare was the world’s busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second busiest by total passenger traffic (due to government enforced flight caps).[78] Both O’Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport, located in nearby Gary, Indiana, serves as the third Chicago area airport. Chicago Rockford International Airport, formerly Greater Rockford Airport, serves as a regional base for United Parcel Service cargo flights, some passenger flights, and occasionally as a reliever to O’Hare, usually in times of bad weather. Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world’s second-largest airline by revenue-passengerkilometers and the city is the second largest hub for American Airlines. Midway airport serves as a major ’focus city’ for Southwest Airlines, the world’s largest low-cost airline. A small airport, Meigs Field, was located on the Lake Michigan waterfront adjacent to Grant Park and downtown. There were longterm scheduled flights to Springfield as well as some service to other cities. At 1:30 a.m. on March 31, 2003, the airport runways were unexpectedly destroyed by order of the Mayor, who had sought closure of the airport and development of a nature preserve and bandshell.[79] This resulted in a fine to the city by

the Federal Aviation Administration for closure of the airport without sufficient notice, but the airport was eventually demolished. Chicago is mandating that its entire fleet of taxicabs go green by January 1, 2014.[80]

Using only 3% of the total available bandwidth capacity and 13% of the available fiber pairs, Chicago area data centers move data for local, area, regional and international networks.[4]

Health systems

The new Prentice Women’s Hospital at Northwestern University’s Medical Center. Chicago is home to the Illinois Medical District, on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Center, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, and John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, the largest trauma-center in the city. The University of Chicago operates the University of Chicago Medical Center, which was ranked the fourteenth best hospital in the country by U.S. News & World Report.[81] It is the only hospital in Illinois ever to be included in the magazine’s "Honor Roll" of the best hospitals in the United States.[82]


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The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the largest medical school in the United States (2600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana-Champaign).[83] Chicago is also home to other nationally recognized medical schools including Rush Medical College, the Pritzker School of Medicine of the University of Chicago, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, and the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University. In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago’s Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, American Dietetic Association, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives and the American Hospital Association, and Blue Cross Blue Shield are all based in Chicago.

Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Recently, the city started the installation of wind turbines on government buildings with the aim to promote the use of renewable energy.[84][85][86] Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet area. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert certain refuse from landfills.[87] In the fall of 2007 the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling similar to that of other cities due to low participation rates in the blue bag program. After completion of the pilot the city will determine whether to roll it out to all wards.

Sister cities
Chicago has twenty-seven sister cities:[88][89] Many of them, like Chicago, are or were the second city of their country, have a very similar-sized population, or are the main city of a country that has sent many immigrants to Chicago over the years. Paris is a partner city due to the one sister city policy of that commune.[90] Accra (Ghana) since 1989 • Amman (Jordan) 2004 • • • • • Birmingham (United Kingdom) 1993 • Busan (South Korea) 2007 Casablanca (Morocco) 1982 Delhi (India) 2001 Durban (South Africa) 1997 Arequipa (Peru) Athens (Greece) 1997 Belgrade (Serbia) 2005 Lucerne (Switzerland) 1998 • Mexico City (Mexico) 1991 • • • • • Milan (Italy) 1973 Moscow (Russia) 1997 Osaka (Japan) 1973 Paris (France) 1996 Partner City Petah Tikva (Israel) 1994 Prague (Czech Republic) 1990 Shanghai (China) 1985 Friendship City Shenyang (China) 1985


Steam generating station for adjacent railyard with the downtown in the background. Electricity for most of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana border to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state.

• •

• • •




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• • Gothenburg (Sweden) 1987 • Hamburg (Germany) 1994 • • Kiev (Ukraine) 1991 Lahore (Pakistan) 2007 Galway (Ireland) 1997 Toronto (Canada) 1991 • Vilnius (Lithuania) 1993 • Warsaw (Poland) 1960 • • • Karachi (Pakistan) 2008 São Paulo (Brazil) 2005


[1] Chicago notoriety comes from being the subject or being referenced in novels, plays, movies, songs, various types of journals (e.g., sports, enertainment, business, trade, and academic), and the news media. [2] A.J.Liebling coined the "Second City" phrase and applied it to Chicago[6]

[1] "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-01)". 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007. CBSA-est2007-annual.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-01. [2] "Population in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Ranked by 2000 Population for the United States and Puerto Rico" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 30, 2003. cen2000/phc-t29/tab03a.csv. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. [3] "Demographia World Urban Areas & Population Projections" (PDF). Demographia. April 2009. pages 35, 91. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. [4] ^ "Telecommunications Hub" (PDF). World Business Chicago. Portals/0/infocenter_files/ telecom_hub.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-15.

[5] ^ Choose Chicago - the official visitors site for Chicago | Industry StatisticsChoose Chicago [6] Sarah S. Marcus. "Chicago’s TwentiethCentury Cultural Exports". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. pages/410156.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-19. [7] Spears 2005, p 9 [8] [9] Swenson 1991, pp 235–248 [10] ^ McCafferty, Michael. kDisc: "Chicago" Etymology. LINGUIST list posting, December y21, 2001 [11] McCafferty, Michael. A uFresh Look at the Place Name Chicago. [12] Boyle, Elizabeth and Rodolfo Estrada. (1994) "Development of the U.S. Meat Industry" — Kansas State University Department of Animal Sciences and Industry. [13] "Chicago Daily Tribune, Thursday Morning, February 14". chicsrc_stuff_that_never_made_it.html#february_14t Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [14] Bruegmann, Robert (2004–2005). Built Environment of the Chicago Region. Encyclopedia of Chicago (online version). [15] Chicago History. Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau. [16] "Bessie Smith". The Red Hot Archive. Retrieved on 2007-10-29. [17] Jean Mann Williams (2008). Babes in the Concrete Woods. private. pp. 30-31. [18] "Constancy***". Time & CNN. April 4, 1983. magazine/article/0,9171,923453,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. [19] Konkol, Mark (2008-12-07). "Chicago is GQ’s ’City of the Year’". Chicago SunTimes. Newsbank. openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/ fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=124EF555CD4078A8&svc_d Retrieved on 2009-02-22. [20] "Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 – Mercer survey". Mercer. 28 April 2009. referencecontent.htm?idContent=1173105. Retrieved on 2009-05-08.


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[21] "Thompson’s Plat of 1830". Chicago 2006. Historical Society. 2004. yourturn/viewtopic.php?t=113586.[37] "Official Chicago Machine Website". pages/11175.html. [22] "’’Chicago Tribune’’ Classifieds map of Chicagoland". Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [38] "World Marathon Majors" (PDF). The classified/realestate/communities/. LaSalle Bank Marathon. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [23] World%20Marathon%20Majors.pdf. [24] Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce Retrieved on 2007-07-25. [25] Chicago Seasonal Temperature and [39] Levine, Jay. "Chicago In The Running To Precipitation Rankings (11/25/2005). Host 2016 Summer Games." CBS. July National Weather Service Weather 26, 2006. Retrieved on December 1, Forecast Office - Chicago, IL. 2006. [26] ^ [1]. National Weather Service Weather [40] "Official Chicago 2016 Website." Forecast Office - Chicago, IL. Retrieved on December 1, 2006. [27] "Monthly Weather Averages for Chicago [41] "1904 Summer Olympics". International Midway Airport (1928-2006 Data)". Olympics Committee. choose.asp?stn=111577. Retrieved on index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1904. July 6 2007. [42] Nielsen Media - DMA Listing (September [28] Chicago (2004). Chicago Public Library. 24, 2005). [29] World’s Tallest Cities. [43] (January 13, 2006) "The U.S. Conference of Mayors 74th Winter Meeting" (PDF). [30] ^ "Chicago’s Polish neighborhoods". The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. USA Weekend Magazine. 2005-05-15. Economy: p. 15, Washington, D.C.: United States Conference of Mayors. 050515/ [44] Moody’s: Chicago’s Economy Most 050515travel_diverse.html#chicago. Balanced in US (1/23/2003)PDF. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. Accessed from World Business Chicago. [31] Sawyer 2002, p 14 [45] "London named world’s top business [32] Tom Huizenga (2008-11-21). "Chicago center by MasterCard", CNN, June 13, Symphony Tops U.S. Orchestras". NPR. 2007. [46] Ron Starner. "’Life at the Top’". story.php?storyId=97291390. Retrieved on 2008-12-31. [33] "About Navy Pier - The Pier". 2008/mar/topMetros/. Retrieved on Metropolitan Pier and Exposition 2008-03-11. Authority. 2007. [47] "City Mayors: World’s richest cities". ov_pier.html. richest_cities.html. Retrieved on August [34] "City Park Facts". The Trust for Public 20 2006. Land, Center for City Park Excellence. [48] Chicago Market Outlook 2006 - Market June 2006. CommentaryPDF (805 KB). CBRE - CB tier3_cd.cfm?content_item_id=20531&folder_id=3208. Ellis. Richard Retrieved on 2006-07-19. [49] Norcliffe 2001, p 107 [35] "Classic Chicago Hot Dog". Emril [50] Clymer 1950, p 178 Lagasse. 1999. [51] Chicago falls to 3rd in U.S. convention industry (4/26/2006). Crain’s Chicago recipes/recipe/ Business. 0,1977,FOOD_9936_8208,00.html. [52] Fortune 500 2006 - Illinois. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. [36] "Best Sports Cities 2006: Who, where [53] "FORTUNE 500 2007: States - Illinois". and how". Sporting News. August 1,


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magazines/fortune/fortune500/2007/ states/IL.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. [54] "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. GaWC Loughborough University. world2008t.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-29. [55] P.J. Taylor et al. (2009). "Measuring the World City Network: New Developments and Results". Research On Relations Between World Cities. Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network. see Table 1. gawc/rb/rb300.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-18. [56] Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Bureau of the Census - Population Division. [57] "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1900". weekly/aa011201f.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [58] "Chicago Growth 1850-1990: Maps by Dennis McClendon". University Illinois Chicago. ahaa/imagebase/chimaps/ mcclendon.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-19. [59] American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Chicago city, Illinois ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2007". ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&tree_id=3307&redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&geo_id=16000US1714000&format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [60] Schneirov 1998, pp 173–174 [61] Montejano 1998, pp 33–34 [62] Heinzmann, David (1/1/2003). Chicago falls out of 1st in murders. Chicago Tribune, found at Articles/ChicagoCrime20030101.htm. [63] David Heinzmann and Rex W. Huppke (12/19/2004). City murder toll lowest in decades Chicago Tribune.

[64] Chicago Police Department News Release, January 19, 2007 [2]PDF (494 KB) [65] "Topic Galleries -".<!. local/illinois/chi-ap-ilmurdertoll,1,5082418.story?coll=chinewsap_il-hed. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [66] CPS At A Glance (2005) Chicago Public Schools at AtAGlance.html. [67] Pogorzelski 2008, p 58 [68] "Nobel Laureates". The University of Chicago. December 10, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-20. Retrieved on 2009-05-20. [69] "Research- The Center for Measuring University Performance". Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [70] UICFactSheet.pdf [71] Madigan 2004, p.52. [72] Appendix C: Regional Freight Transportation Profiles. Assessing the Effects of Freight Movement on Air Quality at the National and Regional Level. U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (April 2005). [73] Winsor, Jeromie (2003-07-14). "Metropolitan Planning Council". articleDetail.asp?objectID=1707. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [74] "The heartland fast-freight rail system". tradejournals/article/171140041.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [75] [3] - Includes map [76] "CREATE". Retrieved on 2009-05-04. [77] "Existing Bike Lanes". City of Chicago. 2006-01. existingbikelanes.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. [78] Preliminary Traffic Results for 2005 Show Firm Rebound (3/14/ 2006)PDF (520 KB). Airports Council International.


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[79] "Mayor Daley bulldozes Chicago’s Meigs Field". Archived from Portal.lut?page_id=6587&document_type_id=5&doc the original on 2007-05-17. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. 20070517105748/ whatsnew/newsitems/2003/ • Clymer, Floyd (1950). Treasury of Early 03-1-157x.html. Retrieved on American Automobiles, 1877-1925. New 2009-05-04. York: Bonanza Books. [80] "Aldermen want all cabs hybrid by 2014; • Madigan, Charles., ed (September 1, Push for New York-type law upsets taxi 2004). Global Chicago. University of drivers". Chicago Sun-Times, Inc via Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02941-0. LexisNexis. 2008-06-12. • Montejano, David, ed (January 1, 1998). Chicano Politics and Society in the Late EndUser?Action=UserDisplayFullDocument&orgId=101846&topicId=103840033&docId=l:80584285 Twentieth Century. University of Texas Retrieved on 2008-08-08. Press. ISBN 0-292-75215-6. [81] "America’s Best Hospitals". U.S. News • Norcliffe, Glen (2001). The Ride to and World Report. 2005. Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900. Toronto, Canada: University of best-hospitals/honorroll.htm. Retrieved Toronto Press. on 2006-05-31. • Pogorzelski, Daniel (2008). Portage Park. [82] "National survey again names University Maloof, John. Franklin Park, IL USA: of Chicago Hospitals to the Honor Roll of Arcadia Press. the best US hospitals". University of • Sawyer, R Keith (September 30, 2002). Chicago Hospitals. 2005. Improvised Dialogue. Ablex/Greenwood. ISBN 1-56750-677-1. awards/usnews.html. Retrieved on • Schneirov, Richard (April 1, 1998)). Labor 2006-06-06. and Urban Politics. University of Illinois [83] About The University of Illinois College Press. ISBN 0-252-06676-6. of Medicine (2007). UIC College of • Spears, Timothy B. (2005). Chicago Medicine at Dreaming:Midwesterners and the City, about. 1871-1919. United States of America: The [84] "". 2003-06-20. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76874-0. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. • Swenson, John F. (Winter 1991). [85] "". "Chicagoua/Chicago: The Origin, Meaning, and Etymology of a Place Name". Illinois adv030707.html. Retrieved on Historical Journal 84 (4). 2009-05-04. [86] By Martin LaMonica Staff Writer, CNET News. "’Micro’ wind turbines are coming to town | CNET". • USGS—Chicago - Elevation and Micro+wind+turbines+are+coming+to+town/ topography. • Miller, Donald L. (April 1996). City of the 2100-11398_3-6037539.html. Retrieved Century: The Epic of Chicago and the on 2009-05-04. Making of America. Simon & Schuster. [87] "". ISBN 0-684-80194-9.


Further reading pages/1322.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-04. • [88] Sister Cities designated by Chicago Sister Cities International Retrieved on May 22, 2007. • [89] Sister Cities International • [90] "Le jumelage avec Rome" (in French). • Municipalité de Paris.

External links
Chicago Timeline. "A Chronological Listing of Events in Chicago History" by the Chicago Public Library. Poems about Chicago by Carl Sandburg Official City website Official Office of Tourism website


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• • • • Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau Chicago Business Network Chicago’s Black Metropolis: Understanding History Through a Historic

Place, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan • Chicago, Illinois, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary • Chicago travel guide from Wikitravel

Retrieved from "" Categories: Chicago, Illinois, Chicago metropolitan area, Cities in Illinois, Communities on U.S. Route 66, Cook County, Illinois, County seats in Illinois, Settlements on the Great Lakes, DuPage County, Illinois, Polish American history, Irish-American culture, United States places with Orthodox Jewish communities, Port settlements in the United States, Settlements established in 1833 This page was last modified on 24 May 2009, at 01:42 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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