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Greeks (Έλληνες) Belgium Sweden Kazakhstan 11,000 estimated
Ioannis Kapodistrias • Pericles • El Greco • Alexander the Great

15,742 (2007) 12,000–15,000 13,000 (est)

[19] [20] [21]


Switzerland 9,500 estimate

Total population approx. 14,000,000-16,000,000 Regions with significant populations

Uzbekistan Romania Elsewhere 6,500 2002
census [24]

Greece United States Cyprus Australia Germany United Kingdom Canada

(2001 census)


see Greek Diaspora

1,380,088a (2007


Languages Greek

635,914 (2001


Religion Greek Orthodox

365,120b (2006


Footnotes An estimated 3,000,000 claim Greek descent.[25]

294,891 (2007




242,685c (2006


Russia Chile Albania Ukraine South Africa Brazil Italy Turkey Argentina

97,827 (2002) 90,000-120,000 58,800–150,000 91,500 (2001

[8] [9] [10][11][12] [13]

Whether the stated ethnic origin was solely "Greek" or not. c Those whose stated ethnic origins included "Greek" among others. The number of those whose stated ethnic origin is solely "Greek" is 145,250. An additional 3,395 Cypriots of undeclared ethnicity live in Canada. d "Including descendants".

55,000 (2008


50,000d 30,000 (2008

[15] [16]

5,000 30,000 (2008

[17] [18]

The Greeks (Greek: Έλληνες, IPA: [ˈe̞line̞s]), also known as Hellenes, are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions, who can also be found in diaspora communities around the world.[26] Greek colonies and communities have been historically established in most corners of the Mediterranean but Greeks have always been centred around the Aegean Sea, where Greek has been spoken since antiquity.[27] Until the early 20th century, Greeks were uniformly distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, Pontus, Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople; many of these regions coincided to a large extent


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with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of the ancient Greek colonization.[28] In the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), a large-scale population exchange between Greece and Turkey transferred and confined ethnic Greeks almost entirely into the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. Other ethnic Greek populations can be found from Southern Italy to the Caucasus and in diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, the vast majority of Greeks are at least nominally adherents of Greek Orthodoxy.[29]

Yevanic · Aromanian · Arvanitika Karamanlidika · Meglenitic · Slavika · Urum History of Greece

Part of a series on Greeks

The Greeks speak an Indo-European language which forms its own unique branch of the IE language family tree.[27] They are part of a group of pre-modern ethnicities described as an "archetypal diaspora people".[30][31] The modern Greek state was created in 1832 when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands from the Ottoman Empire.[32] The large Greek Diaspora and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western Romantic nationalism and Philhellenism,[33] which together with the conception of Hellenism formulated during the last centuries of the Eastern Roman Empire, formed the basis of the Greek Enlightenment and the current conception of Hellenism.[34][35][36]

Further information: Proto-Greek, GraecoAryan, Early Helladic, and Aegean civilization The Indo-European progenitors of the "protoGreeks" probably arrived at the area now referred as "Greece" (the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula) at the end of the third millennium BC.[37][N 1] The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the Ancient Greek dialects as they presented themselves centuries later and is subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, one resulting in Mycenean Greece by the 16th century BC,[27][38] and the second the Dorian invasion around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects descending from the Mycenean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenean one at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric one at the Bronze Age collapse. The indigenous population displaced or assimilated by the immigrating Greeks has come to be known as Pelasgian. The transition from Pre-Greek to Greek culture appears to have been rather gradual, and some archaeologists have pointed to evidence that there was a significant amount of continuity of prehistoric economic, architectural, and social structures across these assumed

By region or country Greece · Cyprus Greek diaspora Subgroups Antiochians · Aromanians · Arvanites Cypriots · Epirotes · Karamanlides Macedonians · Maniots · Northern Epirotes Phanariotes · Pontians · Romaniotes Sarakatsani · Sfakians · Slavophones Souliotes · Tsakonians · Urums Greek culture Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance Dress · Education · Flag · Language Literature · Music · Philosophy · Politics Religion · Sport · Television Religion Greek Orthodox Church Greek Roman Catholicism Greek Byzantine Catholicism Greek Evangelicalism Judaism · Islam · Neopaganism Languages and dialects Greek Calabrian Greek · Cappadocian Greek Cretan Greek · Griko · Cypriot Greek Maniot Greek · Pontic Greek · Tsakonian


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migrations, suggesting that the transition between the Neolithic civilisation of c.5000 BC and the Greek civilisations of later periods may have proceeded without major rifts in social texture.[39][40] There were some suggestions of three waves of migration, a Proto-Ionian one either contemporary or even earlier than the Mycenean one. This possibility appears to have been first suggested by Ernst Curtius in the 1880s. In current scholarship, the standard assumption is to group the Attic-Ionic together with the Arcadocypriot group as the successors of a single Middle Bronze Age migration in dual opposition to the "Western" group of Doric and Northwest Greek.

Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.[43] The Dorian Migration was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Classical Greece was discernible.[27] In the Homeric epics, the Greeks of prehistory are viewed as the forefathers of the early classical civilization of Homer’s own time,[44] while the Mycenaean pantheon included many of the divinities (e.g. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades) attested in later Greek religion.[45][46]

Further information: lects and Greek tribes Ancient Greek dia-


Kouros, Archaic period. The Mycenaeans were ultimately the first Greek-speaking people attested through historical sources, written records in the Linear B script,[41] and through their literary echoes in the works of Homer, a few centuries later. The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean and by the 15th century BC had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus where Teucrus (a characteristic Cypriot name) is said to have founded the first colony, and the shores of Asia Minor.[27][42] From 1200 BC the

Nike of Samothrace, Louvre (220-190 BC). The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time span from the early fifth century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras.[47] The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is marked by the first Olympic Games in 776 BC when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek-speaking tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture.[26]


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While the Greeks of the Classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Greek genos their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek citystates. The Peloponnesian War, the large scale Greek civil war between Athens and Sparta and their allies, is a case in point.[48] Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars’ opinions, united under the banner of Philip’s and Alexander the Great’s pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the aforementioned "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.[49] In any case, Alexander’s toppling of the Persian Empire - following his victories at the battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela and advance as far as modern day India and Tajikistan, provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way.[50] While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator’s death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle East and Asia were to prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it retained even in Roman times.[51] Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.[52]

Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic Kingdoms. This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of Hellenic paideia to the next generation.[56] In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East.[26] The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world.[55][57] In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco-Buddhism was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.[58] Further east, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese as the Dayuan.[59]

Eastern Roman

Further information: Hellenistic civilization The Hellenistic age was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander’s death.[53] This Hellenistic age, so called because it witnessed the partial Hellenization of many nonGreek cultures and a combination of Greek, Middle Eastern and Indian elements, lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC.[53] This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi.[54][55] Greeks however remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the Classical authors.[56] An important factor in maintaining

From the 11th c. Trebizond Gospel Further information: Byzantine Greece and Eastern Roman Empire Of the new Eastern Religions introduced into the Greek world the most successful was Christianity. While ethnic distinctions still


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existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to maintain its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity.[60] Concurrently the secular, urban civilization of late antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with the Greek educational system, although it was from Christianity that the culture’s essential values were drawn.[61] The Eastern Roman Empire (which was later misnamed by Western historians as the Byzantine Empire, a name that would have meant nothing to Greek speakers of the era),[62] became increasingly influenced by Greek culture following the 7th century when Emperor Heraclius (AD 575 - 641) decided to make Greek the Roman Empire’s official language.[63][64] Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Roman and Greek cultures were virtually fused into a single Greco-Roman world. Although the Latin West recognized the Eastern Empire’s claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned King of Franks Charlemagne as the "Roman Emperor" on 25 December 800, (an act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire) the Latin West started to favour the Catholic Franks and began to refer the Eastern Roman Empire largely as the Empire of the Greeks (Imperium Graecorum).[65] Greek-speakers at the time, however, referred to themselves as Romaioi (Romans) and were proudly conscious of their Roman Imperial and Christian heritages.[62] "At least three quarters of the ancient Greek classics that survived did so through Byzantine manuscripts." Michael H. Harris/[56] "Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople." J.J. Norwich[66] These Roman Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the Classical era.[67][61][66] Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to early Renaissance Italy to which the influx of

Greek scholars gave a major boost.[68][69] The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was virtuall unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople in the 15th century.[70] To the Slavic world, Roman era Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Greek brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius from Thessalonica, who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet.[71] A distinct Greek nationalism re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 so that when the empire was revived in 1261, it became in many ways a Greek national state.[34] That new notion of nationhood engendered a deep interest in the classical past culminating in the ideas of the Neo-Platonist philosopher George Gemistus Plethon who abandoned Christianity.[34] However it was the combination of Orthodoxy with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks notions of themselves in the empire’s twilight years.[34]

Further information: Ottoman Greece and Phanariotes Following the Fall of Constantinople in the 15th century, many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West, particularly Italy, Central Europe, Germany and Russia.[68] For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire’s millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of "national" groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin.[35] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,[72] (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[73] The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce.[74] It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of


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The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the Modern Greek state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[76] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, while the majority of the Greeks displaced (over a million of the total 1,5 millions) had already been been driven out by the time the agreement was signed.[N 2][77][78][79][80] The Greek genocide, contemporaneous with the failed Greek Asia Minor Campaign, was part of this process of Turkification of the Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.[81] While most Greeks today are descended from Greek-speaking Romioi there are sizeable groups of ethnic Greeks who trace their descent to Aromanian-speaking Vlachs and Albanian-speaking Arvanites as well as Slavs and Turkish-speaking Karamanlides.[82] None of the latter groups were ever considered less Greek than the Rhomioi.[83] Today, Greeks are to be found all around the world as and there are many talented Greek scholars, entrepreneurs and artists.[84]

Hermes o Logios, Greek literary magazine of the 18th and 19th c. Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.[33] Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821 the three most important centres of Greek learning, were situated in Chios, Smyrna and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[33]

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state.[85] By Western standards, the term Greeks has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek.[35][86] Byzantine Greeks called themselves Romioi and considered themselves the political heirs of Rome, but at least by the 12th century a growing number of those educated, deemed themselves the heirs of ancient Greece as well, although for most of the Greek speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan.[87] On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks and Romans.[88]


Greeks work some of the longest hours in the OECD.[75]


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Before the establishment of the Modern Greek state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".[89] The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, rather than by citizenship, race, religion or by being subjects of any particular state.[90] In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common ancestry.[91][92]

culture[26] and the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than its demographic.[95] Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony.[96] During the later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as Ionia and Constantinople experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship.[95] Such revivals would manifest again in the 10th and 14th century providing a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece and its classical heritage.[95] The cultural changes undergone by the Greeks are, despite a surviving common sense of ethnicity, undeniable.[95] At the same time, the Greeks have retained their language and alphabet, certain values, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion, (the word barbarian was used by 12th century historian Anna Komnene to describe non-Greek speakers),[97] a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the global political and social changes of the past two millennia.[95]

Throughout the centuries, Greeks and Greek speakers have been known by a number of names, including: • • (Γραικοί) • • , Argives, and Danaans • or Yavana, traditionally in Hebrew • or Yavana (Ίωνες)

Modern and ancient


Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople. Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages.[93] Scholars compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone.[93][94] Since its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common Today, Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic,[1] where they constitute 93% of the country’s population,[98] and the Republic of Cyprus where they comprise 78% of the island’s population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country).[99] Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; nonetheless the population of Greece has shown regular increase since the country’s first census in 1828.[100] A large percentage of the population growth since the state’s


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foundation has resulted from annexation of new territories and the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees following the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[100] About 80% of the population of Greece is urban, with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens[101] Greeks from Cyprus have a similar history of emigration, usually to the English speaking world as a result of the island’s colonization by the British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses and a temporary decline in fertility.[102] After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974,[103][104][105][106][107] there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle East, which contributed to a decrease in population which tapered off in the 1990s.[102] Today more than two thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus is urban.[102] There is a sizeable Greek minority of about 105,000 people, in Albania.[108] The Greek minority of Turkey which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange has now dwindled to a few thousand, following the 1955 Constantinople Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination.[109] This effectively ended, though not entirely, the three-thousand year old presence of Hellenism in Asia [110][111] There are smaller Greek Minor. minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant and the Black Sea states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).[112]

Melbourne and Toronto.[112] Recently, a law was passed by the Hellenic Parliament that enables Diaspora Greeks to vote in the elections of the Greek state.[115]


Greek colonization in antiquity In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily and southern Italy, Spain, the south of France and the Black sea coasts.[116] Under Alexander the Great’s empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt.[116] The Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa.[117] Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin.[63]


The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available it shows around 3 million Greeks outside of Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad put the figure at around 7 million worldwide.[113] According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University, the number is closer to just below 5 million.[114] Integration, intermarriage and loss of the Greek language influence the self-identification of the Omogeneia. Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora today are London, New York,

Greek Diaspora (20th century). During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the Diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad.[118] Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the


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Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy, Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and Saint Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain.[119] Businesses frequently comprised the whole extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox church.[119] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers.[120] With economic success the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[120][121] In the twentieth century, many Greeks left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and South Africa, especially after the Second World War (1939-45), the Greek Civil War (1946-49), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[122]


Iliad, Book 8, lines 245-253, in a Greek manuscript of the late 5th or early 6th century, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan. years.[130] Several notable literary works, including the Homeric epics, Euclid’s Elements and the New Testament, were originally written in Greek. Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed numerous foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.[131] Because of the movements of Philhellenism and the Diafotismos in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks’ ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.[132] Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek).[133] Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greeks in Greece and the Diaspora are bilingual in other languages or dialects such as English, Arvanitika, Aromanian, Macedonian Slavic, Russian and Turkish.[93] [134]

Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the Classical period, the Roman and Eastern Roman periods and was profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and shaped.[123][124] Ottoman Greeks had to endure through several centuries of adversity which culminated in a genocide in the 20th century but which nevertheless included cultural exchanges and enriched both cultures.[125][126][127][128][129] The Diafotismos is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today.[34][35]

Most Greeks speak the Greek language, an Indo-European language which forms a branch itself, with its closest relations being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) and the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).[93] It has one of the longest documented histories of any language and Greek literature has a continuous history of over 2,500


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Uncial script, from a 4th-century Bible manuscript. The vast majority of Greeks are Eastern Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church. During the first centuries after Jesus Christ, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which is mutually intelligible with modern Greek to a large extent, as most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking.[123][124] While the Orthodox Church was always intensely hostile to the ancient Greek religion, it did help Greeks retain their sense of identity during the Ottoman rule through its use of Greek in the liturgy and its modest educational efforts.[135] There are small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals and Jehovah’s Witnesses, and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims. In particular there are Greek Muslim communities in Tripoli, Lebanon, (7,000 strong) and Al Hamidiyah in Syria, while there is a large community of indeterminate size in the Pontus region, who were spared of the population exchange because of their faith.[136] About 2,000 Greeks are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.[137][138][139]

El Greco’s Assumption of the Virgin (1577-1579). Greek art has a long and varied history. Greeks have made several contributions to the visual, literary and performing arts.[140] In the West, ancient Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists.[140] Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece played an important part the art of the Western World.[141] In the East, Alexander the Great’s conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in GrecoBuddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.[142] Byzantine Greek art, which grew from classical art and adapted the pagan motifs in


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the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations.[143] Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan in the East.[143][144] In turn, Greek art was influenced by eastern civilizations in Classical Antiquity and the new religion of Orthodox Christianity during Roman times while modern Greek art is heavily influenced by Western art.[145] Notable Greek artists include Renaissance painter El Greco, soprano Maria Callas, and composers Iannis Xenakis and Vangelis. Greek Alexandrian Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates George Seferis and Odysseas Elitis are among the most important poets of the twentieth century.

tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria and other centres of Greek learning while Eastern Roman science was essentially a continuation of classical science.[146] Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia (education).[56] Paideia was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city’s fall to the Ottomans in 1453.[147] The University of Constantinople was Christian Europe’s first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught,[148] and considering the original meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the world’s first university as well.[147] As of 2007, Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education.[101] Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend Western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names.[149] Notable Greek scientists of modern times include Georgios Papanikolaou (inventor of the Pap test), Nicholas Negroponte, Constantin Carathéodory, Michael Dertouzos, John Argyris and Dimitri Nanopoulos. |}



Nicholas Negroponte. Further information: Greek mathematics, Medicine in ancient Greece, and Byzantine science The Greeks of the Classical era made several notable contributions to science and helped lay the foundations of several western scientific traditions, like philosophy, historiography and mathematics. The scholarly

Flag of the Eastern Roman Empire


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The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece, which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto Eleftheria i thanatos (freedom or death), which was the motto of the Greek War of Independence.[150] The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy. The Greek flag is widely used by the Greek Cypriots, although Cyprus has officially adopted a neutral flag so as to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish Cypriot minority – see flag of Cyprus).[151] The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white cross totally surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre-1978 flag of Greece with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.[152] Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the Byzantine Empire and a common symbol in Eastern Europe.[153] It is not currently part of the modern Greek flag or coat of arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.[154]

ancient tradition of being given according to the father’s name (e.g. Ioannis Demetriou is Ioannis the son of Demetrios).[157][158][159] Finally, in addition to Greek-derived surnames many have Turkish, Albanian or Slavic origin.[160] With respect to personal names, the two main influences are early Christianity and antiquity. The ancient names were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the eighteenth century onwards.[161]


6th century map by Cosmas Indicopleustes. The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula and the Aegean, the Black Sea and Ionian coasts of Asia Minor, the islands of Cyprus and Sicily and the south of the Italian peninsula. In Plato’s Phaidon, Socrates remarks that "we (Greeks) live like ants or frogs around a pond".[162] This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks since the Greek peninsula is rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.[26] Notable Greek seafarers include people such as Pytheas of Marseilles, Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to Iberia and beyond, Nearchus, the 6th century merchant and later monk Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas who sailed to India) and the explorer of the Northwestern passage Juan de [163][164][165][166] In later times, the Fuca. Romioi plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Roman Emperor on trade

See also: Greek name The Greeks were one of the first people in Europe to use surnames and these were widely in use by the 9th century supplanting the ancient tradition of using the father’s name, however Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.[155] Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case. Exceptionally, some end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of this proper noun for patronymic reasons.[156] Although surnames in mainland Greece are static today, dynamic and changing patronymic usage survives in middle names where the genitive of father’s first name is commonly the middle name. In Cyprus by contrast surnames follow the


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with the Caliphate opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade.[167][168] The Greek shipping tradition recovered during Ottoman rule when a substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important part in the Greek War of Independence.[34] Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece has the largest merchant fleet in the world, while many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience.[101] The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle Onassis,others being Yiannis Latsis, George Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos.[169][170] A famous Greek poet of the 20th century was the Chinese-born seaman Nikos Kavvadias.[171]

Greeks S1101_SAP_09_TB_DC_01_10_Y.pdf 2001. Retrieved on 2009-01-07. [2] "Total ancestry reported". U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&redoLog=false&mt_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G2000_B04003&format=&-CONTEXT=dt. Retrieved on 2009-01-07. [3] "Main results - Census of population 2001". statistics.nsf/All/ 805CB6E0CF012914C2257122003F3A84/ $file/MAIN%20RESULTS-EN.xls?. Retrieved on 2009-01-07. [4] "2006 Census Table: Australia". The history of the Greek people is closely sociated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, Asia Minor and the Black ABSNavigation/prenav/ Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a ViewData?action=402&documentproductno=&docum number of Greek enclaves around the MediRetrieved on 2008-12-24. terranean were cut off from the core, notably [5] "Foreign Population". Federal Statistical in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Office of Germany. Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was cms/Sites/destatis/Internet/EN/Content/ settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while Statistics/Bevoelkerung/ later that century a huge wave of migration AuslaendischeBevoelkerung/Tabellen/ to the United States, Australia, Canada and Content50/ elsewhere created the modern Greek TOP10Liste,templateId=renderPrint.psml. diaspora. Retrieved on 2009-01-18. Some key historical events have also been [6] "Large Centers of the Omogeneia" (PDF). included for context, but this timeline is not intended to cover history not related to mi grations. There is more information on the onlinePublishing/APD/93-190.pdf. historical context of these migrations in HisRetrieved on 2008-12-24. tory of Greece. [7] "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/ pages/ • Antiochian • Maniots • Souliotes • List of Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Coun Greeks • Sarakatsani • Tsakonians Ancient Retrieved on 2008-04-13. • Epirotes • Slavophone • Urums Greeks [8] List of - Centre for Russian Studies". • Karamanlides Greeks • "NUPI win//Russland/etnisk.exe?total. Retrieved • List of on 2008-12-24. Greek [9] Americans Chile". Chile. "griegos en Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [10] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania [11] Cia Factbook-Albania [1] [1] ^ 2001 "Census data" (in Greek). Census. 2001.


See also



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Time Events


3rd millen- Proto-Greek tribes form in Central Europe. nium BC 20th century BC 17th century BC 13th century BC 11th century BC 9th century BC 8th century BC 6th century BC 5th century BC Greek settlements established on the Balkans. Decline of Minoan civilization, possibly because of the eruption of Thera. Settlement of Achaeans and Ionians, Mycenaean civilization. First colonies established in Asia Minor. Doric tribes move into peninsular Greece. Achaeans flee to Aegean islands, Asia Minor and Cyprus. Major colonization of Asia Minor and Cyprus. First major colonies established in Sicily and Southern Italy. Colonies established across the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the Delian League in Ionia, the Black Sea and Aegean perimeter culminates in Athenian Empire and the Classical Age of Greece; ends with Athens defeat by Sparta at the close of the Peloponesian War Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Campaign of Alexander the Great; Greek colonies established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt and Asia. Conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks to Rome. Eastern Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople. Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to Southern Italy, Roman Emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia, Bosphorus re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks. Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece and full recovery of the Greek peninsula. Retro-migrations of Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy and Sicily) into parts of Greece that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly). Roman Empire dissolves, Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade; becoming the capital of the Latin Empire. Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Greece take place. Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Greek diaspora into Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot Greeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.

4th century BC 2nd century BC 4th century AD 7th century 8th century 9th century 13th century

15th century 19th century

[12] The new Albanian migration. Russell King, Nicola Mai, Stephanie

Schwandner-Sievers. Sussex Academic Press, 2005. ISBN 1903900786


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Time 1830s Events


Creation of the Modern Greek State. Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place. European Ottoman lands partitioned; Unorganized migrations of Greeks, Bulgarians and Turks towards their respective states. Treaty of Neuilly; Greece and Bulgaria exchange populations, with some exceptions. The Destruction of Smyrna (modern day Izmir) more than 40 thousand Greeks killed, End of significant Greek presence in Asia Minor. Treaty of Lausanne; Greece and Turkey agree to exchange populations with limited exceptions of the Greeks in Constantinople, Imbros, Tenedos and the Muslim minority of Western Thrace. 1.5 million of Asia Minor and Pontic Greeks settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of Muslims settle in Turkey. Hundred of thousands Greeks died from starvation during the Axis Occupation of Greece Communist regime in Romania begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate. Greek Civil War. Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their families flee into Eastern Bloc nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent. Massive emigration of Greeks to West Germany, the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries. Istanbul Pogrom against Greeks. Exodus of Greeks from the city accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today. Large Greek community in Alexandria flees Nasser’s regime in Egypt. Republic of Cyprus created as an independent state under Greek, Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues. Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Almost all Greeks living in Northern Cyprus flee to the south and the United Kingdom. Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece. Retro-migration of Greeks from Germany begins. Collapse of Soviet Union. Approx. 100,000 ethnic Greeks migrate from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia, and Albania to Greece. Some statistics indicate the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of Greeks from the United States and Australia. 20070613004819/ historico/e4.htm. [16] "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy, The Greek Community". Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/ Relationships+with+EU+Member+States/ Italy/. [17] According to figures presented by Prof. Vyron Kotzamanis to a conference of


1914-1923 Pontic Greek Genocide, approximately 353,000 Pontian Greeks killed. 1919 1922 1923

1940s 1947 1948 1950s 1955 1958 1960s 1974 1980s 1990s 2000s

[13] "2001 census". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. results/general/nationality/. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. [14] "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Greece and sub-Saharan African Countries Bilateral Relations". sub_saharan/. [15] "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 2007-06-13.


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unions and federations representing the ethnic Greeks of Istanbul. "Ethnic Greeks of Istanbul convene", Athens News Agency, 2 July 2006. [18] "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Argentina, The Greek Community". Geographic+Regions/Latin+America++Caribbean/Bilateral+Relations/ Argentina/. [19] "Ecodata, Belgian Statistics". Vreemde_bevolking.jsp. [20] "Greek community of Sweden". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/ Relationships+with+EU+Member+States/ Sweden/. [21] "Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. 20080307133141/ English/Publish/Mes/pdf/51_cap1_2.pdf. [22] "Switzerland". Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/ Relationships+with+other+countries/ Switzerland. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [23] "GREEKS IN UZBEKISTAN - Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst". Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [24] "Recensamant Romania 2002 < Articole InfoAfaceri <". articol/1294. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [25] "Greece (05/08)". 3395.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [26] ^ Roberts, J.M. (2007). The New Penguin History of the World. Penguin. pp. 171–172,222. ISBN 9780141030425. [27] ^ "The Greeks". Encyclopedia Britannica. US: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. . [28] Beaton, R.. (1996). The Medieval Greek Romance. Routledge. pp. 1–25. ISBN 0415120322. [29] CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%.

[30] Hucklberry Finn P.; Montserrat Guibernau (2004). History And National Destiny: Ethnosymbolism and its Critics. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 23. ISBN 1-4051-2391-5. "Indeed. Smith emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modem communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks to survive and persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: l5—20)" [31] Smith, Anthony Robert (1999). Myths and memories of the nation. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-829534-0. "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the ‘golden age’ of saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples." [32] Veremis, Thanos; Koliopoulos, John S. (2007). Greece: The Modern Sequel. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd. p. 277. ISBN 1-85065-463-8. [33] ^ "history of Greece, Ottoman Empire, The merchant middle class". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. [34] ^ "Greece during the Byzantine period (c. AD 300–c. 1453), Population and languages, Emerging Greek identity". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. [35] ^ Mazower, Mark (2002). The Balkans: A Short History. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 105–107. ISBN 081296621X. [36] Smith, Anthony Robert (2003). Chosen peoples: [sacred sources of national identity]. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-19-210017-3. [37] Cadogan, Gerald (1997). The End of the Early Bronze Age in the Aegean (Cincinnati Classical Studies). Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 125–126. ISBN 90-04-07309-4. [38] Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-521-29037-6.


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[39] Murray, Priscilla; Runnels, Curtis N. (2001). Greece before history: an archaeological companion and guide. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-8047-4050-X. [40] Korrés, George S. "Excavations in the Region of Pylos" (Alexander Cambitoglou and Jean-Paul Descœudres. Eumousia: Ceramic and Iconographic Studies in Honour of Alexander Cambitoglou. Meditarch, 1990, ISBN 090979717X, p. 7). [41] "’Mycenaean language". Encyclopedia Britannica. US: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. . [42] A.-F. Christidis (2007). A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 417–420. ISBN 0-521-83307-8. [43] Hall, Jonathan M. (2007). A History of the Archaic Greek World, Ca. 1200-479 BCE. Blackwell Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 0631226672. [44] Podzuweit, Christian; B. Hänsel (ed.), (1982). Die mykenische Welt und Troy. Germany: Moreland. pp. 65–88. [45] Clive Dietrich, Bernard (1974). The Origins of Greek Religion. Walter de Gruyter. p. 156. ISBN 3110039826. [46] "Aegean civilizations, Religion". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. [47] "Ancient Greek Civilization". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. [48] Beiner, Ronald (1999). Theorizing Nationalism. SUNY Press. p. 111. ISBN 0791440656. [49] Fox, Robin Lane. "Riding with Alexander". interviews/fox.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. "Alexander inherited the idea of an invasion of the Persian Empire from his father Philip whose advanceforce was already out in Asia in 336 BC. Philip’s campaign had the slogan of "freeing the Greeks" in Asia and "punishing the Persians" for their past sacrileges during their own invasion (a century and a half earlier) of Greece. No doubt, Philip wanted glory and plunder."

[50] "Alexander the Great". Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press. 2008. Online Edition. [51] Green, Peter (2008). Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic Age. Orion Publishing Group, Limited. p. xiii. ISBN 9780753824139. [52] Wood, Michael (2001). In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. University of California Press. p. 8. ISBN 0520231929. [53] ^ Boardman, John (2001). The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 0192801376. [54] Grant, Michael (1990). The Hellenistic Greeks: From Alexander to Cleopatra. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. Introduction. ISBN 0297820575. [55] ^ "Hellenistic age". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. [56] ^ Harris, William Vernon (1989). Ancient Literacy. Harvard University Press. p. 136. ISBN 0674033817. [57] "Hellenistic age, Hellenistic religion". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. [58] Foltz, Richard C (1999). Religions and the Silk Road. St. Martin’s Press. p. 46. ISBN 0312233388. [59] Burton, Watson (transl.) (1993). Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian, Han Dynasty II (Revised Edition). Columbia University Press. pp. 244–245. ISBN 0231081669. [60] Kaldellis, Anthony (2008). Hellenism in Byzantium The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 35–40. ISBN 9780521876889. [61] ^ Thomas, Carol G.; Burstein, Stanley M. (1988). Paths from ancient Greece. Leiden: Brill. pp. 47–49. ISBN 90-04-08846-6. [62] ^ "Byzantine Empire, Introduction". Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. [63] ^ Haldon, John (1997). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge. p. 50. ISBN 0-521-31917-X.


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[77] Bruce (2006). Twice A Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey. Granta. ISBN 1862077525. [78] ed. by Renée Hirschon. (2003). Crossing the Aegean: The Consequences of the 1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange (Studies in Forced Migration). Providence: Berghahn Books. pp. 29. ISBN 1-57181-562-7. [79] Sofos, Spyros A.; Özkırımlı, Umut (2008). Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece and Turkey. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd. pp. 116–117. ISBN 1-85065-899-4. [80] Hershlag, Zvi Yehuda (1997). Introduction to the Modern Economic History of the Middle East. Brill Academic Pub. p. 177. ISBN 90-04-06061-8. [81] Üngör, Uğur Ümit (March 2008). "On Young Turk social engineering in Eastern Turkey from 1913 to 1950". Journal of Genocide Research 10 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1080/14623520701850278. 10.1080/14623520701850278. [82] "Έλληνες = Ρωμιοί + Αrmâni + Arbëresh". Mackridge, Peter. Ευρωπαϊκή Εταιρεία Νεοελληνικών Σπουδών Γ΄ συνέδριο της Ευρωπαϊκής Εταιρείας Νεοελληνικών Σπουδών (in Greek). ?main__page=1&main__lang=de&eensCongress_cmd Retrieved on 19 December 2008. [83] Mazower (ed.)., M. (2000). After The War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943-1960. Princeton University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0691058423. [84] "When nettles go ungrasped". The Economist. 11 December 2008. displaystory.cfm?story_id=12773095. Retrieved on 19 December 2008. "To find out what they are, ask any of the Greekborn scholars, entrepreneurs, artists and other talented types who flourish all over the world but recoil at working in their homeland, much as they love it." [85] Broome, Benjamin J. (1996). Exploring the Greek Mosaic: A Guide to Intercultural Communication in Greece (The Interact Series). Yarmouth, Me: Intercultural Press. pp. 22–25. ISBN 1-877864-39-0. [86] Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez (2005). A History of the Greek Language: From Its


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[1] Though some would date the event as late as the middle second millennium, e.g. Drews, Robert (1989). The coming of the Greeks: Indo-European conquests in the Aegean and the Near East. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-691-02951-2. See Greek language in Mallory, James (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1-884964-98-2. books?id=tzU3RIV2BWIC&pg=PA244&dq=protogreeks&as_brr=3&hl=el#PPA244,M1. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. for an overview of possible scenarios. [2] While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the population exchange this was done on the insistence of Ataturk and after a million Greeks had already been expelled from Asia Minor. Gilbar, Gad G. (1997). Population dilemmas in the Middle East: essays in political demography and economy.


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London: F. Cass. p. 8. ISBN 0-7146-4706-3. York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36336-5. • Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-29037-6. • Mountjoy, P.A. (1986). Mycenaean Decorated Pottery: A Guide to Identification. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 73. Göteborg: Paul Åströms Forlag. ISBN 91-86098-32-2. • Mylonas, George E. (1966). Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age. Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-03523-7. • Tandy, David W. (2001). Prehistory and history: ethnicity, class and political economy. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 1-55164-188-7. Classical Greeks • Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek religion: archaic and classical. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-15624-0. • Cartledge, Paul (2002). The Greeks: a portrait of self and others. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280388-3.

l’Empire byzantin. Presses universitaires de France. • Harris, Jonathan (2007). Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium (Hambledon Continuum). Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-84725-179-X. • Kazhdan, Alexander P. (1991). The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. • Laiou, Angeliki E.; Ahrweiler, Hélène (1998). Studies on the internal diaspora of the Byzantine Empire. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 0-88402-247-1. • Runciman, Steven (1966). Byzantine Civilisation. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.. ISBN 1-56619-574-8. • Toynbee, Arnold J. (1972). Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019215253X. Ottoman Greeks • Davis, Jack E.; Fariba Zarinebaf; Bennet, John

• Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. • The Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press.. 2008. Online Edition. • Pocket World in Figures (Economist). London: Economist Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-825-1. • Griffin, Jasper; Boardman, John; Murray, Oswyn (2001). The Oxford history of Greece and the Hellenistic world. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280137-6. • Kaldellis, Anthony (2008). Hellenism in Byzantium: The Transformations of Greek Identity and the Reception of the Classical Tradition (Greek Culture in the Roman World). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-87688-5. • Mango, Cyril A. (2002). The Oxford history of Byzantium. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3. • Mazower, Mark (2002). The Balkans : A Short History. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6621-X. • Norwich, John Julius (1998). A Short History of Byzantium. London: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-77269-3. • Roberts, J.M. (2007). The New Penguin History of the World. Penguin (NonClassics). ISBN 0-14-103042-9. • Smith, Anthony Robert (1991). National identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 0-87417-204-7. • Sofos, Spyros A.; Özkırımlı, Umut (2008). Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece and Turkey. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1-85065-899-4. • Veremis, Thanos; Koliopoulos, John S. (2007). Greece: The Modern Sequel. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1-85065-463-8.

Further reading
Mycenaean Greeks Roman Greeks • Castleden, Rodney • Ahrweiler, Hélène (2005). (1975). L’idéologie Mycenaeans. New politique de


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Freeman, Charles (2005). A (2004). Egypt, historical and Greece, and economic Rome: civilizations geography of of the ancient Ottoman Greece: Mediterranean. the southwestern Oxford Morea in the 18th [Oxfordshire]: century. Oxford University Princeton, N.J: Press. ISBN American School 0-19-926364-7. of Classical • Finkelberg, Studies at Athens. Margalit (2005). ISBN Greeks and pre0-87661-534-5. Greeks: Aegean • Davis, Jack E.; prehistory and Davies, Siriol Greek heroic (2007). Between tradition. Venice and Cambridge, UK: Istanbul: colonial Cambridge landscapes in University Press. early modern ISBN Greece. Princeton, 0-521-85216-1. N.J: American • Hall, Jonathan M. School of Classical (2000). Ethnic Studies at Athens. Identity in Greek ISBN Antiquity. 0-87661-540-X. Cambridge, UK: • Issawi, Charles Cambridge Philip; Gondicas, University Press. Dimitri (1999). ISBN Ottoman Greeks 0-521-78999-0. in the age of • Hall, Jonathan M. nationalism: (2002). politics, economy, Hellenicity: and society in the between ethnicity nineteenth and culture. century. Chicago: Princeton, N.J: University of Darwin Press. Chicago Press. ISBN ISBN 0-87850-096-0. 0-226-31329-8. • Jackson, Marvin • MacKendrick, R.; Lampe, John R. Paul Lachlan (1982). Balkan (1981). The Greek economic history, stones speak: the 1550-1950: from story of imperial archaeology in borderlands to Greek lands. New developing York: Norton. nations. ISBN Bloomington: 0-393-30111-7. Indiana University • Malkin, Irad Press. ISBN (2001). Ancient 0-253-30368-0. perceptions of Greek ethnicity. Washington, D.C: Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard University. ISBN 0-674-00662-3. • Malkin, Irad (1998). The returns of Odysseus: colonization and ethnicity. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21185-5. • Walbank, F. W. (1985). Selected papers: studies in Greek and Roman history and historiography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30752-X. Hellenistic Greeks • Boardman, John; Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray (2001). The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801376. • Chamoux, Franȯis; Chamoux, François (2003). Hellenistic civilization. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22242-1. • Grant, Michael (1990). The Hellenistic Greeks: from Alexander to

Modern Greeks • Katerina Zacharia (2008). Hellenisms: culture, identity, and ethnicity from antiquity to modernity. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-6525-9. • Clogg, Richard (2002). A concise history of Greece. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00479-9. • Herzfeld, Michael (1982). Ours once more: folklore, ideology, and the making of modern Greece. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76018-3. • Holden, David (1972). Greece without columns; the making of the modern Greeks. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-397-00779-5. • Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997). Fields of wheat, hills of blood: passages to nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-42494-4. • Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1981). The Greeks and their heritages. Oxford


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cleopatra. [Oxfordshire]: London: Oxford University Weidenfeld & Press. ISBN Nicolson. ISBN 0-19-215256-4. 0-297-82057-5. • Trudgill, Peter • Per Bilde (1997). (2001). Conventional Sociolinguistic Values of the variation and Hellenistic Greeks change. (Studies in Edinburgh: Hellenistic Edinburgh Civilization ; Vol. University Press. VIII) (Pt. 8). ISBN Aarhus Univ Pr. 0-7486-1515-6. ISBN • Yannakakis, Eleni; 87-7288-555-6. Mackridge, Peter (1997). Ourselves and others: the development of a Greek Macedonian identity since

1912. Oxford: Berg. ISBN 1-85973-133-3.

External links
Omogenia • World Council of Hellenes Abroad (SAE), Umbrella Diaspora Organization Religious • Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople • Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria • Church of Greece Academic • Transnational Communities Programme at the University of Oxford, includes papers on the Greek Diaspora • Greeks on Greekness: The Construction and Uses of the Greek Past among Greeks under the Roman Empire.

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