Central_and_South_America by zzzmarcus


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Latin America

Latin America
Latin America
Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken.[4][5]

Etymology of the term and definitions
The idea that a part of the Americas has a cultural affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in particular in the writing of the French SaintSimonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas were inhabited by people of a "Latin race," and that it could, therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe" in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe," "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe."[6] The idea was later taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France.[7] The actual term "Latin America" was coined in France under Napoleon III and played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship with France, transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area and install Maximilian as emperor of Mexico.[8] In contemporary usage: • In one sense, Latin America refers only to those territories in the Americas where the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail: Mexico, most of Central and South America, and in the Caribbean, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. [9][10] • The term may is often used, particularly in the United States, to refer to all of the Americas south of the United States, thus including (in addition to the above areas) English-speaking countries such as Belize, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia, Dominica, Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the Bahamas, as well as Haiti and Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana, the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba

21,069,501 km² 569 million[1] 21 10 $3.33 Trillion (exchange rate) $5.62 Trillion (purchasing power parity) Spanish58%, PorLanguages tuguese40%, French1%, Quechua, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Guaraní, English, Haitian Creole, Papiamentu, Dutch, and many others UTC-2 (Brazil) to Time Zones UTC-8 (Mexico) 1. Mexico City Largest Urban Ag2. São Paulo glomerations[2][3] 3. Buenos Aires 4. Rio de Janeiro 5. Lima 6. Bogotá 7. Santiago 8. Belo Horizonte 9. Guadalajara 10. Porto Alegre Latin America (Spanish: América Latina or Latinoamérica; Portuguese: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin) – particularly

Area Population Countries Dependencies GDP


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and Suriname. In this context, it is noted that in the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, Papiamento – a predominantly Iberian–derived creole language – is spoken by the majority of the population.[11][12][13][14][15][16] Given that the non-Latin territories about the Caribbean share a common sociopolitical history with their Latin neighbours in the region, the term Latin America and the Caribbean may be used.[17] • In a more literal definition, which remains faithful to the original usage, Latin America designates all of those countries and territories in the Americas where a Romance language (i.e., languages derived from Latin, and hence the name of the region) is spoken: Spanish, Portuguese, and French, and the creole languages based upon these. Although French-influenced areas of the Americas would include Quebec, this region is hardly ever considered part of Latin America, since its history is too closely intertwined with Canada.[18] The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America, which can be criticized for stressing only the European heritage of these regions (that is, for Eurocentrism), is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. There are, of course, many places in the Americas (e.g., highland Ecuador, Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay) where American Indian cultures and, to a lesser extent, Amerindian languages, are predominant, as well as areas in which the influence of African cultures is strong (e.g. the Caribbean basin—including parts of Colombia and Venezuela—and coastal Ecuador, and coastal Brazil). The United States has also shaped the cultures of Latin America, especially those of Mexico, Cuba and Puerto Rico, which is a United States territory. In addition, the United States held a territory in a swath of land in Panama over the 20-mile-long Panama Canal from 1903 (the canal opened to transoceanic freight traffic in 1914) to 1979 when the U.S. government agreed to give the territory back to Panama.

Latin America

See also: History of South America, for a treatment of pre-Columbian civilizations and a general overview of the region’s history.

A view of Machu Picchu, a pre-Columbian Inca site in Peru. The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering Land Bridge, now known as the Bering strait, from northeast Asia into Alaska more than 10,000 years ago. The earliest known settlement, however, was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. By the first millennium AD/CE, South America’s vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. The earliest settlements in the Americas are of the Las Vegas Culture from about 8000 BC and 4600 BC, a sedentary group from the coast of Ecuador, the forefathers of the more known Valdivia culture, of the same era. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibchas (or "Muiscas" or "Muyscas") and the Tairona groups. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Caribs, Tupi, Maya, and Inca. The golden age of the Maya began about 250, with the last two great civilizations, the Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively.


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Latin America
the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies.

Archaelogical sites of Chichén-Itzá in Yucatán Mexico. With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus’s voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incans and Aztecs, lost power to the Europeans. Hernán Cortés destroyed the Aztec elite’s power with the help of local groups who disliked the Aztec elite, and Francisco Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. European powers, most notably Spain and Portugal, colonized the region, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493, which gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). By the end of the sixteenth century, Europeans occupied large areas of North, Central and South America, extending all the way into the present southern United States. European culture and government was imposed, with the Roman Catholic Church becoming a major economic and political power, as well as the official religion of the region. Diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large proportion of the indigenous population, with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 20%. Due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of

Moai at Rano Raraku, Easter Island By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born Peninsulares) in the major social and political institutions. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Also, the newly independent Haiti, the second oldest nation in the New World after the United States and the oldest independent nation in Latin America, further fueled the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement, such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martin, and by providing them with considerable munitions and troops. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Eventually these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by 1812,


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including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico and Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders, such as Simón Bolívar, José de San Martin and other Libertadores in South America, the independence movement regained strength, and by 1825, all Spanish America, except for Puerto Rico and Cuba, had gained independence from Spain. Brazil achieved independence with a constitutional monarchy established in 1822. In the same year in Mexico, a military officer, Agustín de Iturbide, led a coalition of conservatives and liberals who created a constitutional monarchy, with Iturbide as emperor. This First Mexican Empire was short-lived and was followed by the creation of a republic in 1823.

Latin America

Amerindians make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru. Amerindian minorities, in every case making up one–tenth or less of the population. In many countries, people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population (see Mestizo).

Racial groups
The population of Latin America is a composite of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: Some have a predominance of a mixed population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries’ populations are primarily of African descent. Most or all Latin American countries have Asian minorities. Europeans are the largest single group, and they and people of part-European ancestry combine for approximately 80% of the population.[1] In addition to the following groups, Latin America also has millions of triracial people of African, Amerindian, and European ancestry. Most are found in Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil, with a much smaller presence in a number of other countries.


Film maker Tizuka Yamasaki, one of over a million Japanese-Brazilians. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino, as a result of Spain’s trade involving Asia and the Americas. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. Brazil is home to 1.49 million people of Asian descent,[19][20] which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself, numbering 1.5 million. Peru, with 1.47 million people of Asian descent,[21][22] has one of the largest Chinese communities in the world, with nearly 1 million Peruvians being

The aboriginal population of Latin America, the Amerindians, experienced tremendous population decline, particularly in the early decades of colonization. They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million, though they compose a majority in only two countries: Bolivia and Peru. In both Ecuador and Guatemala, Amerindians are large minorities comprising two–fifths of the population, while the next largest minority is in Mexico, with more than one–sixth the population. Most of the remaining countries have


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of Chinese ancestry. The Japanese community also maintains a strong presence in Peru, and a past President and a number of politicians are of Japanese descent in Peru.[23] Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese are also among the largest ethnic Asian communities in the region. In the Panama Canal zone there is also a Chinese minority, who are mostly the descendants of migrant workers who built the Panama Canal.

Latin America
Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early and was extensive. The resulting people, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America: Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, and Venezuela. Additionally, mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries.

Blacks or Africans


A significant percentage of Latin Americans are of African ancestry. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward, the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as black compose a majority in Haiti, with significant population in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Brazil, Colombia, Belize, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Honduras, Panama, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, and Peru.

Salsa dancers of Mulatto heritage, Camagüey, Cuba. Mulattoes are biracial descendants of mixed European and African ancestry, mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other during the colonial period. The vast majority of mulattoes are found in Brazil, and mulattoes form the majority in the Dominican Republic. Cuba and Colombia are the other countries with large numbers of mulattoes.[1] There is also a small presence of mulattoes in other Latin American countries.[1]


Whites or Europeans
Beginning in the late fifteenth century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America — Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region — and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages, the Catholic faith, and many Iberian traditions. In absolute numbers, Brazil has the largest population of whites in Latin America, followed by Argentina and Mexico (see White Latin American). Millions of Europeans have immigrated to Latin America since most countries gained independence in the 1810s and 1820s, with

A representation of a Mestizo, in a Pintura de Castas during the Spanish colonial period of the Americas.


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most of the immigration occurring in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the bulk of the immigrants settling in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Chile.[24][25][26] Italians formed the largest group of immigrants, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese.[27] Many others arrived, such as French, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Irish, and Welsh. Latin American countries attracted European immigrants to work in agriculture, commerce and industry. Many Latin American governments encouraged immigrants from Europe to ’civilize’ the region.[28] Despite their different origins, these immigrants integrated in the local societies and most of their descendants only speak Spanish or, in Brazil, Portuguese. For example, people of Italian descent make up half of Argentina’s and Uruguay’s populations, but only relatively small percentages of them are able to speak Italian. However, in Venezuela, where the population of Italian descent makes up about 400,000, about 1.5% of the total,[29] there is still a tendency of the communities to preserve the language, as do Germans and Portuguese. Also there are some communities of Germans and In Brazil, which has the biggest population of Italians outside of Italy[30][31] (São Paulo city alone has more Italians than Rome, the most populous Italian city),[32][33] Italians in the country’s predominantly white south still preserve their languages. Immigration from the Middle East took place also since the 19th century and consisted largely of Christians of Lebanese, Syrian, and Palestinian origin. Some countries have populations of Iranian and Pashtun descent (see Pashtun diaspora). Middle Easterners have generally assimilated into the European-descended population.

Latin America

Garinagu (Zambos) celebrating in Guatemala. the white and mestizo percentages are combined in some sources.[1] • 1 May include one or more of the previous groups. • 2 "Other" includes census answer of Spanish which
does not specify race; "mixed" includes the Garifuna (mixed Amerindian/black).[35]

• 3According to data from PNAD 2007. The survey
uses the term "Pardos", which includes Mullato and Mestizo. [36] 4Various figures exist for the white population of Chile: 22%,[34] 30%–35%,[37] and 52.7%.[38] The white and mestizo percentages (the latter group said to be predominantly white and estimated to make up 65% of Chile’s population)[37] are sometimes combined, so that Chile’s population is classified as 95% white and mestizo in some sources.[1] The Amerindian population was 4.6% in the 2002 census.[39]




CIA World Factbook gives slightly different

figures: "Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%".[1]


6Venezuela 2005 census includes both mulatto and mestizo in "mixed"

Slaves often ran away (cimarrones) and were taken in by Amerindian villagers. Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians produced descendants known as Zambos or (in Central America) Garinagu. This was especially prevalent in Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil.

Portuguese and Spanish are the predominant languages of Latin American. Portuguese is spoken primarily in Brazil, the most populous country in the region , . French is spoken in some countries of the Caribbean, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana and Haiti. Dutch is the official language of some Caribbean islands and in Suriname on the continent; however, as Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not considered part of Latin America.

Racial distribution
The following table shows the different racial groups and their percentages for all Latin American countries and territories.[34] For some countries, like Chile and Costa Rica,


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Country Argentina Aruba Belize 2 Bolivia Brazil3 Chile4 Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Martinique Mexico Population 40,301,927 100,018 311,500 9,119,152 190,010,647 16,800,000 44,379,598 4,133,884 11,177,743 9,365,818 13,755,680 6,948,073 199,509 4.3% 10.0% 53.7% 22–52.7% 42.7% 25.0% 77.0% 65.1% 17.0% 10.6% 1.6% 8.0% 2.0% 5.0% 2.0% 2.3% 3.0% 16.5% 5.3% 14.0% 17.0% 9.3% 12.0% 74.3% 63.1% 70 % 85.6% 31.9% 10.0% 14.0% 64.3% 81.1% 4.0% 6.7% 1.8% 52.4% 8.0% 1.0% 18.0% 0.5% 86.6% 54.4% 42.0% 88.3% 37.9% 76.7% 40.5% 9.4% 5.5% 47.3% 17.0% 23.0% 3.0% 24.8% 69.5% 40.8% 9.1% 8.0% 33.8% 28.0% 42.3% 4.6% 2.0% 1.0% 1.7% 24.9% 10.6% 62.0% 7.4% 0.3% White 86.4%

Latin America

Mestizo Mulatto Amerindian Black Mixed Other1 6.5% 3.4% 80.0% 6.1% 0.4% 20.0% 20.0% 0.8% 1.0% 2.0% 10.1% 11.8% 5.0% 37.1% 1.7% 1.6% 1.0% 9.0% 1.3% 0.1% 30.2% 16.7% 94.2% 5.4% 4.3% 93.4% 43.5% 0.4% 1.3% 3.6% 0.7% 13.6% 5.0% 5.9% 12.6% 2.3% 3.7% 15.0% 100.0% 0.7%

Guadeloupe 452,776 12,728,111 858,863 8,706,497 7,483,763 436,131 108,700,891

10.0% 10.0%

Netherlands 223,652 Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru5 Saint Martin 5,675,356 3,309,679 6,669,086 28,674,757 33,102

11.0% 5.0%

Puerto Rico 3,944,259

Saint Pierre 7,036 and Miquelon Uruguay Venezuela6 Total 3,460,607 26,023,528


87.4% 21.0%

3% 27.5%

8.4% 2.0% 17.4% 10.1% 10.0% 67.0% 5.4% 3.4%

0.4% 1.4%

562,461,667 34.8%

Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Argentina, Belize, Nicaragua, Panama, and Puerto Rico; German, in southern Brazil, southern Chile, Argentina, and German-

speaking villages in northern Venezuela and Paraguay; Italian, in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela; and Welsh, in southern Argentina.


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Latin America
under the country’s constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country’s highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guarani is, along with Spanish, an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country’s Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.

Most widely spoken Pre-contact languages distribution area in Latin America, at the beginning of 21st century: Quechua, Guarani, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Mapuche In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with some Amerindian and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay, and to a lesser degree, in Mexico, Ecuador, and Chile. In absolute numbers, Mexico contains the largest population of indigenous-language speakers of any country in the Americas, surpassing those of the Amerindian-majority countries of Guatemala, Bolivia and the Amerindian-plurality country of Peru. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages is small or non-existent. In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people


Christ the Redeemer (Cristo Redentor) atop Corcovado mountain, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics.[41] Membership in other denominations, like Protestantism, is increasing, particularly in countries such as Guatemala, Brazil, and Puerto Rico. Indigenous creeds and rituals are still practiced in countries with large percentages of Amerindians, such as Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. Various Afro-Latin American traditions such as Santería, Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba, and tribal-voodoo religions are also practiced, mainly in Cuba, Brazil, and Haiti. Brazil has an active quasi-socialist Roman Catholic movement known as Liberation


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Theology, and Brazil is also the country with more practitioners in the world of Allan Kardec’s Spiritism. Practitioners of the Jewish, Mormonism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, Bahá’í, and Shinto denominations and religions exist.

Latin America
inequality in the region were Nicaragua (43.1), Uruguay (44.9) and Mexico (46.1). One aspect of inequality and poverty in Latin America is unequal access to basic infrastructure. For example, access to water and sanitation in Latin America and the quality of these services remain low. The only immigration problem is that of drug smugglers from South America passing thru to get their deliveries to the United States.

Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration. About 10 million Mexicans live in the United States.[42] 28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2006.[43] According to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad.[44] The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people.[45] An estimated 1.5 to two million Salvadorans reside in the United States.[46] At least 1.5 million Ecuadorians have gone abroad, mainly to the United States and Spain.[47]. Approximately 1.5 million Dominicans live abroad, mostly in the US.[48] More than 1.3 million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the US.[49] It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, Canada and Sweden.[50] An estimated 700,000 Bolivians were living in Argentina as of 2006.[51] Remittances to Mexico rose from $6.6 billion to $24 billion between 2000 and 2006, but stabilized in 2007. Much of the reported increase between 2000 and 2006 may reflect better accounting, but the slowdown in 2007 may reflect tougher U.S. border and interior enforcement.

Crime and Violence
See also: Crime and Violence in Latin America Crime and violence prevention and public security have become key social issues of concern to public policy makers and citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean region. In Latin America, violence is now among the five main causes of death and is the principal cause of death in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico. Homicide rates in Latin America are among the highest of any region in the world. From the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, intentional homicide rates in Latin America increased by 50 percent. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old.[54] Many analysts agree that the prison crisis will not be resolved until the gap between rich and poor is addressed. They say that growing social inequality is fuelling crime in the region. But there is also no doubt that, on such an approach, Latin American countries have still a long way to go.[55] Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants were; El Salvador 55.3, Honduras 49.9, Venezuela 48, Guatemala 45.2, Colombia 37, Belize 30.8, Brazil 25.7, and Mexico 25. [56]

Inequality and poverty
Inequality and poverty continue to be the region’s main challenges; according to the ECLAC Latin America is the most unequal region in the world.[52] Moreover, according to the World Bank, nearly 25% of the population lives on less than 2 USD a day. The countries with the highest inequality in the region (as measured with the Gini index in the UN Development Report[53]) in 2006 were Bolivia (60.1), Haiti (59.2), Colombia (58.6), Paraguay (58.4), Brazil (57.0) and Panama (56.1), while the countries with the lowest

Trade blocs
The major trade blocs (or agreements) in the region are the Union of South American Nations, composed of the integrated Mercosur and Andean Community of Nations (CAN). Minor blocs or trade agreements are the G3 Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally


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admitted into the Mercosur (pending ratification from the Brazilian and Paraguayan legislatures). The president-elect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path. This bloc nominally opposes any Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States, although Uruguay has manifested its intention otherwise. On the other hand, Mexico is a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Chile has already signed an FTA with Canada, and along with Peru are the only two South American nations that have and FTA with the United States. Colombia’s government is currently awaiting its ratification by the U.S. Senate.

Latin America
surrounding urban areas in 2005. GDP figures are estimated and expressed in USD, using purchasing power parity exchange rates:[66][67]

Income from tourism its key to the economy of several Latin American countries.[68] Mexico receives the largest number of international tourists, with 21.4 million visitors in 2007, followed by Brazil, with 5.0 million; Argentina, with 4.6 million; Dominican Republic, with 4.0 million; and Puerto Rico, with 3.7 million.[69] Places such as Cancun, Galapagos Islands, Machu Pichu, Chichen Itza, Cartagena de Indias, Cabo San Lucas, Acapulco, Rio de Janeiro, Margarita Island, São Paulo, Salar de Uyuni, Punta del Este, Santo Domingo, Labadee, San Juan, La Habana, Panama City, Iguazu Falls, Puerto Vallarta, Poás Volcano National Park, Punta Cana, Viña del Mar, Mexico City, Quito, Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, La Paz and Patagonia are popular among international visitors in the region. • Note (1): Countries marked with * do not have all
statistical data available for 2006 or 2007. Data shown is for reference purposes only (2003 for Haiti and 2005 for Bolivia.[71]

Standard of living, consumption, and the environment
According to Goldman Sachs BRIMC review of emerging economies, by 2050 the largest economies in the world will be as follows: China, USA, India, Japan, Brazil, and Mexico; Two of the top five economies in the world being from Latin America. [57] The following table lists all the countries in Latin America indicating a valuation of the country’s GDP (Gross domestic product) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP), GDP per capita also adjusted to the (PPP), a measurement of inequality through the Gini index (the higher the index the more unequal the income distribution is), the Human Development Index (HDI), the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), and the Quality-of-life index. GDP and PPP GDP statistics come from the International Monetary Fund with data as of 2006. Gini index, the Human Poverty Index HDI-1, the Human Development Index, and the number of internet users per capita come from the UN Development Program. The number of motor vehicles per capita come from the UNData base on-line. The EPI index comes from the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and the Quality-of-life index from The Economist Intelligence Unit. Green cells indicate the 1st rank in each category, while yellow indicate the last rank.
Notes: (H) High human development; (M) Medium human development

• Note (2): Green shadow denotes the country with
the best indicator. Yellow shadow denotes the country with the lowest performance for that indicator.

Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide. It is the product of many diverse influences: • Indian and native cultures of the people who inhabited the continent prior to the arrival of the Europeans. Ancient and very advanced civilizations developed their own politic, social and religious systems. Civilizations as the Maya, the Aztecs and the Incas are examples of these. • The Western civilization and European culture, brought mainly by the Spanish, the Portuguese and the French between the 16th and 19th centuries. Most recently, cultural influence from the American in northern Latin America, and from the Italian and the German in South America can also be found. This can be seen in any expression of the region’s

Largest economic cities
The following table provides GDP figures for the largest Latin American cities and their


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Latin America

Summary of socio-economic performance indicators for Latin American countries Country GDP valuation based on PPP[58]
(2008) Current Billions USD

GDP per Income Poverty Human Envirnm. Quality Annual capita equality[53] Index[59] Develop.[60] Perfrm.[61] of economic [58] (2001-06) [62] growth[6 (PPP) (2005) (2006) (2008) life
(2008) USD Gini index HPI-1 % HDI EPI (2005) index (2007) %

570.526 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba[65] Dominican Republic El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama 38.305 29.336 Paraguay Peru Uruguay 362.772 Venezuela 244.693 40.663 11.681 32.670 76.194 48.918

14,413 4,330 14,510 8,215 10,752

51.3 60.1 57.0 54.9 58.6 49.8

4.1 13.6 9.7 3.7 7.9 4.4 4.7 10.5

0.860 (H) 0.723 (M) 0.807 (H) 0.874 (H) 0.787 (M) 0.847 (H) 0.855 (H) 0.768 (M)

81.8 64.7 82.7 83.4 88.3 90.5 80.7 83.0

6.469 5.492 6.470 6.789 6.176 6.624

8.7 4.6 5.4 5.1 7.7 7.3

43.446 246.482 402.458

1,975.904 10,325





Ecuador 104.669 43.885 66.839

7,7685 7,551 4,898 1,316 4,268

53.6 52.4 55.1 59.2 53.8 46.1 43.1 56.1 58.4 52.0 44.9 48.2

8.7 15.1 22.5 59.2 16.5 6.8 17.9 8.0 8.8 11.6 3.5 8.8

0.807 (H) 0.747 (M) 0.696 (M) 0.521 (M) 0.714 (M) 0.842 (H) 0.710 (M) 0.832 (H) 0.752 (M) 0.788 (M) 0.859 (H) 0.826 (H)

84.4 77.2 76.7 60.7 75.4 79.8 73.4 83.1 77.7 78.1 82.3 80.0

6.272 6.164 5.321 4.090 5.250 6.766 5.663 6.361 5.756 6.216 6.368 6.089

2.5 4.7 5.7 3.2 6.3 3.2 3.8 11.5 6.8 8.9 7.4 8.4

1,550.257 14,560 16.751 2,688 11,343 4,778 8,580 13,294 12,785

artistic traditions, including painting, literature and music, and in the realms of science and politics. The most enduring European colonial influence is language and Christianity.

• African cultures, whose presence derives from a long history of New World slavery. Peoples of African descent have influenced the ethno-scapes of Latin America and the Caribbean. This is


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ten largest Latin American metropolitan areas Rank Metropolitan area Country GDP (Billions PPP) 315 245 225 141 91 86 78 67 65 60 Population (Millions)

Latin America

GDP Per Capita (Thousands PPP) $16,237 $19,444 $12,295 $12,260 $13,000 $11,025 $20,000 $7,882 $11,607 $14,634

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Mexico City Buenos Aires São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Santiago Bogota Monterrey Lima Belo Horizonte Guadalajara

Mexico Argentina Brazil Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Brazil Mexico

19.4 12.6 18.3 11.5 7.0 7.8 3.9 8.5 5.6 4.1

manifest for instance in dance and religion, especially in countries such as Belize, Brazil, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Haiti, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, and Cuba.

See also: List of Latin American writers Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala. From the very moment of Europe’s "discovery" of the continent, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience--such as Columbus’s letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo’s description of the conquest of Mexico. During the colonial period, written culture was often in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as Lizardi’s El Periquillo Sarniento (1816). The 19th Century was a period of "foundational fictions" (in critic Doris Sommer’s

Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez signing a copy of One Hundred Years of Solitude in Havana, Cuba. words), novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, and which often focussed on the indigenous question or the dichotomy


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Latin America

Performance indicators for international tourism in Latin America Latin Internl. Internl. Receipts Arrivals American tourist tourism per per countries arrivals receipts arrival capita
2007[69] 2007[69] (x1000)
(million USD)

Receipts Revenues per as % capita of exports
2005[71] USD goods and

2007 (col 2)/ (col 1) (USD)

per 1000 pop. (estimated) 2007

Tourism revenues as % GDP[68]

services[68] 2003

World Rankin employment Touris in tourCompe ism[68] TTCI
% Direct & indirect


4,562 Argentina Bolivia* 556 Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic El Salvador Guatemala Haiti* Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama 1,103 416 Paraguay Peru Uruguay 771 Venezuela 1,812 1,752 n/d 831 1,973 2,119 3,980 5,026 2,507 1,193

4,313 205* 4,953 1,419 1,669 1,974 1,982 4,026

945 475* 985 566 1,399 1,000 935 1,012

115 58 26 151 26 442 188 408

57 22 18 73 25 343 169 353

7.4 9.4 3.2 5.3 6.6 17.5 n/d 36.2

1.8 2.2 0.5 1.9 1.4 8.1 n/d 18.8

9.1 7.6 7.0 6.8 5.9 13.3 n/d 19.8

65 114 45 57 72 42 n/d 67

Ecuador 953 1,339 1,448

637 847 1,199 n/d 557

668 633 828 685* 670 602 319 1,074 245 1,070 462 1,060

71 195 108 n/d 117 201 143 330 68 65 525 28

35 67 66 12* 61 103 36 211 11 41 145 19

6.3 12.9 16.0 19.4 13.5 5.7 15.5 10.6 4.2 9.0 14.2 1.3

1.5 3.4 2.6 3.2 5.0 1.6 3.7 6.3 1.3 1.6 3.6 0.4

7.4 6.8 6.0 4.7 8.5 14.2 5.6 12.9 6.4 7.6 10.7 8.1

96 94 70 n/d 83 51 103 55 115 74 63 104

21,424 12,901 800 255 1,185 102 1,938 809 817

of "civilization or barbarism" (for which see, say, Domingo Sarmiento’s Facundo (1845), Juan León Mera’s Cumandá (1879), or Euclides da Cunha’s Os Sertões (1902)). At the turn of the 20th century, modernismo emerged, a poetic movement whose founding text was Nicaraguan poet Rubén

Darío’s Azul (1888). This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. José Martí, for instance, though a Cuban patriot, also lived in Mexico


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Latin America

Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes

Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, interviewed in 1971. and the U.S. and wrote for journals in Argentina and elsewhere. However, what really put Latin American literature on the global map was no doubt the literary boom of the 1960s and 1970s, distinguished by daring and experimental novels (such as Julio Cortázar’s Rayuela (1963)) that were frequently published in Spain and quickly translated into English. The Boom’s defining novel was Gabriel García Márquez’s Cien años de soledad (1967), which led to the association of Latin American literature with magic realism, though other important writers of the period such as the Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa and Carlos Fuentes do not fit so easily within this framework. Arguably, the Boom’s culmination was Augusto Roa Bastos’s monumental Yo, el supremo (1974). In the wake of the Boom, influential precursors such as Juan Rulfo, Alejo Carpentier, and above all Jorge Luis Borges were also rediscovered.

Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges. Contemporary literature in the region is vibrant and varied, ranging from the bestselling Paulo Coelho and Isabel Allende to the more avant-garde and critically acclaimed work of writers such as Diamela Eltit, Ricardo Piglia, or Roberto Bolaño. There has also been considerable attention paid to the genre of testimonio, texts produced in


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
collaboration with subaltern subjects such as Rigoberta Menchú. Finally, a new breed of chroniclers is represented by the more journalistic Carlos Monsiváis and Pedro Lemebel. The region boasts five Nobel Prizewinners: in addition to the two Chilean poets Gabriela Mistral (1945) and Pablo Neruda (1971), there is also the Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez (1982), the Guatemalan novelist Miguel Ángel Asturias (1967), and the Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz (1990).

Latin America

Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America), by Mexican muralist Jorge González Camarena. Located in the lobby of the Casa del Arte, University of Concepción in Concepción, Chile. Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo in Mexico and Santiago Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gómez in Colombia. Some of the most impressive Muralista works can be found in Mexico, Colombia, New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Philadelphia. Mexican painter Frida Kahlo is one of the most known and famous Latin American artists. She painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. Kahlo’s work commands the highest selling price of all Latin American paintings.[73] Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero is also widely known by his works which, on first examination, are noted for their exaggerated proportions and the corpulence of the human and animal figures.

See also: List of Latin American artists

Palace of Fine Arts, built in the early 20th century in Mexico City. Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters. In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin-Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. The Constructivist Movement was founded in Russia around 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin. The Movement quickly spread from Russia to Europe and then into Latin America. Joaquin Torres Garcia and Manuel Rendón have been credited with bringing the Constructivist Movement into Latin America from Europe. An important artistic movement generated in Latin America is Muralismo represented by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José

Music and dance
See also: Dance and music of Latin America , Latin American music, Latin pop, and Latin dance Latin America has produced many successful worldwide artists in terms of recorded global music sales. The most successful have been Roberto Carlos who has sold over 100 million records, Carlos Santana with over 75 million, Luis Miguel, Shakira and Vicente Fernandez with over 50 million records sold worldwide. [74]One of the main characteristics of Latin American music is its diversity, from the lively rhythms of Central America and the Caribbean to the more austere sounds of the Andes and the Southern Cone. Another feature of Latin American music is its original blending of the variety of styles that arrived in The Americas and became influential, from the early Spanish and European Baroque to the different beats of the African rhythms. Caribbean Hispanic music, such as merengue, bachata, salsa, and more recently reggaeton, from such countries as the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Panama has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Haiti’s compas is a genre of music that draws influence and is thus similar to its Caribbean Hispanic counterparts, with an element of jazz and modern sound as well.[75][76] Another well-known Latin American musical genre includes the Argentine and Uruguayan tango, as well as the distinct nuevo tango, a fusion of tango, acoustic and electronic music popularized by bandoneón virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla. Equally renown, the samba, North American jazz, European classical music and choro combined to form bossa nova in Brazil, popularized by guitarrist João Gilberto and pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim. Other influential Latin American sounds include the Antillean Soca and Calypso, the Central American (Garifuna) Punta, the Colombian cumbia and vallenato, the Chilean Cueca, the Ecuadorian Boleros, and Rockoleras, the Mexican ranchera, the Nicaraguan Palo de Mayo, the Peruvian Marinera and Tondero, the Uruguayan Candombe, the French Antillean Zouk (Derived from Haitian Compas) and the various styles of music from Pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean region.

Latin America
The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) worked on the recording of native musical traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his classical works.[77] Also notable is the recent work of the Cuban Leo Brouwer and guitar work of the Venezuelan Antonio Lauro and the Paraguayan Agustín Barrios. Latin America has also produced world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau, Brazilian pianist Nelson Freire and the Argentine pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim. Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin American and Caribbean countries is expressed. Musicians such as Yma Súmac, Chabuca Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Victor Jara, Mercedes Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso, Susana Baca, Chavela Vargas, Simon Diaz, Julio Jaramillo, Toto la Momposina as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimani and Los Kjarkas are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach. Latin pop, including many forms of rock, is popular in Latin America today (see Spanish language rock and roll).[78] More recently, Reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin America genres such as bomba and plena, as well as that of hip hop, is becoming more popular, in spite of the controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps (Perreo) and music videos. It has become very popular among populations with a "migrant culture" influence - both Latino populations in the U.S., such as southern Florida and New York City, and parts of Latin America where migration to the U.S. is common, such as Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico.[79]

Latin American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been México, Brazil, Cuba, and Argentina. Latin American cinema flourished after the introduction of sound, which added a linguistic barrier to the export of Hollywood film south of the border. The 1950s and 1960s saw a movement towards Third Cinema, led by the Argentine filmmakers

A couple dances Argentine Tango.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino. More recently, a new style of directing and stories filmed has been tagged as "New Latin American Cinema." Argentine cinema has been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today averages over 60 full-length titles yearly. The industry suffered during the 1976-1983 military dictatorship; but reemerged to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story in 1985. A wave of imported U.S. films again damaged the industry in the early 1990s, though it soon recovered, thriving even during the Argentine economic crisis around 2001. Many Argentine movies produced during recent years have been internationally acclaimed, including Nueve reinas (2000), El abrazo partido (2004) and El otro (2007). In Brazil, the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message. The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe and the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil (1999), Cidade de Deus (2003) and Tropa de Elite (2007). Cuban cinema has enjoyed much official support since the Cuban revolution and important film-makers include Tomás Gutiérrez Alea. Mexican cinema in the Golden Era of the 1940s boasted a huge industry comparable to Hollywood at the time. Stars included María Félix, Dolores del Rio and Pedro Infante. In the 1970s Mexico was the location for many cult horror and action movies. More recently, films such as Amores Perros (2000) and Y tu mamá también (2001) enjoyed box office and critical acclaim and propelled Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro González Iñarritu to the front rank of Hollywood directors. Alejandro González Iñárritu directed in (2006) Babel and Alfonso Cuarón directed (Children of Men in (2006), and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in (2004)). Guillermo del Toro close friend and also a front rank Hollywood director in Hollywood and Spain, directed Pan’s Labyrinth (2006) and produce El Orfanato (2007). Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga are also some of the most

Latin America
known present-day Mexican film makers. Rudo y Cursi released in December (2008) in Mexico directed by Carlos Cuarón. It is also worth noting that many Latin Americans have achieved significant success within Hollywood, for instance Carmen Miranda and Salma Hayek, while Mexican Americans such as Robert Rodriguez have also made their mark.

See also
• • • • • • • Anglo-America Crime and Violence in Latin America Southern Cone Hispanic America Ibero-America United States-Latin American relations Americas (terminology) • Use of the word American • America (disambiguation) • Free Trade Area of the Americas • Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas Caribbean • Association of Caribbean States • Caribbean Community • Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Central America • Central American Common Market North America • North American Free Trade Agreement South America • Andean Community • Mercosur • Union of South American Nations Latin Union, Latin Europe, Romancespeaking African countries Latino, Latin American Canadian, AfroLatin American, Asian Latin American, White Latin American, Latin American British List of Latin Americans • List of Latin American artists • List of Latin American writers List of Latin American subnational entities by Human Development Index Latin American culture Latin American studies Agroecology in Latin America


• • •

• •


• • • •

Notes and references
• Julio Miranda Vidal: (2007) Ciencia y tecnología en América Latina Edición


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Latin America

electrónica gratuita. Texto completo en [11] Butland, Gilbert J. (1960). Latin America: http://www.eumed.net/libros/2007a/237/ A Regional Geography. New York: John [1] ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Wiley and Sons. pp. 115-188. ISBN Listing - Ethnic groups". 0-470-12658-2. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ [12] Dozer, Donald Marquand (1962). Latin the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html. America: An Interpretive History. New Retrieved on 2008-02-20. York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1-15. [2] "2007 UN report on urban [13] Olien, Michael D. (1973). Latin agglomerations.". http://www.un.org/esa/ Americans: Contemporary Peoples and population/publications/wup2007/ Their Cultural Traditions. New York: 2007_urban_agglomerations_chart.pdf. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 1-5. [3] http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/ ISBN 0-03-086251-5. Latin_America.htm [14] Black, Jan Knippers (ed.) (1984). Latin [4] Colburn, Forrest D (2002). Latin America America: Its Problems and Its Promise: A at the End of Politics. Princeton Multidisciplinary Introduction. Boulder: University Press. ISBN 0691091811. Westview Press. pp. 362-378. ISBN http://books.google.com/ 0-86531-213-3. books?id=qBCVB3mxCK8C&dq=%22latin+america+at+the+end+of+politics%22&pg=PP1&ots=Hsc [15] Bruns, E. Bradford (1986). Latin bXg0abCFag4agEPwo8&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/ America: A Concise Interpretive History search%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3D%2522Latin%2BAmerica%2Bat%2Bthe%2BEnd%2Bof%2BPolitics%252 (4 ed.). New York: Prentice-Hall. book-with-thumbnail#PPA10,M1. pp. 224-227. ISBN 0-13-524356-4. [5] "Latin America." The New Oxford [16] Skidmore, Thomas E.; Peter H. Smith Dictionary of English. Pearsall, J., ed. (2005). Modern Latin America (6 ed.). 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press; p. 1040: "The parts of the Press. pp. 351-355. ISBN American continent where Spanish or 0-19-517013-X. Portuguese is the main national language [17] Composition of macro geographical (i.e. Mexico and, in effect, the whole of (continental) regions, geographical subCentral and South America including regions, and selected economic and many of the Caribbean islands)." other groupings, UN Statistics Division. [6] Mignolo, Walter (2005). The Idea of Accessed on line 23 May 2009. (French) Latin America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [18] Bethell, Leslie (ed.) (1984). The p. 77-80. ISBN 9781405100861. Cambridge History of Latin America. 1. http://books.google.com/ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. books?id=vPacXtsWhewC. pp. xiv. ISBN 0-521-23223-6. [7] McGuiness, Aims (2003). "Searching for [19] http://www.pucsp.br/rever/rv3_2004/ ’Latin America’: Race and Sovereignty in p_shoji.pdf the Americas in the 1850s" in [20] http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/latin/ Appelbaum, Nancy P. et al. (eds.). Race index.html MOFA: Japan-Brazil Relations and Nation in Modern Latin America. [21] http://www.ocac.gov.tw/english/public/ Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina public.asp?selno=1163&no=1163&level=B Press, 87-107. ISBN 0-8078-5441-7 [22] http://www.universia.edu.pe/noticias/ [8] Chasteen, John Charles (2001). Born in principales/destacada.php?id=65889 Blood and Fire: A Concise History of [23] MOFA: Japan-Brazil Relations Latin America. W. W. Norton. page156. [24] Social Identity Marta Fierro Social ISBN 0393976130. Psychologist. [9] Rangel, Carlos (1977). The Latin [25] massive immigration of European Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship Argentina Uruguay Chile Brazil with the United States. New York: [26] Latinoamerica. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 3-5. [27] "South America :: Postindependence ISBN 0-15-148795-2. overseas immigrants". Britannica Online [10] Skidmore, Thomas E.; Peter H. Smith Encyclopedia. (2005). Modern Latin America (6 ed.). http://www.britannica.com/eb/ Oxford and New York: Oxford University article-41807/South-America. Retrieved Press. pp. 1-10 isbn = 0-19-517013-X. on 2008-02-10.


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[28] As políticas públicas de imigração [45] Brasileiros no Exterior — Portal da européia não-portuguesa para o Brasil – Câmara dos Deputados de Pombal à República [46] Country Overview: El Salvador, United [29] italianos. States Agency for International [30] italplanet Development [31] Gli italiani in Brasile [47] Chavistas in Quito, Forbes.com, January [32] Especiais - Agência Brasil 7, 2008 [33] Biggest Cities Italy [48] Dominican Republic: Remittances for [34] ^ "World Statesmen.org". Development http://www.worldstatesmen.org/. [49] Cubans Abroad, Radiojamaica.com [35] "Belize 2000 Housing and Population [50] Chile: Moving Towards a Migration Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. Policy, Migration Information Source 2000. http://celade.cepal.org/cgibin/ [51] Migration News RpWebEngine.exe/ [52] La región sigue siendo la más desigual PortalAction?&MODE=MAIN&BASE=CPVBLZ2000&MAIN=WebServerMain.inl. del mundo, según Cepal América Retrieved on 2008-09-09. Economía [36] http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/ [53] ^ Human Development Report, UNDP populacao/trabalhoerendimento/ [54] World Bank Group - 404 error pnad2007/graficos_pdf.pdf [55] BBC NEWS | Americas | Latin America: [37] ^ "5.2.6. Estructura racial". La Crisis behind bars Universidad de Chile. [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://mazinger.sisib.uchile.cl/ List_of_countries_by_intentional_homicide_rate repositorio/lb/ [57] [1] ciencias_quimicas_y_farmaceuticas/ [58] ^ International Monetary Fund medinae/cap2/5b6.html. Retrieved on [http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/ 2007-08-26. weo/2009/01/weodata/ [38] "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas weorept.aspx?pr.x=22&pr.y=6&sy=2008&ey=2008& Culturales del Continente Americano al [59] UNDP Human Development Report Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). 110. 2007/2008. [http://hdr.undp.org/en/ http://books.google.cl/ media/ books?id=LcabJ98-t1wC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=chile+60%25+blancos+Estevahdr_20072008_en_indicator_tables.pdf Fabregat&source=bl&ots=AMUjY09aVi&sig=3PCwfKDokrZYem3dcZ2gkToFIoE&hl=es&ei=k8WjSYT "Table 3: Human poverty index: [39] Pueblos Indígenas en Chile - Censo 2002 developing countries"] (PDF). - Instituto Nacional de Estadística INE http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/ [40] Oficinas Comerciales hdr_20072008_en_indicator_tables.pdf. [41] "CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Retrieved on 2008-03-20. page 238-240 Listing - Religions". https://www.cia.gov/ [60] UNDP Human Development Report 2008 library/publications/the-world-factbook/ Update. [http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/ fields/2122.html. Retrieved on HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf "Table 1: 2009-03-17. Human Development Index Trends"] [42] Watching Over Greater Mexico: Mexican (PDF). http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/ Migration Policy and Governance of HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf. Retrieved on Mexicanos Abroad 2009-05-01. page 25-26 [43] "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder. [61] Yale Center for Environmental Law & B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by Policy / Center for International Earth specific origin". 2006 American Science Information Network at Community Survey. Columbia University. [http://epi.yale.edu/ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ Home "Environmental Performance DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&Index 2008"]. http://epi.yale.edu/Home. ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&Retrieved on 2008-03-13. redoLog=false&[62] The Economist Pocket World in Figures mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B03001. 2008. [http://www.economist.com/media/ Retrieved on 2007-12-15. pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf "Quality-of[44] http://www.pstalker.com/migration/ life index The World in 2005"] (PDF). index.htm http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. [63] UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Latin_America#Economic_performance "Table 13: economic higher"]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Latin_America#Economic_performance. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. page 273-276 [64] UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008. [http://hdr.undp.org/en/ media/ hdr_20072008_en_indicator_tables.pdf "Table 24: Carbon dioxide emissions and stocks"] (PDF). http://hdr.undp.org/en/ media/ hdr_20072008_en_indicator_tables.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. page 310-313 [65] The IMF does not report statistics for Cuba. Data from the CIA World Factbook is used [66] PriceWaterhouseCoopers, "UK Economic Outlook, March 2007", page 5. [http://www.ukmediacentre.pwc.com/ imagelibrary/ downloadMedia.asp?MediaDetailsID=863 ""Table 1.2 – Top 30 urban agglomeration GDP rankings in 2005 and illustrative projections to 2020 (using UN definitions and population estimates)""] (PDF). http://www.ukmediacentre.pwc.com/ imagelibrary/ downloadMedia.asp?MediaDetailsID=863. Retrieved on 2007-03-09. [67] [http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/ richest-cities-2005.html 150 Richest Cities in the World, 2005] [68] ^ Carmen Altés (2006). [http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/ getdocument.aspx?docnum=984876 "El Turismo en América Latina y el Caribe y la experiencia del BID"] (in Spanish). Inter-American Development Bank; Sustainable Development Department, Technical Paper Series ENV-149, Washington, D.C.. 9 and 47. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/ getdocument.aspx?docnum=984876. Retrieved on 2008-06-05. [69] ^ [http://www.tourismroi.com/ Content_Attachments/27670/ File_633513750035785076.pdf "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer June 2008"] (PDF). World Tourism Barometer. June 2008. http://www.tourismroi.com/

Latin America
Content_Attachments/27670/ File_633513750035785076.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. Data corresponds to 2007 [70] United Nations. [http://data.un.org/ CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Argentina "UNData. Country profiles (1999-2005)"]. http://data.un.org/ CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Argentina. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. Population estimated for 2007 (search values for each country profile) [71] ^ World Tourism Organization (2006). [http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/ indicators/new/ITR05_americas_US$.pdf "Tourism Market Trends, Annex 12, 2006 Edition"] (PDF). http://unwto.org/facts/ eng/pdf/indicators/new/ ITR05_americas_US$.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-30. Data corrresponds to 2005. [72] ^ Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, Editors (2009). [http://www.weforum.org/pdf/TTCR09/ TTCR09_Rankings.pdf "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009"] (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.weforum.org/ pdf/TTCR09/TTCR09_Rankings.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-07. [73] [http://www.artknowledgenews.com/ Frida_Kahlo_Roots_$5.6_Million_Recordat-Sothebys.html "Frida Kahlo " Roots " Sets $5.6 Million Record at Sotheby’s"]. Art Knowledge News. http://www.artknowledgenews.com/ Frida_Kahlo_Roots_$5.6_Million_Recordat-Sothebys.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. [74] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bestselling_music_artists [75] Dr. Christopher Washburne. [http://www.planetsalsa.com/ university_of_salsa/clave/clave_roots.htm "Clave: The African Roots of Salsa"]. University of Salsa. http://www.planetsalsa.com/ university_of_salsa/clave/ clave_roots.htm. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. [76] [http://www.caravanmusic.com/ GuideLatinMusic.htm "Guide to Latin Music"]. Caravan Music. http://www.caravanmusic.com/ GuideLatinMusic.htm. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[77] [http://www.cesil.com/0998/ enbass09.htm "Heitor Villa-Lobos"]. Leadership Medica. http://www.cesil.com/0998/ enbass09.htm. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. [78] The Baltimore Sun. [http://www.pub.umich.edu/daily/1999/ sep/09-28-99/arts/arts6.html "Latin music returns to America with wave of new pop starlets"]. The Michigan Daily. http://www.pub.umich.edu/daily/1999/ sep/09-28-99/arts/arts6.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. [79] [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9410287/ from/RL.3/ "Daddy Yankee leads the reggaeton charge"]. Associated Press.

Latin America
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9410287/ from/RL.3/. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.

External links
• Latin Intelligence Service • Latin American Network Information Center • Washington Office on Latin America • Council on Hemispheric Affairs • Infolatam. Information and analysis of Latin America • Map of Land Cover: Latin America and Caribbean (FAO) • Lessons From Latin America by Benjamin Dangl, The Nation, March 4 2009

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_America" Categories: Country classifications, Cultural spheres of influence, Latin America, Latin American studies, Regions of the Americas This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 13:53 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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