Shenyang

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Shenyang

Shenyang
Shenyang ?? Shěnyáng — Sub-provincial city — - Sub-provincial city - Density - Urban - Urban Density Time zone Postal code Area code(s) License plate prefixes GDP (2008) - per capita Website 7,760,000 600.4/km2 (1,555.1/sq mi) 5,090,000 1,456.4/km2 (3,772/sq mi) China Standard Time (UTC+8) 110000 24 ?A CNY 386 billion[1] CNY 54,106[1] www.shenyang.gov.cn (Chinese)

Shenyang (simplified Chinese: ??; pinyin:
Location of Shenyang Prefecture within Liaoning

Shěnyáng), or Mukden ( in Manchu), is a sub-provincial city and capital of Liaoning province in Northeast China. Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China, and the transportation and commercial centre of China’s northeastern region. The city was also known as Shengjing (? ?) or Fengtian (??).

History
Shenyang Shenyang
Location within China

Coordinates: 41°44′N 123°53′E / 41.733°N 123.883°E / 41.733; 123.883 Country Province Countylevel divisions Government - Party Secretary - Mayor Area - Sub-provincial city - Urban Elevation Population (2008) China Liaoning 13

Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Manchu name Manchu: ?? ??

Zeng Wei (??) Li Yingjie (???) 12,924 km2 (4,990 sq mi) 3,495 km2 (1,349.4 sq mi) 55 m (181 ft)

(Mukden)

The city’s name, Shenyang, literally meaning "the city to the north of Shen River", comes from the Hun River on the city’s south side, which used to be called Shen River. Archaeological findings show that human beings resided in present day Shenyang as early as 7,200 years ago. The City of Shenyang was first established by Qin Kai, a general of Yan

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in the Warring States period about 300 B.C. It was named as Hou City (Chinese: ??) at that time. It became known as Shen Prefecture (??) in the Jin Dynasty and Shenyang Path (Chinese: ???) in the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, it became Shenyang Zhongwei (Chinese: ????). In 1625, the Manchu leader Nurhaci moved his capital to Shenyang, or Simiyan hoton as it is called in Manchu. The official name was changed to Shengjing (??) in Chinese, or Mukden in Manchu, in 1634. The name derives from the Manchu word, mukdembi, meaning "to rise", and this is reflected by its Chinese name, which means "rising capital". Shenyang remained the capital of the Qing Dynasty until the relocation of the capital to Beijing in 1644 after the fall of Ming dynasty. However, it retained considerable prestige as the older capital, treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture (Chinese: ???; Pinyin: Fèngtiān fǔ; Manchu: Abkai imiyangga fu or Fungtyian, "obeying heaven") was established in the Shenyang area, and Fengtian was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden. In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang. However, Shenyang continued to be known as Mukden in some English sources (sometimes spelled Moukden) through much of the 20th century. With the building of the South Manchurian Railway, Mukden became a Russian stronghold. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Mukden was the site of the Battle of Mukden from on 19 February 1905 – 10 March 1905. It was the largest battle since the battle of Leipzig in 1813. Following the Japanese victory, the Japanese concession at Mukden was one of the chief bases for Japanese economic expansion into southern Manchuria. It was also the seat of the Chinese viceroy of the three Manchurian provinces. In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was killed when his train was blown up near Mukden at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge. In the early 1900s, Shenyang began expanding out of its old city walls. Shenyang Railway Station on the South Manchurian Railway and the Shenyang North Railway Station (today’s old north station) on the

Shenyang
Jingfeng railway became new commercial centers of Shenyang. Several factories was built by Chang Tso-lin to manufacture ammunition in northern and eastern suburb. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang’s industrial development. The Mukden Incident (18 September 1931), which gave the Japanese the pretext to create the Manchukuo state, took place near Shenyang. During the Manchukuo era (1932-1945) the city was called Fengtian again. During the Japanese occupation, Shenyang was developed into a heavy industry center. Soviet forces occupied Shenyang in early August 1945 on the surrender of Japan. The Soviets were replaced by the Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on US transport planes. During the Chinese Civil War, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold from 1946–1948, although the Chinese communists controlled the surrounding countryside. It was captured by the communists on 30 October 1948 following a series of offensives known as the Liaoshen Campaign. Since 1949, Shenyang became one of the most important heavy industry centers of China.

Xinle Remains

Xinle Civilization The remains of the Xinle culture, a Neolithic period society over 7,200 years old, are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world.

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Shenyang

Old City
Shenyang used to have two city walls.[2] The inner city wall was built in 1625. Most of it was rebuilt on the old city wall of Ming Dynasty, and the city wall gates were increased from four to eight. The outer city wall was built in 1680 to protect the urban area outside the inner city wall, which also had eight gates. The total length of the outer city wall is around 16 km. Nearly all of the city walls were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner city wall have been rebuilt during the 1990s. Around 2.5 km outside Shenyang outer city wall, there were four pagodas and four temples, namely, East Pagoda/Yongguang Temple, South Pagoda/Guangci Temple, West Pagoda/Yanshou Temple, and North Pagoda/ Falun Temple. They were built in 1643. The four Pagodas are identical Buddha-stupa as high as 26m. Only the North Pagoda and Temple is well preserved. As for the East and the South, only the Pagodas are left. The West Pagoda was rebuilt in 1998. Both Temple of Heaven and Temple of Earth also were to be found in the old city during the Qing Dynasty, smaller replicas of Beijing’s counterparts. Neither exists today.

Satillite immage of Shenyang J F M A M J J A S O N D

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16 24 69 84 183 170 64 36 28 15 28 19 23 17 7 13 6 -2 0 -9

-4 -1 7 16 22 26 28 -13 -11 -3 4 10 16 19 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion J F M A M J J

A

S

O

N

D

Geography and climate
Western Shenyang is located on the alluvial plain of Liao River, while eastern Shenyang is part of Changbai Mountains, covered with forests. The highest point in Shenyang is 414m and the lowest point only 7m. The main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, a major tributary of the Liao River. The average elevation of the urban area is 29m. North canal and South canal flow to the north and south of the urban area respectively, which follows the historic course of Hun River. Shenyang’s climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa) characterized by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons in Shenyang are distinctive. The annual average temperature is 8.3°C with the lowest at -28.5°C and highest at 36.1°C. The rainfall is concentrated in July and August. The annual precipitation is 705.5 mm. Climate chart for Shenyang

0.3 0.3 0.6 0.9 2.7 3.3 7.2 6.7 2.5 1.4 1.1 0.6 25 30 45 61 72 79 82 82 73 63 45 32 9 12 27 39 50 61 66 66 55 43 28 16 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches

Districts and zones

Map of Shenyang showing major districts and landmarks, as well as major roads

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The sub-provincial city of Harbin has direct jurisdiction over 10 districts (? qu), 1 countylevel cities (? shi) and 3 Counties (? xian):

Shenyang
Subdivision Shenyang City Proper

■ Dadongqu

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

■ Hepingqu

■ Huanggu- ?
qu

■ Shenhequ

■ Tiexi-qu ■ Hunnan
xin-qu

Shenyang Suburban and Rural

■ Yuhongqu

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

■ Sujiatunqu

■ Dongling- ?
qu

■ Shenbei
xin-qu

■ Xinminshi

■ Dongling- ?
xian

■
Kangpingxian

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Shenyang
? ? ?

■
Liaozhongxian

Heping District (???/??? Hépíng Qū)

Brightly lit buildings along Qingnian Street in the southern portion of Shenhe District site of the Mukden Palace. It is also the site of Zhang Zuolin’s former home and headquarters, Shengjing Ancient Cultural Street, and Gloria Plaza, a high-end hotel. In the western Shenhe locates Muslim town. South Pagoda is located in southern Shenhe. The major thoroughfare of Qingnian Street separates the southern portion of Shenhe District from the southern portion of Heping District.

Dadong District (???/??? Dàdōng Qū)
Dadong District is an industrial district. It has an area of 51 km² and a population of 0.64 million. It is the largest district of the urban Shenyang city area. It is also the home of the 9.18 Museum and the North and East Pagoda.

Zhongshan Square Heping District is located in the center of Shenyang. It has an area of 21 km² and a population of 0.64 million. The downtown Heping district has all manner of businesses that are brightly lit by neon at night. At the center of the district, is the famous Zhongshan Square (Zhongshan Guangchang, ????), featuring one of China’s largest statues of Chairman Mao. To this day, flowers are still placed around a large statue of Chairman Mao during the holidays. The district was built in the area in front of Shenyang Railway station, the hub of former South Manchurian Railway. The boulevards are lined of very large trees of Ginkgos, which become golden in color and produce fruits. Koreatown is located in the northern Heping District, as well as the West Pagoda.

Huanggu District (???/??? Huánggū Qū)
Huanggu district has an area of 37 km² and a population of 0.75 million. It is the site of the large, historical tomb of Huang Taiji (of the Qing Dynasty), called Beiling park (Chinese: ????). Huanggu district also hosts the Liaoning Mansion Hotel. It is also the place of the government of Liaoning provience Huanggu’s name comes from Huanggutun ("tun" means village), where the Huanggutun Incident took place.

Tiexi District (????/???? Tiěxī Xīn Qū)
Tiexi district is famous for its industry. This mixed-use district also contains large blocks of residential complexes, as well as strips of small to medium-sized shopping. It has an area of 39 km² and a population of 0.81 million.

Shenhe District (???/??? Shěnhé Qū)
Most of Shenhe District is within the old city wall. It has an area of 18 km² and a population of 0.61 million. Shenhe District is the

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Shenyang
fine neighborhoods and sleek commercial development quickly coming into shape.

Economy
Shenyang is an important industrial center in China. It has been focused on heavy industry, particularly aerospace, machine tools, heavy equipment, and defence, and recently, on software, automotive, and electronics. During the first five-year plan (1951-1956), many factories were built in Tiexi district. At its peak (1970s), Shenyang is one of the top three industrial centers in China (the other two are Shanghai and Tianjin). However, after the 1980s, the heavy industry has declined gradually and Shenyang has become a rust belt city. The economy of the city has revived significantly in recent years, thanks to Chinese government’s "Revitalize Northeast China" campaign and the rapid development of software and auto manufacture industries. Many major industrial companies have their headquarters in Shenyang. Brilliance China Auto is a major Chinese automobile manufacturer, and most of its production plants are also located in Shenyang. Shenyang Aircraft Corporation produces airplanes for civilian use as well as for the PLAAF. Neusoft Group is the biggest software company in China. Shenyang Machine Tool Group is the largest machine tool manufacturer in China.

Beiling park It recently featured in a documentary called West of the Tracks (the literal meaning of Tiexi) by the young filmmaker Wang Bing showing the transition in this rust belt district[3]. Tiexi is also home to the Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Area, a state-level development zone. This new development area combined with Tiexi District has a population of 1 million people, a total area of 126 km², and enjoys the same administrative rank as municipality. (Administrative Committee of Shenyang)

Industrial zones
• Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone • Shenyang High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Cityscape Demographics
Shenyang has a population of 7.2 million and its urban population is 4 million. By urban population, it is the largest city in northeastern China and among top ten largest cities in China. Shenyang has 38 of China’s 56 recognised ethnic groups, including the Han Chinese majority that make up 91.26% of Shenyang’s population. The 37 minority groups are Manchu (??), Korean (???), Hui (??), Xibe (???), Mongolian (???), Zhuang (??), Miao (??), Tujia

Dongling District (???/???)
Dongling means the eastern tomb, referring to Qing Tombs dedicated to the first emperor of Qing Dynasty Nurhachi and his empress (a UNESCO site). The district is rapidly becoming high end residential areas, as suburbs of Shenyang are growing steadily. Two corridors along two major highways, one leading to the eastern tomb and Fushun, the other leading to the international airport, see luxury apartments,

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Shenyang
2007. In August 2007 construction works started on the Harbin-Dalian high speed passenger railway, which is expected to be completed in 2013, connecting Shenyang with other major cities in Northeast China, Harbin, Changchun, and Dalian.[5] Shenyang has two major railway stations: Shenyang North Railway Station and Shenyang Railway Station. The Shenyang North Railway Station was built in 1990, replacing the old north railway station, which was built in 1927 and still stands today. The north railway station is used mostly for express and high-speed train service. Shenyang Railway Station (also known locally as the "Shenyang South Railway Station", though the real "Shenyang South Railway Station" is at Sujiatun) has a history more than 100 years, built by Russian in 1899 and expanded later by Japanese. Today, it is focused on regular service.

Shenyang’s Koreatown: Xita (??) (???), Dong (??), Daur (????), Bai (??), Uyghur (????), Tibetan (??), Yi (??), Taiwanese Aboriginal People (???), She (??), Buyei (???), Yao (??), Akha (???), Kazakh (????), Dai (??), Li (? ?), Shui (??), Nakhi (???), Jingpo (???), Kyrgyz (?????), Tu (??), Mulao (???), Qiang (??) Maonan (???), Gelao (???), Russian (????), Evenks (????), Tatars (????), Oroqen (????), Nanai (???), Lhoba (???)[4]. Most of these groups are not native to the Shenyang area, but some, like the Manchus and the Xibe, are. Not only is Shenyang a multiple ethinic city, it is also a place where many foreigners, especially from Japan and Korea live. Shenyang has numerous temples, churches, mosques and other religious sites.

Military
Shenyang holds the Headquarters of the Shenyang Military Region and the Air Force of Shenyang Military Region. Shenyang is also famous for its defense industries.

The Qingnian Street bridge over the Hun He leads to Shenyang Taoxian International Airport and further points Shenyang is connected by several major expressways. The Jingshen 8 lane Expressway, to the city of Beijing, some 658 kilometers away. The Shen-Da Expressway connecting Shenyang and Dalian is the first expressway ever built in China. It is the fastest highway (8-lane) linking one of the largest port city to Shenyang. Shendan Expressway is a 4-lane expressway to Benxi and Dandong. It also serves Shenyang Taoxian International Airport. There are other express ways to Fushun, Changchun, and Xinmin. There are many long-distance and express bus routes to Beijing and other cities in the northeast. The city is served by the Shenyang Taoxian International Airport (????????, airport code SHE). Direct flights from Shenyang go to Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul, Cheongju of Korea, Tokyo, Frankfurt, Sydney,

Transportation
Shenyang is served by air, rail, and an extensive network of streets and expressways, with bus service throughout the city.

Inter-city transportation
Shenyang is the railway hub of Northeast China. Eight railways connected Shenyang with Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin and Fushun. The city is also served by the Qinshen Passenger Railway, a high speed railway connecting Shenyang and Qinhuangdao. The travel time between Beijing and Shenyang is decreased to only around 4 hours by 200 km/h high-speed train in early

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Los Angeles and other cities. There are three other airports in Shenyang, none of them open to public: Dongta airport is the oldest airport in Shenyang, openned in 1920s and retired in 1980s. Beiling airport is used by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation for test flights. Yuhong airport is for military use only.

Shenyang

Art
Two northeast folk dances, Er Ren Zhuan and Yang Ge, are very popular in Shenyang. Dawutai Theatre is famous for its Er Ren Zhuan and Chinese skit performances by Zhao Benshan and his students. Shenyang is home of many performance art organizations, such as Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe of China [4], Liao Ning Song and Dance Ensemble [5], and Liaoning Ballet [6]. Many artists are from Shenyang, such as Na Ying, or Lang Lang

Intra-city transportation
Within Shenyang itself, there are three ring roads: Middle Ring, 2nd Ring, and Outer Ring (Shenyang Round City Expressway). The southern part of the 2nd Ring and the Outer Ring are express beltways. The Outer ring is an 82 km expressway, the first express beltway in China. A "big outer ring" is under construction, which is also an express beltway with a total length of around 400 km. Inside city, there is an east-to-west expressway through the city center, most of which is elevated. In Shenyang, there are more than 160 bus routes.[6] Shenyang used to have about 20 trolleybus routes, one of the biggest trolleybus networks in China. The entire network was demolished in 1999 after a series of electrocution accidents. Shenyang has been planning subway system since 1940. In November 18, 2005 the construction of the first Shenyang Metro subway line finally started.[7] The first (eastwest) line is expected to be finished by 2010. Construction is made hard by the rocky ground on which Shenyang is built. The second (north-south) line started in November 18, 2006.

Museums
• Liaoning Provincial Museum, the largest museum in north-eastern China. The museum hold many relics from Manchuria’s past, including a selection of inscriptions in Chinese and Khitan. • Shenyang Steam Locomotive Museum, with 16 steam engines from America, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia and China. • The 9.18 Incident Museum, a museum in memory of Mukden Incident. The museum has a shape of an opened calendar, and is located on the site where the Japanese troops destroyed the South Manchuria Railway, the prelude to the invasion of Manchuria. • The Xinle Relic, located on the location where the Xinle civilisation was first discovered, containing a reconstructed Xinle settlement and housing artefacts discovered there.

Sports
Shenyang is famous for its soccer tradition. The local soccer team is the Liaoning F.C., in the Chinese Super League. Another Chinese Super League team, Shenyang Jinde moved to Changsha in 2007. Shenyang Olympic Sports Centre Stadium was a venue for the soccer preliminary of 2008 Summer Olympics. Shenyang Sport University [7] is a famous professional sports university in China. The university is the training base for winter sports in China and has many Olympic champions.

Life and Culture
Shenyang Dialect
People native to Shenyang speak the Shenyang Dialect, a variant of Northeastern Mandarin. The Shenyang Dialect is very similar to the other Northeastern Dialects and it is also very close to the Standard Mandarin dialect but has some very distinctive words that the standard Mandarin doesn’t have. Some people prefer to think of it as a strong accent rather than a different dialect. Shenyang dialect is used heavily by several famous skit actors such as Zhao Benshan in their performance, and has become a stereotype for northeast natives.

Religion
• Taiqing Palace, a Taoism temple established in 1663

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• Ci’en Temple, a Buddhism temple, first built during Tang dynasty • Royal Temple, a Tibetan Buddhism temple built in 1636 for Qing royal family • Sheli Pagoda, a 33m high Buddhism pagoda erected in 1044 during Liao dynasty • Nanguan Christian Church, a classic Gothic style cathedral built in 1878. Its two bell towers are as high as 40m. • Dongguan Church, the oldest Protestant church in Northeast China, established in 1876 • South Mosque, the largest mosque in Shenyang built in 1636

Shenyang
• World Horticulture Exposition garden: hosted the International Horticultural Exposition in 2006. • Qipan Mountain, Qipanshan: a recreation resort in the east of Shenyang.

Shopping areas

Famous Restaurants
• Lao Bian Dumpling, a traditional dumpling restaurant established by Mr. Bian Fu in 1829 • Ma’s Steamed Dumpling, a Hui Muslim restaurant established by the Ma family as early as 1767 Shopping and dining on Taiyuan Street There are several shopping areas in Shenyang. One of the districts, Taiyuan Street, (Chinese: ???), features western-style shopping and dining, including a Wal-mart, a Pizza Hut, consumer electronics stores, and a number of large, multi-story department stores selling products from around the world. There is also a very large underground shopping complex offering lots of items, especially in fashion jewellery, accessories and cloths. Another area, Wu’ai Market, (Traditional Chinese: ????, Simplified Chinese: ????), features a large multi-story shopping center with a size comparable to that of many city blocks. It contains hundreds, if not thousands, of mini or boutique stores that open very early in the morning and close in the early afternoon. It is famous for wholesaling cheap clothes and household stuff. There is also another area located in the center of the city, Middle Street, (Chinese: ? ?), which is similar to Taiyuan Street. It features one of the largest department stores in Shenyang. The information technology center is in Sanhao street (Chinese: ???), in the southern part of the city. There are also a number of large superstores located throughout the city that sell everything from meat and dairy to clothes and electronics.

Famous people from Shenyang
• • • • • • • • • • • • Zhang Zuolin, Chinese Warlord Zhang Xueliang, Chinese Warlord Na Ying, Chinese singer Mao Ning, Chinese singer Lang Lang, Chinese pianist Pang Long, Chinese singer Li Chunbo, Chinese singer Ai Jing, Chinese singer Jing Boran, Chinese singer Seiji Ozawa, Japanese conductor Gong Li, Actress Ma Lin, Table-Tennis Player

Tourism
Attractions
• Mukden Palace: the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • Dongling: the tomb of the first Qing emperor, Nurhaci. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • Beiling Park and Zhaoling: the tomb of the second Qing emperor, Huang Taiji. The park covers an area of 3,300,000 sq. meters, and is serviced by trams for visitors who do not wish to (or cannot) traverse the length of the park. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Shenyang
• • • • • • • • • Quezon City, Philippines (1993) Ramat Gan, Israel (1993) Monterrey, Mexico (1993) Seongnam, South Korea (1998) Yaoundé, Cameroon (1998) Katowice, Poland (2007) Gumi, South Korea Leverkusen, Germany Düsseldorf, Germany

Education
Shenyang has many schools, both public and private. There are also a number of privatelyoperated training centres that provide additional English skills.

High schools
• Northeast Yucai School,consisting of various departments. Nursing Garden,Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School etc. • Liaoning Experimental High School

See also
• List of cities in the People’s Republic of China by population • Unit 100

Colleges and universities
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northeastern University ???? China Medical University ?????? Shenyang Agricultural University ?????? Shenyang Pharmaceutical University ????? ? Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering ???????? Shenyang Jianzhu (Architectural) University ?????? Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology ?????? Shenyang Normal University ?????? Liaoning University ???? Shenyang Ligong University ?????? Shenyang University ???? Shenyang University of Technology ?????? Shenyang Sport University ?????? Shenyang Institute of Engineering ??????

References
[1] ^ "Today, Shenyang - China’s Shenyang government portal: ????--?????????" (in Chinese). Shenyang City People’s Government. http://www.shenyang.gov.cn/web/ resource/jrsy-gz/cs.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. [2] Map of Mukden in 1912 [1] [3] [2] [4] [3] [5] "Work begins on Harbin-Dalian passenger-only rail line". People’s Daily Online. 2007-08-24. http://english.people.com.cn/90001/ 90776/6247071.html. [6] ?????????????-?·? [7] ????????

Sister cities
The following cities participate in Town twinning: • • • • • Sapporo, Japan (1980) Kawasaki, Japan (1981) Turin, Italy (1985) Chicago, United States (1985) Irkutsk, Russia (1992)

External links
• Shenyang Government website "Mukden". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. Coordinates: 41°47′44″N 123°26′53″E / 41.79556°N 123.44806°E / 41.79556; 123.44806 •

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shenyang" Categories: Shenyang, Provincial capitals in China, Capitals of former nations, Cities in Liaoning, Prefecture-level divisions of Liaoning This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 20:29 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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