Super_Outbreak by zzzmarcus

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Super Outbreak

Super Outbreak
Super Outbreak (1974)

square kilometers) along a total combined path length of 2,600 miles (4,160 km).[1]

Meteorological synopsis

Surface map at around 6:00 pm CST on April 3, 1974
Paths of the 148 tornadoes generated during the Super Outbreak.

Date of tornado outbreak: Duration1: Maximum rated tornado2: Tornadoes caused: Damages: Fatalities: Areas affected:

April 3-4, 1974 ~18 hours F5 tornado 148 confirmed (Most ever in a
single-day outbreak)

$3.5 billion (2005 dollars) 315–330 Most of central and eastern North America

1Time from first tornado to last tornado 2Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita Scale

The Super Outbreak is the largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period. From April 3 to April 4, 1974, there were 148 tornadoes confirmed in 13 US states, including Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and New York; and the Canadian province of Ontario. It extensively damaged approximately 900 square miles (1,440

A powerful spring-time low pressure system developed across the North American Interior Plains on April 1. While moving into the Mississippi and Ohio Valley areas, a surge of very moist air intensified the storm further while there were sharp temperature contrasts between both sides of the system. NOAA officials were expecting a severe weather outbreak on April 3, but not of the extent which ultimately occurred. Several F2 and F3 tornadoes had struck portions of the Ohio Valley and the South in a separate, earlier outbreak on April 1 and 2, and this earlier storm system included three killer tornadoes in Kentucky, Alabama, and Tennessee. The town of Campbellsburg, northeast of Louisville, was hard-hit in this earlier outbreak, with a large portion of the town destroyed by an F3.[2] Between the two outbreaks, an additional tornado was reported in Indiana in the early morning hours of April 3, several hours before the official start of the outbreak. On April 3, severe weather watches already were issued from the morning from south of the Great Lakes, while in portions of the Upper Midwest, snow was reported, with heavy rain falling across central Michigan and much of Ontario. St. Louis, Missouri was

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pounded by a very severe thunderstorm early in the afternoon which, while it did not produce a tornado, did include damaging baseball-sized hailstones. By the early afternoon, numerous supercells and clusters of thunderstorms developed and the outbreak began quickly, with storms developing in central Illinois and a secondary zone developing near the Appalachians across eastern Tennessee, central Alabama, and northern Georgia. The worst of the outbreak shifted towards the Ohio Valley between 4:30 pm and 6:30 pm EDT where it produced four of the six F5s over a span of just two hours when three powerful supercells traveled across the area--one in central and southern Ohio, a second one across southern Indiana and Ohio, and a third one in northern Kentucky.

Super Outbreak
produced the final tornadoes across the southeast during the morning of April 4. A 2004 survey for Risk Management Solutions, citing an earlier Dr. Ted Fujita study, found that three-quarters of all tornadoes in the Super Outbreak were produced by 30 ’families’ of tornadoes; i.e., multiple tornadoes spawned in succession by a single thunderstorm cell.[1] Note that most of these tornadoes were not associated with squall lines. These were long lived and long track supercells.

Events and aftermath

Super Outbreak storm system at 2100 GMT on April 3, 1974 (courtesy of NOAA) Upper-level winds during the Super Outbreak During the evening hours, activity again began to escalate farther to the south, with several violent tornadoes crossing the northern third of Alabama. Activity also spread to central Tennessee and eastern Kentucky, with numerous tornadoes, most of which were concentrated in the Cumberland Plateau region. Additional supercells developed across northern Indiana and southern Michigan producing additional violent and/or killer tornadoes between 6:00 PM and 10:00 PM EDT including the Windsor, Ontario tornado. Michigan was not hit as hard as neighboring states or Windsor, with only one twister which hit near Coldwater and Hillsdale causing any fatalities, all in mobile homes; however, thunderstorm downpours caused flash floods, and north of the warm front in the Upper Peninsula, heavy snowfall was reported. Activity in the south moved towards the Appalachians during the overnight hours and Never before had so many violent (F5 and F4) tornadoes been observed in a single weather phenomenon. There were six F5 tornadoes and 24 F4 tornadoes. The outbreak began in Morris, Illinois, at around 1 p.m. on April 3, 1974. As the storm system moved east where daytime heating had made the air more unstable, the tornadoes grew more intense. A tornado that struck near Monticello, Indiana was an F4 and had a path length of 121 miles (193.6 km), the longest path length of any tornado for this outbreak. Nineteen people were killed in this tornado.[3] However, the first F5 tornado of the day struck the city of Xenia, Ohio, at 4:40 pm EDT. It killed 34, injured 1,150, completely destroyed about one-fourth of the city, and caused serious damage in another fourth of the city.[4] Five more F5s were observed--one each in Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky, and two in Alabama. Twenty-eight were killed in Brandenburg, Kentucky, and 30 died in Guin, Alabama. One tornado also occurred in

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Super Outbreak

Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed

Total 148

F0 19

F1 33

F2 32

F3 34

F4 24

F5 6

Windsor, Ontario, Canada, killing nine and injuring 30 others there, most of them at the former Windsor Curling Club. During the peak of the outbreak, a staggering fifteen tornadoes were on the ground simultaneously. At one point forecasters in Indiana, frustrated because they could not keep up with all of the simultaneous tornado activity, put the entire state of Indiana under a blanket tornado warning. This was the first and only time in U.S. history that an entire state was under a tornado warning.. There were 18 hours of continuous tornadic activity. The outbreak finally ended in Caldwell County, NC, at about 7:00 am on April 4, 1974. A total of 315 to 330 people were killed in 148 tornadoes and 5,484 were injured. The Super Outbreak occurred at the end of a very strong, nearly record-setting La Nina event. The 1973–74 La Nina was just as strong as the 1998–99 La Nina. Another tornado outbreak, which may be linked to La Nina, was the March 12, 2006 tornado outbreak. Despite the apparent connection between La Nina and two of the largest tornado outbreaks in US history, no definitive linkage exists between La Nina and this outbreak or tornado activity in general. Some tornado myths were soundly debunked (not necessarily for the first time) by tornado activity during the outbreak.[5]

The Xenia, Ohio tornado viewers in Montgomery and Greene County (where Xenia is located) about the possible tornado, broadcasting the radar image of the supercell with a pronounced hook echo on the rear flank of the storm several minutes before it actually struck. Raindrops wrapping around the circulation were the reason for the storm’s visibility on radar[6]. When the storm reached Xenia at 4:40 PM, numerous structures were completely destroyed, including apartment buildings, homes, businesses, churches, and schools including Xenia High School.[7]. Several railroad cars were lifted and blown over as the tornado passed over a moving freight train in the center of town. The hardest hit area, and the first area struck, were the Arrowhead and Windsor Park subdivisions near U.S. Route 68, where many houses were completely swept away. It toppled gravestones in Cherry Grove Cemetery, then moved through the length of the downtown business district, passing west of the courthouse, and into the Pinecrest Garden district, which was extensively affected. This still photo shows the base of the tornado as it passed Greene Memorial Hospital, destroying homes in Pinecrest Gardens northeast of downtown. One resident recorded the sound of the tornado from inside an apartment complex. Before the tornado hit the building, the resident left the tape recorder on, so it continued

List of tornadoes Xenia, Ohio
The Xenia Tornado was the third tornado to produce F5 damage in little over an hour, and stands as the deadliest individual tornado of the Super Outbreak. The tornado formed near Bellbrook, Ohio, southwest of Xenia, at about 4:30 pm EDT. It began as a moderate-sized tornado, then intensified while moving northeast at about 50 mph (80 km/h). A passing motorist filmed the tornado at its early stages and noticed that at one point two tornadoes formed and merged into one larger tornado. Gil Whitney, the weather specialist for WHIO-TV in Dayton, alerted

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the recording. The recorder was found after the storm, and the recording was made public.[8]. A few pictures were taken of the tornado (possibly frames of a film) as it entered Xenia, and at least one photo was taken of the twister inside of Xenia. Xenia resident Bruce Boyd was able to capture 1 minute and 42 seconds of footage of the tornado with a "Super-8" 8mm movie camera. This film clearly shows multiple vortices within the larger circulation as the storm swept into Xenia. Upon exiting Xenia, the tornado passed through Wilberforce, heavily damaging several campus and residential buildings of Wilberforce University.[9] Central State University also sustained considerable damage. Afterwards, the tornado weakened before dissipating in Clark County near South Vienna, traveling a little over 30 miles (48 km). Its maximum width was a half mile (0.8 km) in Xenia. The same parent storm later spawned a weaker tornado northeast of Columbus in Franklin County.

Super Outbreak
The Xenia tornado was rated an F5. It was one of two F5s that affected Ohio during the outbreak, the other striking the Cincinnati area (see Cincinnati/Sayler Park area tornado, below). Xenia was again struck by an F4 tornado in September 2000, which killed one and injured about 100 in an area just north of the 1974 path.[11] Before the 1974 storm, the city had no tornado sirens. However, after the F5 hit, ten sirens were installed across the area. At the time of the 2000 storm, there was no battery backup in the sirens, and the system was mostly silent due to a simple power outage. Compounding the problem was the fact that the National Weather Service never issued a tornado watch or warning. By the time the 2000 tornado was spotted visually, and an attempt was made to activate Xenia’s sirens manually, four of the city’s five sirens already had been destroyed by the tornado. Since this particular event coincided with failures of the meteorological and warning time advances since 1974, it is remarkable that casualties were not more severe.[12] A memorial was installed near Xenia City Hall to commemorate the tornado victims.

Brandenburg, Kentucky tornado
+Outbreak death toll Some of the structural damage to a building in Xenia, Ohio 32 people were killed in the disaster, and about 1,150 were injured in Xenia alone. In addition, two Ohio Air National Guardsmen deployed for disaster assistance died when a fire swept through their temporary barracks in a furniture store on April 17. About 1,400 buildings (roughly half of the town) were heavily damaged or destroyed. Damage was estimated at US$100 million. President Nixon visited Xenia personally, and declared the area a Federal disaster area. It took several months for the city to recover from the tornado, with the help of the Red Cross and the Ohio National Guard assisting the recovery efforts.[10] Most of the town was quickly rebuilt afterward. State/ Province Alabama Total County 77 Cullman Fayette Lawrence Limestone Madison Marion Winston Georgia 16 Dawson Gordon Haralson Murray Pickens Whitfield Illinois 2 Macon County total 1 2 14 16 16 23 5 5 6 1 1 1 2 1

Champaign 1

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Indiana 47 Clark Decatur Franklin Fulton Hancock Harrison Jackson Jefferson Kosciusko Noble Perry Randolph Scott Steuben White Kentucky 71 Boyle Clinton Franklin Hardin Jefferson Madison Meade Nelson Pulaski Rockcastle Simpson Warren Wayne Michigan North Carolina Ohio 2 6 42 Hillsdale Cherokee Graham Adams Greene Hamilton Ontario 9 Essex 1 2 2 6 1 2 1 10 1 4 2 1 1 2 10 1 8 4 2 3 7 31 1 6 1 1 2 4 2 4 2 1 36 5 9 Virginia West Virginia Totals 1 1 319 Tennessee 45

Super Outbreak
Bradley Cannon Fentress Franklin Knox Lincoln McMinn Overton Pickett Polk Putnam Warren Fayette 3 1 7 5 2 6 1 3 5 1 10 1 1

Washington 1

Washington 1

All deaths were tornado-related

The Brandenburg tornado, also producing F5 damage, touched down in Breckinridge County at 4:25 pm CDT and followed a 34-mile (54 km) path. First producing F3 damage at the north edge of Hardinsburg , the storm intensified as it moved into Meade County, producing F5 damage as it swept through Brandenburg, along the Ohio River before dissipating in Indiana. 31 were killed in the storm including 18 at a single block of Green Street in Brandenburg.[13] The vast majority of homes and businesses including the High School, the Baptist Church, the old bank building and the Meade Hotel were either damaged or destroyed. The radio station WMMG (AM) was also destroyed. Sadly, the citizens of Brandenburg had received very little warning, which may account in part for the tragically high death toll; it has been reported that the only warning received by listeners to WMMG was when the disc jockey on duty looked out the window, saw the twister coming, and shouted at his listeners to take cover, shortly before the twister destroyed the radio station. Several tombstones in the Cap Anderson cemetery were toppled, broken and even some were displaced a small distance. Most of the trees vanished as well. A complete description of homes and other structures destroyed in order by the tornado in Brandenburg can be found here.[14] When the twister struck on April 3, 1974, many of the Brandenburg residents at that time had also experienced a major flood of

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the Ohio River that affected the area in 1937 as well as numerous other communities along the river, including Louisville and Paducah. The same storm would later produce tornadoes in the Louisville metro area.

Super Outbreak
at Standiford Field when the tornado first descended. The station remained on the air delivering weather bulletins and storm-related information until well into the early morning hours of April 4. As electrical power had been knocked out to a substantial portion of the city, the radio station became a clearinghouse for vital information and contact with emergency workers, not only in Louisville but across the state of Kentucky due to its 50,000-watt clear-channel signal and the fact that storms had knocked numerous broadcasting stations in smaller communities, such as Frankfort, off the air. ThenGovernor Wendell Ford commended the station’s personnel for their service to the community in the time of crisis, and Dick Gilbert later received a special commendation from then-President Richard Nixon for his tracking of the tornado from his helicopter.

Louisville tornado
About an hour after the Brandendurg tornado, an F4 tornado formed in the southwest part of Jefferson County near Kosmosdale. Another funnel cloud formed over Standiford Field Airport, touched down at The Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, and destroyed the majority of the horse barns at the center and part of Freedom Hall (a multipurpose arena) before it crossed Interstate 65, scattering several vehicles on that busy expressway. The tornado continued its 22-mile (35 km) journey northeast where it demolished most of Audubon Elementary School and affected the neighborhoods of Audubon, Cherokee Triangle, Cherokee-Seneca, Crescent Hill, Indian Hills, Northfield, Rolling Hills, and Tyler Park. The tornado ended near the junction of Interstates 264 and 71 after killing two people, injuring 207 people, destroying over 900 homes, and damaging thousands of others. Cherokee Park, a historic 409-acre (1.66 km2) municipal park located at Eastern Parkway and Cherokee Road, had thousands of mature trees destroyed. A massive re-planting effort was undertaken by the community in the aftermath of the tornado. In addition to the two fatalities directly associated with the event, two other deaths were indirectly associated; a heart attack in the immediate aftermath and a construction worker who fell while repairing Freedom Hall two weeks later. Dick Gilbert, a helicopter traffic reporter for radio station WHAS-AM, followed the tornado through portions of its track including when it heavily damaged the Louisville Water Company’s Crescent Hill pumping station, and gave vivid descriptions of the damage as seen from the air. A WHAS-TV cameraman also filmed the tornado when it passed just east of the Central Business District of Louisville. WHAS-AM broke away from its regular programming shortly before the tornado struck Louisville and was on-air live with John Burke, the chief meteorologist at the National Weather Service’s Louisville office

DePauw and Madison, Indiana tornadoes
Of the F5 tornadoes produced by the outbreak, the DePauw tornado was the first to form, touching down at 3:20 pm local time. It is probably the least-known of the F5 tornadoes in the outbreak as it travelled through rural areas in southern Indiana northwest of Louisville, traversing about 65 miles (104 km) through parts of Perry and Harrison Counties. F5 damage was observed near the community of Depauw, while areas near Palmyra, Martinsburg and Borden were also heavily affected by the tornado. All but 10 homes in Martinsburg were destroyed; in the Daisy Hill community homes were completely swept away. Published photographs of this storm reveal a very wide debris cloud and wall cloud structure, with no visible condensation funnel at times.[4]. Overall, six were killed by the storm and over 75 were injured. It was the only F5 that had a path width in excess of 1 mile (1.6 km). Soon after the Depauw tornado lifted, the Hanover/Madison F4 twister formed and travelled through Jefferson County and levelled many structures in the small towns of Hanover and Madison. Eleven were killed in this storm while an additional 300 were injured. According to a WHAS-TV Louisville reporter in a special report about the outbreak, 90% of Hanover was destroyed or severely damaged, including the Hanover College

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campus. Despite the fact that no one was killed or seriously injured at the college, 32 of the College’s 33 buildings were damaged, including two that were completely destroyed and six that sustained major structural damage. Hundreds of trees were down, completely blocking every campus road. All utilities were knocked out and communication with those off campus was nearly impossible. Damage to the campus alone was estimated at about US$10 million. The same storm would later strike the Cincinnati area, producing multiple tornadoes including another F5.

Super Outbreak
of the city where F5 damage occurred. Homes were swept away in a hilly area near a lake, and boats were thrown and destroyed. Other areas near Cincinnati also suffered extensive damage to structures. This tornado was witnessed on television by thousands of people, as WCPO aired the tornado live during special news coverage of the tornadoes. Other areas affected were Bridgetown, Mack, Dent and Delhi. Damage in Delhi was rated as high as F4.[15] The second so-called F5 "Tri-State" tornado killed 3 and injured over 100 in Hamilton County, Ohio. It was considered the most-photographed tornado of the outbreak. This tornado dissipated west of White Oak but the same thunderstorm activity was responsible for two other tornado touchdowns in the Montgomery and Mason areas. The Mason tornado, which started in the northern Cincinnati subdivisions of Arlington Heights and Elmwood Place, was rated F4 and killed two, while the Warren County tornado was rated an F2 and injured 10. The storm that spawned this family of tornadoes weakened before moving through portions of the Miami Valley and the rest of southern Ohio.

Cincinnati/Sayler Park area tornado
The tornado was only one of two F5 tornadoes in recorded history to have traveled through three states, the other being the TriState Tornado that pummeled Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925. The Cincinnati/Sayler Park tornado traveled through portions of Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio.

Monticello, Indiana tornado

The Cincinnati Area F5 tornado taken near Bridgeport The Sayler Park tornado was among a series of tornadoes that earlier struck portions of southern Indiana from north of Brandenburg, Kentucky, to the Ohio border. It began shortly before 4:30 pm CDT or 5:30 pm EDT in southeastern Indiana in Ohio County north of Rising Sun near the Ohio River. It then traveled towards Boone County, Kentucky, before reaching its maximum strength in the western suburbs of the Cincinnati Metropolitan area. Most severely affected was Sayler Park at the western edge

A close-up of the tornado tracks that occurred in Northern Indiana (Courtesy of NWS Northern Indiana (South Bend, Indiana) This half-mile (0.8 km) wide F4 tornado developed (as part of a tornado family that moved from Illinois to Michigan for 260 miles) during the late afternoon hours. This tornado produced the longest damage path recorded during the Super Outbreak, on a

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SW to NE path that nearly crossed the entire state of Indiana. According to most records, this tornado formed near Otterbein in Benton County in west central Indiana to Noble County just northwest of Fort Wayne - a total distance of about 121 miles (194 km). Further analysis by Ted Fujita indicated that at the start of the tornado path near Otterbein, downburst winds (also called "twisting downburst") disrupted the tornado’s inflow which caused it to briefly dissipate while a new tornado formed near Brookston in White County at around 4:50 pm EDT and then traveled for 109 miles (174 km). [16] It also struck portions of six other counties with the hardest hit being White County and its town of Monticello. Much of the town was destroyed including the courthouse, some churches and cemeteries, 40 businesses and numerous homes as well as three schools. It also heavily damaged the Penn Central bridge over the Tippecanoe River. Overall damage according to the NOAA was estimated at about US$250 million with US$100 million damage in Monticello alone. Other communities such as Rochester and Ligonier were hard hit. Nineteen were killed during the storm including five from Fort Wayne when their mini-bus fell 50 feet (15 m) into the Tippecanoe River near Monticello. One passenger did survive the fall.[17] Five others were killed in White County, six in Fulton County and one in Kosciusko County.[18] The National Guard had assisted the residents in the relief and cleanup efforts and then-Governor Otis Bowen visited the area days after the storm. One of the only consolations from the tornado was that a century-old bronze bell that belonged to the White County Courthouse and served as timekeeper was found intact despite being thrown a great distance.[19] The tornado itself had contradicted a longtime myth that a tornado would "not follow terrain into steep valleys" as while hitting Monticello, it descended a 60-foot (18 m) hill near the Tippecanoe River and damaged several homes afterwards.[5]

Super Outbreak
much further south just east of the Mississippi River into the Tennessee Valley and Mississippi. The first clusters would produced it first deadly tornadoes into Alabama during the early evening hours. Most of the small town of Tanner - west of Huntsville in Limestone County was destroyed when two violent tornadoes struck the community 30 minutes apart. The first tornado formed at 6:30 pm CDT in Franklin County, Alabama and ended just over 90 minutes later in Franklin County, Tennessee. Serious damage from this first storm began in the Mt. Moriah community, with homes swept away near Moulton. Crossing the Tennessee River as a large waterspout, the storm then slammed into Tanner before dissipating near Harvest. Eyewitnesses reported that the tornado was quite large and demolished everything along its 51-mile long path. While rescue efforts were underway to look for people under the destroyed structures, few were aware that another equally violent tornado would strike the area. The path of the second tornado, which formed at 7:35 pm CDT was 50 miles in length, and the storm formed along the Tennessee River less than a mile from the path of the earlier storm; the first half of its’ path very closely paralleled its predecessor. Many of the structures that were missed by the first tornado in Tanner were demolished along with remaining portions of already damaged structures; the communities of Capshaw and Harvest were likewise struck twice. Many other structures in Franklin, Limestone and Madison counties were completely demolished, including significant portions of the communities of Harvest and Hazel Green just northeast of Tanner.[20] The death toll from the two tornadoes was over 50 and over 400 were injured. Most of the fatalities occurred in and around the Tanner area. Over 1,000 houses, 200 mobile homes and numerous other outbuildings, automobiles, power lines and trees were completely demolished or heavily damaged. At least the first of the Tanner tornadoes is rated as an F5 according to most sources. However, NWS record shows that both of them were rated the highest-scale.[18][21] The rating of the second Tanner tornado is still disputed by scientists and some of the regional NWS offices; analysis in one publication estimates F3 damage along the majority

Tanner, Alabama tornadoes
As the cluster of thunderstorms were crossing much of the Ohio Valley and northern Indiana, additional strong storms developed

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of the second storm’s path, with F4 damage in and around Tanner[4]([2]) ([3]). This was the second state to have been hit by more than two F5’s during the Super Outbreak. The next occurrence of two F5’s hitting the same state on the same day happened in March 1990 in Kansas. Meanwhile, the next F5 to hit the state was on April 4, 1977 near Birmingham

Super Outbreak
reached the Monte Sano Mountain, which has an altitude of 1,640 feet (492 m).[22][23]

Windsor, Ontario, Canada tornado
In addition to its numerous other records, this outbreak also spawned one of the deadliest tornadoes in Canadian history. Affecting Windsor, Ontario and surrounding areas in southwestern Essex County, the F3 twister killed nine people and injured over 20. All of the fatalities occurred inside a Curling Rink (the former Windsor Curling Club) just south of the downtown area that was heavily damaged. This Tornado is likely the same one that had touched down in Flat Rock, Michigan about 7:50 pm (19:50) Eastern Time. Since the storm arrived after dark, it was all the more dangerous. The storm that brought it in was accompanied by blinding lightning, and torrential rains as it first touched down on southeastern edge of the Devonshire Mall, which was undergoing a large addition. It severely damaged the steel structure for a new department store, but thankfully no one was on the site at the time. The tornado lifted as it crossed the E.C. Row Expressway, then touched down again tearing the roof off the vehicle painting facility at Chrysler Canada’s Windsor Assembly Plant. Once again, the facility was vacant, except for two security guards, due to re-tooling that was taking place. The guards took shelter in a secure room on the ground floor just moments before the tornado struck. The tornado continued across a vacant field, directly behind the Windsor Curling Club. It struck the Club at exactly 8:09 pm, sending the large roof of the structure into the air, sending pieces of it into the surrounding neighbourhood, and causing the back wall to collapse on the people inside. Those inside were unaware of the severe weather that had been bearing down on them, as they had been playing in a Curling Bonspiel, and had no way of knowing about the tornado warnings that had been issued just twenty minutes earlier. Ironically, this Curling Bonspiel was being sponsored by Chrysler Canada, which was also a victim of the tornado itself, when it tore the roof off the nearby paint facility.

Jasper, Guin & Huntsville, Alabama tornadoes
While tornadoes were causing devastation in the northwestern most corner of the state, another supercell crossing the MississippiAlabama state line produced another violent tornado that touched down in Pickens County before heading northeast for nearly 2 hours towards the Jasper area causing major damage to its downtown as the F4 storm struck at about 8:00 pm CDT. Damage was also reported in Cullman County from the storm before it lifted. The storm killed at least 3 and injured over 150 while 500 buildings were destroyed and nearly 400 others severely damaged. At the same time, a third supercell was crossing the state line near the track of the previous two . The Guin tornado was the longest-duration F5 tornado recorded in the outbreak. It formed at around 8:50 pm CDT near the Mississippi-Alabama border and traveled over 100 miles (160 km) to just west of Huntsville and lifted just after 10:30 pm CDT; the formation of this tornado was preceded by a number of reports of large hail and straight-line wind damage around Starkville, MS. The path of the Guin tornado was just a few dozen miles south of where the Tanner tornadoes struck about two hours earlier. The tornado killed 23 in Guin in Marion County and another five in the community of Delmar in Winston County. Close to 300 people in total were injured, and Guin was left in ruins. A large number of homes (over 500) were leveled and the Bankhead National Forest lost a considerable number of trees when the tornado hit. Huntsville was affected shortly later by a strong F3 tornado produced by the same thunderstorm; this tornado produced heavy damage in the south end of the city, destroying nearly 1,000 structures. The tornado then

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One woman who narrowly escaped death happened to be entering the curling club from the east at the exact moment that the tornado struck. The winds caught her as she opened the door, and she screamed for help and hung onto the large door handles for dear life. An unidentified man ran to her help, and grabbed her arms, as she was horizontal, and on the verge of being sucked away. Her shoes were sucked right off her feet and were never found. She was one of the lucky ones that night. Much of the city was briefly flooded with around 15 centimeters (6 inches) of water from the rain the storm brought, and trees in Cherokee Park being defoliated with nearby houses damaged, in a path roughly 300-400 meters wide having the most damage. Most of the Media in the Windsor and Essex County area had been following the weather situation closely in the United States via Radio and TV stations from Detroit, and had issued public alerts and warnings in concert with their American counterparts. Ironically and unfortunately, the Canadian Weather Service (now Environment Canada) did not issue a Tornado Warning until 8:15 pm (20:15), more than 5 minutes after the tornado had struck the Windsor Curling Club. In the aftermath of the tornado, the City of Windsor merged the Windsor Curling Club and Windsor Ladies’ Curling Club with its Roseland Golf Course (now the Roseland Golf and Curling Club) in the south end of Windsor, moving from their location on Central Avenue. near Tecumseh Road. While it was the only tornado reported in Canada from the outbreak, it was the country’s deadliest since 1946, when a tornado killed 17—coincidentally, less than one hundred yards from the path of this tornado.

Super Outbreak

References
[1] ^ Risk Assessment Models. "Analysis and reconstruction of the 1974 Tornado Super Outbreak" (PDF). http://www.rms.com/Publications/ 1974SuperTornadoReport.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. [2] NWS Louisville. "April 1, 1974". http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/ ?n=tornado_climatology_april11974. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. [3] Data from the Storm Prediction Center archives, which are accessible through [1], free software created and maintained by John Hart, lead forecaster for the SPC. [4] ^ Grazulis, Thomas P (July 1993). Significant Tornadoes 1680-1991. St. Johnsbury, VT: The Tornado Project of Environmental Films. ISBN 1-879362-03-1. [5] ^ Slattery, Pat. "TORNADO OUTBREAK OPENED EYES ABOUT MYTHS, SCHOOL SAFETY". NOAA. http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/ storms/myths.html. [6] Simpson, Jamie (March 31, 2004). "Radar Provides Life-Saving Warnings Of Tornadoes". WHIO-TV (Dayton, Ohio). http://www.whiotv.com/severewx/ 2963263/detail.html. [7] "History of the Xenia Community Schools’ Buildings". Xenia Community Schools. http://www.xenia.k12.oh.us/ building_history.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-09. [8] Ramby, Homer. "Xenia, Ohio - Tornado April 3, 1974". http://www.xeniatornado.com/ audio.htm. [9] Ohio History. "April 3, 1974: Xenia Tornado". http://www.ohiohistory.org/ etcetera/exhibits/swio/pages/content/ 1974_tornado.htm. [10] Ohio Memory On-line Scrapbook. "30th Anniversary of the 1974 Xenia Tornado". http://omp.ohiolink.edu/OMP/ YourScrapbook?scrapid=3619. [11] Sharp, Debra (April 2, 1999). "Super tornado outbreak : Xenia, Ohio, serves as twister memorial". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/ tornado/outbreak/wxenia74.htm. [12] Taylor, David (September 22, 2000). "Few warned of twister". The Cincinnati

See also
• List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks • List of North American tornadoes and tornado outbreaks • List of Canadian tornadoes • List of tornadoes striking downtown areas • List of F5 and EF5 tornadoes • National Geographic Seconds From Disaster episodes

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Super Outbreak

Enquirer. http://www.enquirer.com/ editions/2000/09/22/ • Tornado! the 1974 super outbreak, by loc_few_warned_of.html. Jacqueline A. Ball; consultant, Daniel H. [13] Anonymous. "Our Meade County Franck. New York: Bearport Pub., 2005. Heritage : Forward and Dedication". The 32 pages. ISBN 1-59716-009-1 (lib. bdg), Meade County Messenger. 1597160326 (paperback). http://www.april31974.com/ • Tornado at Xenia, April 3, 1974, by our_meade_county_heritage.htm. Barbara Lynn Riedel; photography by [14] Woolfolk, Betty A.. "The Overall View of Peter Wayne Kyryl. Cleveland, OH, 1974. The Tornado Destruction". The Meade 95 pages. No ISBN is available. Library of County Messenger. Congress Control Number: 75314665. http://www.april31974.com/ • Tornado, by Polk Laffoon IV. New York: overall_destruction_brandenburg.htm. Harper & Row, 1975. 244 pages. ISBN [15] Horstmeyer, Steve. "Sayler Park Tornado 0-06-012489-X. - April 3, 1974". • Tornado alley: monster storms of the http://www.shorstmeyer.com/tornadoes/ Great Plains, by Howard B. Bluestein. 1974.html. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. [16] NWS Northern Indiana. "The Monticello 180 pages. ISBN 0-19-510552-4 (acid-free Tornado". NOAA. paper). http://www.crh.noaa.gov/iwx/ • Delivery of mental health services in ?n=superoutbreak. disasters: the Xenia tornado and some [17] Anonymous. "Monticello, Indiana April 3, implications, by Verta A. Taylor, with G. 1974 : Fort Wayne Girl Survives Van’s Alexander Ross and E. L. Quarantelli. Plunge". The Monticello Herald Journal. Columbus, OH: Disaster Research Center, http://www.april31974.com/ Ohio State University, 1976. 328 pages. monticelloin_page2.htm#Business%20District%20Sustained%20Major%20Damage. There is no ISBN available. Library of [18] ^ NOAA. "Storm Events". NOAA. Congress Control Number: 76380740. http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/ • The widespread tornado outbreak of April wwcgi.dll?wwevent~storms. 3-4, 1974: a report to the Administrator. [19] Anonymous. "Monticello, Indiana April 3, Rockville, Md: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1974 : 122-year-old Bell Survives". The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Monticello Herald Journal. Administration, 1974. 42 pages. There is http://www.april31974.com/ no ISBN available. Library of Congress monticelloin_page3.htm#122-yearControl Number: 75601597. old%20Bell%20Survives. • The tornado, by John Edward Weems. [20] NWS Birmingham (March 22, 2006 (last Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977. 180 modified)). "The April 3rd and 4th 1974 pages. ISBN 0-385-07178-7. Tornado Outbreak in Alabama". NOAA. • Butler, William S. (editor) (2004). http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/ Tornado: A look back at Louisville’s dark significant_events/1974/ day, April 3, 1974. A 30th Anniversary april_1974_superoutbreak/index.php. Publication. Butler Books. 176 pages. [21] Storm Prediction Center. "F5 Tornadoes ISBN 1-884532-58-6. of the United States : 1950-present". • Deitz, Robert E., et al. (editor) with an NOAA. http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/ introduction by John Ed Pearce (1974). tornado/f5torns.html. April 3, 1974: Tornado!. The Courier[22] NOAA. "NOAA and the 1974 Tornado Journal and The Louisville Times. 128 Outbreak". NOAA. pages. Library of Congress Catalog http://www.publicaffairs.noaa.gov/ Number 74-80806. storms/alabama.html. Retrieved on • Hartsfield, Ray J. with Robin Garr, Phyllis 2008-02-04. Morrisette, Jay Harris, Dave Knapp, Tom [23] NWS Birmingham. "Alabama Tornado Scott, Terry Cowan, Mary Ann Woosley, Database (1974 tornadoes)". NOAA. Allen Hammer (editorial staff) (1974). http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/tornadoes/ April 3, 1974: The Kentucky Tornadoes. C. 1974.php. Retrieved on 2008-02-05. F. Boone, Publisher. 96 pages.

Further reading

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Mark Levine, American Tornado: Devastation, Survival and the Most Violent Tornado Outbreak of the Twentieth Century (Ebury Press, London, August 2007)

Super Outbreak
• The Super Outbreak: Outbreak of the Century (22nd Conference on Severe Local Storms, American Meteorological Society) • Potential insurance losses from a major tornado outbreak: the 1974 Super Outbreak example (22nd Conference on Severe Local Storms, American Meteorological Society) • A website dedicated to the Super Outbreak • The Weather Channel’s Storm of the Century list - #2 The Super Outbreak • Super Outbreak 30th Anniversary Special (WHAS Louisville) • WHAS April 3, 1974 Live Breaking News Coverage part 1 • WHAS April 3, 1974 Live Breaking News Coverage part 2 • The Super Outbreak of April 3-4, 1974 at the Tornado History Project Includes detailed statistics and maps • 1974 Alabama tornado table including tornadoes from the Super Outbreak Courtesy of NWS Birmingham, Alabama

External links
• "WHAS Radio Covers the April 3, 1974 Tornado Disaster," excellent-quality recorded coverage of the tornado at LKYRadio.com • 1974 Windsor Tornado - CBC Archives • NOAA and the 1974 Tornado Outbreak • Super Tornado Outbreak of April 3-4, 1974 (National Climatic Data Center) • April 3, 1974 Superoutbreak (NWS Indianapolis, IN) • Super Outbreak of April 3rd 1974 (NWS Northern Indiana) • The April 3rd and 4th 1974 Tornado Outbreak in Alabama (NWS Birmingham, AL) • The Super Outbreak: Outbreak of the Century (slide show) (NOAA-NWS-NCEP Storm Prediction Center)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Outbreak" Categories: F5 tornadoes, Tornadoes of 1974, Tornadoes in Canada, Alabama tornadoes, Georgia (U.S. state) tornadoes, Kentucky tornadoes, Illinois tornadoes, Indiana tornadoes, Michigan tornadoes, Mississippi tornadoes, New York tornadoes, North Carolina tornadoes, Ohio tornadoes, Natural disasters in Ontario, Tennessee tornadoes, Virginia tornadoes, West Virginia tornadoes, Essex County, Ontario, History of Louisville, Kentucky, History of Windsor, Ontario, 1974 in Canada, 1974 in the United States This page was last modified on 14 May 2009, at 16:49 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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