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US Airways Flight 1549

US Airways Flight 1549
US Airways Flight 1549

The downed US Airways Flight 1549 floating on the Hudson River Occurrence summary Date Type Site January 15, 2009 (2009-01-15) Multiple bird strikes, controlled ditching In the Hudson River between New York City (near 48th Street) and Weehawken, New Jersey (near Port Imperial), United States 150[1] 5 78[2] (mostly minor) 0 155 (all) Airbus A320-214 US Airways N106US LaGuardia Airport, New York City Charlotte/Douglas International Airport Seattle-Tacoma International Airport

glided over the river into which they successfully ditched the airliner near the USS Intrepid Museum in midtown Manhattan about three minutes later. All 155 occupants safely evacuated the still virtually intact (although partially submerged and slowly sinking) airliner from which they were quickly rescued by nearby watercraft. [6][7][8][9][10][11] The entire crew of Flight 1549 was later awarded the Master’s Medal of the Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators. The award citation read, "This emergency ditching and evacuation, with the loss of no lives, is a heroic and unique aviation achievement."[12]

Passengers Crew Injuries Fatalities Survivors Aircraft type Operator Tail number Flight origin Stopover Destination

Flight designations, route, and crew

US Airways Flight 1549 was a scheduled commercial passenger flight from New York City to Charlotte, North Carolina, that, on January 15, 2009, ditched in the Hudson River adjacent to Manhattan six minutes after departing from LaGuardia Airport.[3][4][5] While on its initial climb out, the Airbus A320 struck a flock of Canada Geese which resulted in an immediate almost complete loss of thrust from both engines. When the aircrew determined that the plane would be unable to safely reach any airfield from its location just northeast of the George Washington Bridge, they turned it southbound and

LaGuardia Runway 4 Departure


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US Airways Flight 1549 (also designated under a Star Alliance codeshare agreement as United Airlines Flight 1919) was a domestic route from New York City’s LaGuardia Airport (LGA) to Charlotte/Douglas, North Carolina, with direct onward service to Seattle-Tacoma in Washington. On January 15, 2009, the flight was cleared for takeoff from Runway 4 at LaGuardia at 3:24:56 p.m. EST (20:24:56 UTC). The crew made their first report after becoming airborne at 3:25:51 as being at 700 feet and climbing.[13] There were 150 passengers and five crew members, including the captain, first officer, and three flight attendants, on board.[1][14] The captain was Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger, 57, a former fighter pilot who had been an airline pilot since leaving the Air Force in 1980. He is also a safety expert and a glider pilot.[15][16][17][18][19] The first officer was Jeffrey B. Skiles, 49,[17][20][21] who was on his first flight in the Airbus A320 since passing the training course to fly the type.[22] The flight attendants were Donna Dent,[23] Doreen Welsh, and Sheila Dail.[24] As is often the case when a regularly scheduled commercial flight is involved in an accident, use of the flight’s number, 1549, was discontinued for subsequent operations of the carrier’s afternoon LGA-CLT-SEA service. On January 16, 2009, the route was redesignated US Airways Flight 1543, and on February 12, 2009, the LGA-CLT leg became Flight 1867 when its equipment was changed to an Airbus A321.[25]

US Airways Flight 1549
after the accident, showed that when N106US was written off, its airframe had logged 16,299 cycles (flights) totaling 25,241.08 flight hours. Total time on the engines was 19,182 hours on the left (#1) and 26,466 hours on the right (#2). The last A Check, a maintenance check performed every 550 flight hours, was passed on December 6, 2008, and the last C Check (annual comprehensive inspection) on April 19, 2008. [26] The Airbus A320 is a digital fly-by-wire aircraft: the flight control surfaces are moved by electrical and hydraulic actuators controlled by a digital computer. The computer interprets pilot commands via input from a side-stick, making adjustments on its own to keep the plane stable and on course. The mechanical energy of the two engines is the primary source of routine electrical power and hydraulic pressure for the aircraft flight control systems.[31] The aircraft also has an auxiliary power unit (APU), which can provide backup electrical power for the aircraft, including its electrically powered hydraulic pumps; and a ram air turbine (RAT), a type of wind turbine that can be deployed into the airstream to provide backup hydraulic pressure and electrical power at certain speeds.[31] According to the NTSB, both the APU and the RAT were operating as the plane descended into the Hudson, although it was not clear whether the RAT had been deployed manually or automatically.[31] The Airbus A320 also has a "ditching" button that closes valves and openings underneath the aircraft, including the outflow valve, the air inlet for the emergency Ram Air Turbine, the avionics inlet, the extract valve, and the flow control valve. It is meant to slow flooding in a water landing.[32] The flight crew did not activate the "ditch switch" during the incident.[33]

Airbus A320-214 and its safety systems
The aircraft was an Airbus A320-214 (Registration: N106US), powered by two GE Aviation/Snecma-designed CFM56-5B4/P engines manufactured in France and the U.S.[26] One of 74 A320s then in service in the US Airways fleet,[27] it was built by Airbus Industrie with final assembly at its facility at Aéroport de Toulouse-Blagnac in France in June, 1999. Delivered to the carrier on August 2, 1999, the airliner was registered to Wells Fargo Bank Northwest, NA, as owner/lessor[28] with AIG listed as the lead insurer.[29] The aircraft’s FAA-required maintenance records,[30] released by US Airways the day

First Officer Skiles was at the controls of the flight when it took off to the northeast from Runway 4 at 3:25 p.m., and was the first to notice a formation of birds approaching the aircraft about two minutes later, while passing through an altitude of about 3,200 feet (980 m)[3] on the initial climb out to 15,000 feet.[34] The aircraft collided with the birds at 3:27:01.[35] The windscreen quickly turned dark brown and several loud thuds were heard.[36] Both engines ingested


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US Airways Flight 1549

Play video Coast Guard video (8:07 long) of the crash and rescue; splashdown is at 3:31:02 pm birds and immediately lost almost all thrust.[34] Capt. Sullenberger took the controls, while Skiles began going through the three-page emergency procedures checklist in an attempt to restart the engines.[34] At 3:27:36,[35] using the call sign "Cactus 1539" [sic],[37][38] the flight radioed air traffic controllers at New York Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON)[39] "Hit birds. We lost thrust in both engines. Returning back towards LaGuardia." Passengers and cabin crew later reported hearing "very loud bangs" in both engines and seeing flaming exhaust, then silence from the engines and smelling the odor of unburned fuel in the cabin.[8][40][41] Responding to the captain’s report of a bird strike, controller Patrick Harten[42] gave the flight a heading to return to LaGuardia and told him that he could land to the southeast on Runway 13.[39] Sullenberger responded that he was unable.[39] Sullenberger asked if they could attempt an emergency landing in New Jersey, mentioning Teterboro Airport in Bergen County as a possibility;[39][43][44] air traffic controllers quickly contacted Teterboro and gained permission for a landing on runway 1.[43] However, Sullenberger told controllers that "We can’t do it",[34] and that "We’re gonna be in the Hudson," making clear his intention to bring the plane down on the Hudson River due to a lack of altitude.[45] Air traffic control at LaGuardia reported seeing the aircraft pass less than 900 feet (270 m) above the George Washington Bridge.[46] About 90 seconds before touchdown, the captain announced, "Brace for impact,"[46] and the Flightpath flight attendants instructed the passengers how to do so.[47] The plane ended its six-minute flight at 3:31 pm with an unpowered ditching while heading south at about 150 miles per hour (130 kn; 240 km/h) in the middle of the North River section of the Hudson River roughly abeam 50th Street (near the Intrepid Sea-AirSpace Museum) in Manhattan and Port Imperial in Weehawken, New Jersey. Sullenberger said in an interview on CBS television that his training prompted him to choose a ditching location near operating boats so as to maximize the chance of rescue. The location was near three boat terminals: two used by ferry operator NY Waterway on either side of the Hudson River and a third used by tour boat operator Circle Line Sightseeing Cruises.[13][48] The ditching location was approximately 40°46′10″N 74°00′17″W / 40.769498°N 74.004636°W / 40.769498; -74.004636Coordinates: 40°46′10″N 74°00′17″W / 40.769498°N 74.004636°W / 40.769498; -74.004636.[49] After coming to a stop in the river, the plane began drifting southward with the current.[50] National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Board Member Kitty Higgins, the principal spokesperson for the on-scene investigation, said at a press conference the day after the accident that it "has to go down [as] the most successful ditching in aviation history."[51] "These people knew what they were supposed to do and they did it and as a result, nobody lost their life."[52]


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US Airways Flight 1549

Immediately after the A320 had been ditched in mid-river, the aircrew began evacuating the 150 passengers, both on to the wings through from the four mid-cabin emergency window exits and into inflated slides deployed from the two front passenger doors, while the partially submerged and slowly sinking airliner drifted down the river with the current. Two flight attendants were in the front, one in the rear. Each flight attendant in the front opened a door, which was also armed to activate a slide, although the port side slide did not immediately deploy. One rear door was opened by a panicked passenger, causing the aircraft to fill more quickly with water. The flight attendant in the rear who attempted to reseal the rear door was not successful in doing so, she told CBS News.[53] It was later revealed that the impact with the water had ripped open a hole in the underside of the airplane and twisted the fuselage, causing cargo doors to pop open and filling the plane with water from the rear.[54] The flight attendant urged passengers to move forward by climbing over seats to escape the rising water within the cabin. One passenger was in a wheelchair. Having twice walked the length of the cabin to confirm that no one remained inside after the plane had been evacuated, the captain was the last person to leave the aircraft.[48][55][56][57] Evacuees, some wearing life-vests, waited for rescue on the partly submerged slides, knee-deep in icy river water. Others stood on the wings or, fearing an explosion, swam away from the plane.[53] Air temperature at the time was about 20 °F (−7 °C), and the water was 36 °F (2 °C)[44].

Play video Video from 20 minutes after ditching, with numerous ferries and rescue boats surrounding the plane fleets responded almost immediately to the emergency. NY Waterway ferry Thomas Jefferson, commanded by Captain Vincent Lombardi, was first on the scene arriving at the side of the plane just four minutes after the ditching. NY Waterway ferry Governor Thomas H. Kean, under the command of 20-yearold Captain Brittany Catanzaro,[58] was the second rescue craft to arrive reaching the plane a few minutes later.[59] Catanzaro reported to radio station WNYC that she and her crew used a Jason’s cradle to bring people who were wet onto her boat. Aircraft captain Sullenberger stated in CBS News interviews that he advised the ferry crew to rescue passengers on the wing before the passengers in the inflatable slides, as the inflatable slides provided a higher level of safety. Time-stamped video from a United States Coast Guard (USCG) surveillance camera shows that the first of these vessels, a ferry boat, reached the plane at 3:35 pm (four minutes after the ditching) and began rescuing the 155 occupants. By this time many passengers were already standing on the wings or in the inflated slides. [56] The slides eventually detached from the fuselage to form life rafts.[46] At one point, as the plane moved in the strong ebb tide current, passengers on one of the slides, fearing that the stern of the ferry boat would crush them, had to shout to the ferry boat pilot to steer away.[60] Within minutes,[61] vessels from the New York City Fire and Police Departments (FDNY and NYPD), the USCG,[62] and a


The plane in the Hudson River surrounded by Coast Guard, FDNY, NYPD, and ferryboats Local commercial vessels from the NY Waterway and Circle Line Sightseeing Cruises


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privately owned former Coast Guard Buoy Tender were on scene to help with the rescue and recovery effort.[63] All of the passengers and flight crew were rescued safely.[46] The FDNY sent four marine units and rescue divers.[64] On land, FDNY declared a level III (All Hands) emergency and mobilized their Major Emergency Response, Logistical Support Units and had 35 ambulances ready for patients coming off the flight.[65][66] About 140 FDNY firefighters responded to docks near the crash.[64] The NYPD sent squad cars, helicopters, vessels, and rescue divers from the Aviation Unit and Harbor Unit. In addition, about 30 other ambulances were made available by other organizations, including several hospital-based ambulances (St. Vincent, St. Barnabas). Various agencies also provided medical help on the Weehawken side of the river. Two mutual aid helicopters responded to the West 30th Street Heliport, one from the Nassau County Police and another from the New Jersey State Police.[67] New York Water Taxi sent boats to the scene but did not take part in the rescue.[68]

US Airways Flight 1549
number of the survivors received professional counseling, and some began an email support group to help ease the aftereffects of the experience.[76] In addition to those on the plane, FAA Air Traffic Control Specialist Patrick Harten, the New York TRACON controller who worked the flight during the emergency, later stated in testimony before Congress that for him "the hardest, most traumatic part of the entire event was when it was over" during which he was continually "gripped by raw moments of shock and grief."[77]


Tied up alongside Battery Park City

There were two serious injuries,[69] one of which was a deep laceration in flight attendant Doreen Welsh’s leg.[70][33] In total, 78 people were treated, mostly for minor injuries[71] and hypothermia.[72] Hospitals that treated patients from the incident include Saint Vincent’s Catholic Medical Center in Greenwich Village; St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center, which admitted ten people; New York Downtown Hospital, which treated three passengers; and Palisades Medical Center in North Bergen, New Jersey, which treated five patients for hypothermia.[73] In all, 24 passengers and two rescue personnel were treated at hospitals,[74] while others were cared for in triage facilities.[46] According to the airline, no pets were being transported in the cargo hold, with a spokesperson stating, "We don’t carry pets in our cargo."[75] Delayed psychological effects were experienced as a result of the accident and rescue. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress including sleeplessness, flashbacks, and panic attacks were reported by members of the aircrew, passengers, and others directly involved. A

The downed plane being recovered from the Hudson River during the night of January 17. At 4:55 p.m. fire crews began to stand down. At 5:07 p.m. Doug Parker, CEO of US Airways, issued an official statement during a press conference in Tempe, Arizona, in which he confirmed that the flight had been involved in an accident.[78] The flight crew, particularly Captain Sullenberger, were widely praised for their actions during the incident, notably by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg and New York State Governor David Paterson, who opined, "We had a ’Miracle on 34th Street.’ I believe now we have had a ’Miracle on the Hudson’."[71][79][80][81] Outgoing U.S. President George W. Bush said he was "inspired by the skill and heroism of the flight crew," and he also praised the emergency responders and volunteers.[82] Then President-


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elect Barack Obama said that everyone was proud of Sullenberger’s "heroic and graceful job in landing the damaged aircraft," and thanked the plane’s crew, whom he invited to attend his inauguration as President in Washington, D.C., five days later. He also invited those who had helped ensure the safety of all 155 people aboard.[83][84] Following the rescue, the plane remained afloat, though partially submerged, and was quickly moored to a pier near the World Financial Center in Lower Manhattan, roughly 4 miles (6 km) downstream from where it had ditched.[47] The left engine had detached from the plane during the ditching and was recovered several days later from the river bottom, 65 feet (20 m) below the surface.[85] The water was so murky that the right engine was initially thought also to have detached, but it was later found to be still in place on the aircraft (with much of its nacelle missing).[86] On January 17, the aircraft was removed from the Hudson River and placed on a barge.[34][87][88] The aircraft was then moved to New Jersey for examination.[89] The method used to recover the submerged airframe from the water rendered it uneconomical to repair and the airliner was written off,[90]. The rear pressure bulkhead was also damaged in the accident, and the salvage contractor, Weeks Marine, cut off the wings and empennage. Another salvage contractor, Source One Airplane Repair, contends that if due care had been taken during the recovery, the aircraft could have been repaired for $20,000,000 (less than a third of the cost of a new aircraft).[91] The passengers on the plane each received a letter of apology, $5000 in compensation for lost baggage and a refund of the ticket price.[92]

US Airways Flight 1549

Feather found in left (#1) engine Shortly after the event, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) spokeswoman Laura Brown said that the plane may have been hit by birds.[93] A National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Go Team (typically comprising specialists in fields relating to the incident), led by Senior Air Safety Investigator Robert Benzon, was dispatched to New York.[94] The preliminary report of the incident, published on January 16, states that the aircraft went down following a bird strike.[95] This conclusion, and the simultaneous loss of thrust in both engines, was confirmed by preliminary analysis of the Cockpit Voice Recorder and the Flight Data Recorder, both of which were recovered by the NTSB when the aircraft was lifted out of the river on January 18.[52] The next day, reports surfaced that the same airplane and same flight had experienced a similar but less severe compressor stall on January 13. During that flight, passengers were told they might have to make an emergency landing.[96][97] However, the affected engine was restarted and the flight continued to Charlotte. The NTSB later reported that this engine surge had been caused by a faulty temperature sensor, which was replaced, and that the engine was

Accident investigation

The fuselage being towed to a salvage facility


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undamaged by the event, which allowed the plane to return to service.[98] On January 21, the NTSB noted that organic debris, including a single feather, as well as evidence of soft-body damage, was found in the right engine.[99][100] The left engine was recovered from the river on January 23 and, like the right engine, was missing a large portion of its housing.[101] On initial examination the NTSB reported that while missing obvious organic matter, it too had evidence of soft body impact, and "had dents on both the spinner and inlet lip of the engine cowling. Five booster inlet guide vanes are fractured and eight outlet guide vanes are missing." Both engines were to be sent to the manufacturer’s Cincinnati, Ohio facility for teardown and examination.[102] On January 31, the plane was moved to a secure storage facility in Kearny, New Jersey, for the remainder of the investigation. The NTSB confirmed that bird remains had been found in both engines. [98][103] The bird debris was later identified as Canada Geese through DNA testing. The typical weight of these birds is well above the limits the engines were designed to withstand on impact.[98] On February 5, the FAA released audio tape recordings and transcripts of its internal and broadcast ATC communications relating to the accident. The entire exchange between Flight 1549 and air traffic control relating to the emergency lasted less than two minutes. The accident A320 had been assembled by the Airbus Division of the European aerospace consortium EADS, at the Airbus headquarters manufacturing facilities in Toulouse, France, therefore, under the provisions of ICAO Annex 13, both the European Aviation Safety Agency (the European counterpart of the FAA) and the Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’Aviation Civile (the French counterpart of the NTSB) became active participants in the accident investigation, with technical assistance provided by Airbus Industrie and GE Aviation/Snecma as manufacturers of the airframe and engines respectively.[104][105] Flight 1549 is the fifth take-off/departure phase accident at LaGuardia, resulting in the write off of an airframe for a commercial air carrier, since the field opened in 1939.[106] Of those, it is the third involving the hull loss of a US Airways/USAir plane.[107][108]

US Airways Flight 1549

The Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators awarded the entire flight crew of Flight 1549 a Master’s Medal on January 22, 2009. The medal is awarded only rarely, for outstanding aviation achievements at the discretion of the Master of the Guild.[12] The citation for the award is: “ The reactions of all members of the ” crew, the split second decision making and the handling of this emergency and evacuation was ’text book’ and an example to us all. To have safely executed this emergency ditching and evacuation, with the loss of no lives, is a heroic and unique aviation achievement. It deserves the immediate recognition that has today been given by the Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators.

The Mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg, presented the Keys to the City to the crew of Flight 1549. He also gave the pilot a replacement copy of a library book lost on the flight, Just Culture: Balancing Safety and Accountability, by Sidney Dekker.[109] The civilian and uniformed rescuers received Certificates of Honor.[110] In addition, the crew of Flight 1549 were given a standing ovation prior to the start of Super Bowl XLIII on February 1, 2009.[111]

"Real time" video and first person accounts
Unless they happen at a major airport, most commercial airline accidents generally occur without any "real time" video and/or photographic record of the event. However the unusual circumstances of Flight 1549’s river ditching in a heavily populated metropolitan area during daylight hours was an exception as video of the accident was captured and recorded by multiple nearby closed circuit television surveillance camera systems. That along with the survival of all 155 passengers and crew virtually uninjured made possible the relatively rapid production and broadcast of multiple television reports and documentaries containing both extensive real time video of the actual ditching and rescue, and extensive first person accounts by the aircrew, passengers, rescuers, and other key


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participants. Included among those broadcast accounts were: • On February 8, 2009, the CBS program 60 Minutes broadcast three segments that included interviews with the aircrew as well as their reunion with the flight’s passengers. • Flight 1549: A Routine Takeoff Turns Ugly • Flight 1549: Saving 155 Souls In Minutes • Flight 1549: An Emotional Reunion • On February 19, 2009, Channel 4 (UK) aired a documentary entitled The Miracle of the Hudson Plane Crash which included first person and eyewitness accounts of the accident from passengers, rescuers, and witnesses.[60] • On February 21, 2009, ABC7 News (KGOTV, San Francisco, CA) broadcast an interview in the "Face to Face" series. Dan Ashley talked to Captain and Mrs Sullenberger about their experiences during and since the accident. • Face to Face: Dan Ashley and the Sullenbergers • On March 4, 2009, the Discovery Channel broadcast a film entitled Hudson Plane Crash - What Really Happened for the first time. A one-hour TV documentary examining the circumstances surrounding the accident and rescue, the film featured computer generated animations and new interviews with passengers, crew, witnesses, rescuers, and experts in the field aviation safety.[112]

US Airways Flight 1549 passenger-jet-plunges-into-hudsonriver-20090116-7ie3.html?page=-1. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [3] ^ "Live Flight Track Log (AWE1549) 15-Jan-2009 KLGA-KLGA". Flightaware. January 15, 2009. live/flight/AWE1549/history/20090115/ 2026Z/KLGA/KLGA/tracklog. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [4] US Airways (January 15, 2009). US Airways Flight 1549 Initial Report. Press release. phoenix.zhtml?c=196799&p=irolnewsArticle&ID=1245239. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [5] US Airways (January 15, 2009). US Airways Flight 1549 Update # 2. Press release. phoenix.zhtml?c=196799&p=irolnewsArticle&ID=1245262. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [6] "Intrepid Sea-Air_Space Museum Security Camera 7 View of US Airways Flight 1549 Ditching". CBS News. January 15, 2009. watch?v=R_WisWt-mjM. Retrieved on February 22, 2009. [7] Wald, Matthew L. (January 16, 2009). "Plane Crew Is Credited for Nimble Reaction". New York Times: p. A25. nyregion/16pilot.html?_r=1. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [8] ^ Wald, Matthew L.; Baker, Al (January 18, 2009). "1549 to Tower: "We’re Gonna End Up in the Hudson"". New York Times: p. A29. 2009/01/18/nyregion/18plane.html?_r=1. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [9] Gittens, Hasani; Hogarty, David (January 15, 2009). "Plane Crashes Into Hudson: Hero Pilot Saves Everyone". Chicago, Illinois: WMAQ-TV (MSNBC). 28679133/. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. [10] Brooks, Mike; Meserve, Jeanne; Ahlers, Mike (January 15, 2009). "Airplane crash-lands into Hudson River; all aboard reported safe". CNN. new.york.plane.crash/index.html. Retrieved on February 11, 2009.

See also
• Air safety • List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft • Emergency water landings

[1] ^ US Airways (January 15, 2009). US Airways Flight 1549 Update # 3. Press release. news/pressRelease.aspx?Id=15. Retrieved on January 15, 2009. [2] Munro, Ian (January 16, 2009). "Passenger jet plunges into Hudson River". The Age (Melbourne).


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US Airways Flight 1549

[11] Maskaly, Michelle (January 16, 2009). [20] "Family of copilot from Hudson River "Pilot in Hudson River Crash Flew Air plane crash speaks". Charleston, South Force Fighter Jets". Fox News. Carolina: WCBD-TV. January 16, 2009. 0,2933,480108,00.html. Retrieved on national/article/ February 11, 2009. family_of_copilot_from_hudson_river_plane_crash_spe [12] ^ "US Airways Flight 1549 Crew receive 19356/. Retrieved on February 11, 2009. prestigious Guild of Air Pilots and Air [21] Forster, Stacy (January 16, 2009). "CoNavigators Award" (PDF). London: Guild pilot braved frigid waters to retrieve of Air Pilots and Air Navigators. January vests for passengers". Milwaukee Journal 22, 2009. Sentinel. Masters%20Medal%20%20Press%20Release.pdf. wisconsin/37719984.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on February 12, 2009. February 11, 2009. [13] ^ "US Airways #1549". FlightAware. [22] "Sully’s Tale". Air & Space magazine. January 15, 2009. today/Sullys-Tale.html. Retrieved on 23 2004Z/KLGA/KCLT. Retrieved on January February 2009. 15, 2009. [23] "Winston-Salem Woman Was On Flight [14] US Airways (January 16, 2009). US 1549". WXII-TV. January 16, 2009. Airways flight 1549: Airline releases crew information. Press release. detail.html. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. en-US/information/home.html. Retrieved [24] Carey, Susan (January 16, 2009). on January 17, 2009. "Successful Outcome of US Airways [15] Sarkar, Pia; Liddy, Tom; Olshan, Jeremy Crash Gives Shares a Lift". Wall Street (January 16, 2009). "Wife: Sully’s a Journal. ’pilot’s pilot’". New York Post. SB123213815924591341.html?mod=googlenews_ws Retrieved on January 16, 2009. news/regionalnews/ [25] "Flight Schedules". US Airways. superhero_pilot_man_of_the_hour_150453.htm?page=0. Retrieved on February 11, 2009. flightinformation/default.aspx. Retrieved [16] Goldman, Russell (January 15, 2009). on February 12, 2009. "US Airways Hero Pilot Searched Plane [26] ^ "Factbox-Downed US Airways plane Twice Before Leaving". ABC News. had 16,000 take-offs". Thomson Reuters. January 18, 2009. story?id=6658493&page=1. Retrieved article/governmentFilingsNews/ on February 11, 2009. idUKN1630443720090116. Retrieved on [17] ^ Mangan, Dan (January 16, 2009). February 12, 2009. "Hero Pilots Disabled Plane to Safety". [27] "US Airways - Details and Fleet History". New York Post. seven/01152009/news/regionalnews/ Retrieved on February 12, Airways. Retrieved on February 11, 2009. 2009. [18] "Sullenberger bio". [28] "N-Number Inquiry Results". Federal Aviation Administration. url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=10& PThCA&usg=AFQjCNGX0WcYjUbiSQ7WlNNumSQL.asp?NNumbertxt=106US&cmndfind.x=0 JagoVX6XiPJw&sig2=8aoJCDCPuZ2i4UUIOJmdzw. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. Retrieved on January 15, 2009. [29] Phillips, Zack (January 16, 2009). "AIG [19] Westfeldt, Amy; Long, Colleen; James, leads US Airways crash coverage". Susan (January 15, 2009). "Hudson River Business Insurance (Crain Hero Is Ex-Air Force Fighter Pilot". Communications Inc.). Time. Associated Press. bin/ 0,8599,1872193,00.html. Retrieved on February 11, 2009. Retrieved on February 12, 2009.


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[30] "CFR 121.380.2 Maintenance recording requirements". Federal Aviation Administration. February 3, 2006. Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/ rgFar.nsf/FARSBySectLookup/121.380. Retrieved on January 28, 2009. [31] ^ Pasztor, Andy; Carey, Susan (January 20, 2009). "Backup System Helped Pilot Control Jet". Wall Street Journal. SB123241485664396363.html. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. [32] Ostrower, Jon (January 17, 2009). "The Airbus Ditching Button". Flight International (Reed Business Information). flightblogger/2009/01/the-airbusditching-button.html. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. [33] ^ Neumeister, Larry; Caruso, David B.; Goldman, Adam; Long, Colleen (January 17, 2009). "Crews hoist ditched plane from Hudson River". The Detroit News. Associated Press. article?AID=/20090117/NATION/ 901170440/&imw=Y. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. "It all happened so fast, the crew never threw the aircraft’s "ditch switch," which seals off vents and holes in the fuselage to make it more seaworthy." [34] ^ "Hudson jet’s wreckage moved to New Jersey". Associated Press. MSNBC. January 18, 2009. 28688215. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. [35] ^ "Timeline of flight that landed in Hudson River". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. January 17, 2009. article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/01/17/national/ a142210S15.DTL&type=politics. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. [36] "ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A320-214 N106US Hudson River, NY". Aviation Safety Network. February 11, 2009. record.php?id=20090115-0. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. [37] "Notices to Airmen: Part 1, Sec 3. FDC General FDC Notams". Federal Aviation Administration.

US Airways Flight 1549
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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St. Paul, Minnesota: Star Tribune. Safety Foundation). http://aviation 38023949.html. Retrieved on January 23, record.php?id=19920322-1. Retrieved on 2009. January 27, 2009. [100] ational Transportation Safety Board N [109]Mayor Bloomberg Presents Captain and " (January 21, 2009). NTSB Issues update Crew of US Airways Flight 1549 With on investigation into ditching of US Keys to the City". City of New York. Airways jetliner into Hudson River. Press release. pr064-09.html. Retrieved on 9 February 2009/090121.html. Retrieved on January 2009. 21, 2009. [110]Mayor Bloomberg and US Airways Chief " [101]Crews Remove Engine From Hudson " Executive Officer Doug Parker Honor River". Associated Press. New York Post. Civilian and Uniformed Rescuers from January 23, 2009. Flight 1549". City of New York. news/regionalnews/ pr023-09.html. Retrieved on 28 January crews_remove_engine_from_hudson_river_151556.htm. 2009. Retrieved on January 23, 2009. [111]Hero pilot: Splash landing in Hudson " [102]Second Update on investigation of " ’surreal’". Associated Press. February 3, ditching of US Airways Jetliner into 2009. Hudson River". January 24, 2009. hostednews/ap/article/ ALeqM5h7pYcNngvuSNrWnBpIicznPetcbwD964E1V 090124.html. Retrieved on February 4, 2009. [103]NTSB Confirms Birds In Engines Of " [112]Hudson Plane Crash - What Really " Flight 1549". February 4, 2009. Happened". Discovery Channel. 02/ntsb_confirms_birds_in_engines.html. special.html?paid=1.14594.26019.0.0. Retrieved on February 5, 2009. Retrieved on March 5, 2009. [104]Information on the accident that " occurred in New York on 15 January 2009". Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyse. • National Transportation Safety Board January 16, 2009. Preliminary Report anglaise/actualite/info20090116.html. • Latest statement regarding flight 1549 – [105]Statement of EADS (Airbus) Re: US " US Airways Airways Flight US 1549 Accident in New • US Airways 1549 flight path in Google York (La Guardia)". EADS (Airbus). Earth at January 16, 2009. • Twitter picture of Flight 1549 by Janis 1024/en/pressdb/pressdb/ Krums widely 20090116_airbus_US_Airways_Flight_Number_US_1549.html.circulated immediately following the crash [106]Aircraft involved in accidents that " • FAA recordings of air traffic departed LaGuardia Airport (LGA)". communications during the time of the Aviation Safety Network (Flight Safety incident Foundation). • Flight Reconstruction You Tube database/airport/ • Pilot: ’We’re Going to Be in the Hudson’ airport.php?id=LGA#dep. Retrieved on You Tube January 27, 2009. • "Analysis of Training for Emergency Water [107]USAir Flight 5050 take-off accident at " Landings Questions Assumptions, LaGuardia Airport (LGA), Sept. 20, Inconsistencies" (PDF). Cabin Crew Safety 1989". Aviation Safety Network (Flight (The Flight Safety Foundation) 33 (6). Safety Foundation). http://aviationNovember/December 1998. record.php?id=19890920-0. Retrieved on ccs_nov_dec98.pdf. Retrieved on January 27, 2009. 2009-02-10. [108]USAir Flight 405 take-off accident at " • "Stress, Behavior, Training and Safety (in LaGuardia Airport (LGA), Mar. 22, Emergency Evacuation)" (PDF). Cabin 1992". Aviation Safety Network (Flight

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Crew Safety (The Flight Safety Foundation) 25 (3). May/June 1990.

US Airways Flight 1549 Retrieved on 2009-02-10.

Retrieved from "" Categories: 2009 in the United States, Accidents and incidents on commercial airliners caused by bird strikes, Accidents and incidents on commercial airliners in the United States, Transportation accidents in New York City, Accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A320, Aviation accidents and incidents in 2009, Aviation accidents in major metropolitan areas, Aviation in New York City, Commercial airline water landings, Hudson River, In-flight airliner loss of all engines, US Airways flights This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 20:29 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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