Sao Paulo

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São Paulo

São Paulo
São Paulo The Municipality of São Paulo

Coordinates: 23°33′01″S 46°38′02″W / 23.55028°S 46.63389°W / -23.55028; -46.63389Coordinates: 23°33′01″S 46°38′02″W / 23.55028°S 46.63389°W / -23.55028; -46.63389 Country
Images, from top, left to right: Octavio Frias de Oliveira bridge, São Paulo Skyline, Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo Museum of Art; São Paulo Cathedral; Brooklin district with office buildings alongside the Pinheiros River.

Region State Founded Government - Mayor Area - City - Metro

Brazil Southeast São Paulo January 25, 1554 Gilberto Kassab (Democrats) 1,522.986 km2 (588 sq mi) 7,943.818 km2 (3,067.1 sq mi) 760 m (2,493.4 ft) 11,150,249 (1st) 7,216/km2 (18,689.4/sq mi) 22,105,060 2,469/km2 (6,394.7/sq mi) UTC-3 (UTC-3) UTC-2 (UTC-2) 01000-000 0.841 –high City of São Paulo

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Elevation Population (2008) - City - Density - Metro - Metro Density Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal Code HDI (2000) Website

Seal

Nickname(s): Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle) and Sampa Motto: "Non ducor, duco" (Latin)
"I am not led, I lead"

Location in the State of São Paulo

São Paulo ( [sɐ̃ʊ̯̃ ˈpaʊ̯lʊ] ) is the largest city in Brazil and South America, and is the 3rd out of the largest metropolitan regions of the world.[1] The city is the capital of the State of São Paulo, the most populous Brazilian state. It is also the richest city of Brazil. The name means Saint Paul in Portuguese. São Paulo exerts strong regional influence in commerce

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and finance as well as arts and entertainment. The city has many renowned landmarks. The Immigrant’s Hostel greeted millions of immigrants as they came to Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Paulista Avenue, in Downtown, is the most important financial center of the country and South America. The city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA). São Paulo has been home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale Building.[2] With an estimated population of [3] within an area of 11,105,249 residents 1,523 square kilometres (588 sq mi),[4] São Paulo is the most populous city in the Southern hemisphere.[5] The city also lies at the center of the heavily urbanized São Paulo metropolitan area, which, with an estimated 21,616,060 people in 2008[6] over 7,944 square kilometres (3,067.2 sq mi),[7] is the largest metropolitan area in the nation. Depending on which definition is used, the São Paulo metropolitan area is ranked as either the first or second most populous in the Americas, just comparable to Mexico City.[8] People from the city of São Paulo are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the whole of São Paulo state, including the paulistanos. The city’s Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead".[9] A famous nickname for the city is "Sampa". São Paulo is also known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, architecture and multitude of skyscrapers.[10] The São Paulo/ Guarulhos International Airport operates many domestic and international flights.

São Paulo

Paulista Avenue in 1902. from the South East coast to the vast and fertile plateau to the West that would eventually become the State of São Paulo.

Correios Palace in 1922. São Paulo officially became a city in 1711. In the 19th century, it experienced a flourishing economic prosperity, brought about chiefly through coffee exports, which were shipped abroad from the port of the neighbouring city of Santos. After the abolition of slavery in 1888, waves of immigrants from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany and many other European countries emigrated to São Paulo in order to, among other reasons, work at the enormous coffee plantations established in the State. At the beginning of the 20th century, the coffee cycle had already plummeted due to, among other factors, a sharp decline in international coffee prices. The local entrepreneurs then started investing in the industrial development of São Paulo, attracting new contingents of overseas immigrants to the city, mainly Italians. In addition to Europeans, Japanese and Syrian and

History
Jesuit missionaries Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded the village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. Along with their entourage, they established a mission named Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga aimed at converting the Tupi-Guarani indigenous Brazilians to the Catholic religion. Located just beyond the Serra do Mar cliffs, overlooking the port city of Santos, and close to the Tietê River, the new settlement became the natural entrance

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Lebanese immigrants arrived in large numbers in the first half of the 20th century. Along the 20th century, the booming economy of the city also attracted huge waves of migrants from the poorest regions in Brazil, such as the Northeast. However, due to competition with many other Brazilian cities, which sometimes offer tax advantages for companies to locate manufacturing plants there, São Paulo’s main economic activities have gradually left its industrial profile in favour of the services industry in the late 20th century. The city is home to a large number of local and international banking offices, law firms, multinational companies and consumer services.

São Paulo
business) than Rio de Janeiro, testimony of the intense rivalry between the two metropolises.

Cityscape

Panoramic picture of the lake in the Ibirapuera Park.

Geography

Pico do Jaraguá is the highest mountain in the Brazilian city of São Paulo. Anhangabaú Valley in 1920. Despite its many woes, São Paulo remains the business hub of Latin America. Having prospered first with the coffee industry, and later with industrialisation, in the early 21st century it expanded into the tertiary, or services sector. Its huge market (over 20 million people in greater São Paulo) is a magnet for multinational corporations. Thanks to events such as the Feira Bienal Internacional de Arte, and its reputation for hosting cuttingedge music concerts, it has become something of a cultural centre as well. Economic growth and exportation of goods has lifted employment and wages. The murder rate has dropped by almost a quarter since its peak. The historic centre profited with the return of the city’s government and the arrival of private universities, although businesses continue to move out to new boom neighbourhoods such as Itaim and Berrini. São Paulo also claims to attract more visitors (mostly, but no longer exclusively, on

Physical setting
São Paulo is located on a plateau that is part of the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,620 ft) above sea level - though at a distance of only about 70 kilometers (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. This distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" section below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in the North of the city, where the Serra da Cantareira Range boasts higher elevations and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The entire region is very stable tectonically, and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded. The Tietê River, and its tributary, the Pinheiros River were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo, only to

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São Paulo

become grossly polluted by raw sewage and winter due to being an urban heat island. Allindustrial effluents in the latter half of the time record temperatures are 35.3 °C 20th century. However, a substantial clean(95.5 °F) on November 15, 1985 and −2.1 °C up program for both rivers is underway, fin(28 °F) on August 2, 1955 (both at the Miranced through a partnership between local ante de Santana National Weather Station, in government and international development the north region). In the mountains around banks such as the Japan Bank for Internationthe city (Horto Florestal), −3.9 °C (25 °F) al Cooperation.[11] Neither river is navigable was recorded also in August 2, 1955 in the stretch that flows through the city, al(unofficially). though water transportation becomes inRainfall is abundant, amounting to an ancreasingly important on the river Tietê furnual average of 1,317 millimetres ther downstream (towards South, near river (51.9 in).[12] It is especially common in the Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate warmer months, and somewhat scant basin. between June and August. Neither São Paulo There are no large natural lakes in the renor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a gion, but the Billings and Guarapiranga tropical cyclone, and tornadic activity is unreservoirs in the southern outskirts of the common. Snow flurries were reported officity are used for power generation, water cially on just one occasion, on June 25, 1918. storage, and leisure activities, such as During late winter, especially August, the city sailing. is subject to the phenomenon known as "verThe original flora consisted mainly of a anico", which consists of a bout of unusually great variety of broadleaf evergreens. Today, hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching non-native species are common, as the mild temperatures as high as 28 °C (82 °F). On climate and abundant rainfall permit a multithe other hand, relatively cool days during tude of tropical, subtropical and temperate summer are also fairly common; on such ocplants to be cultivated, with eucalyptus being casions daily high temperatures may not surespecially ubiquitous. pass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows around or even below 15 °C (59 °F). Climate chart for São Paulo J F M A M J J A S O N D

Law and government

See also: List of Mayors of São Paulo 239 218 160 76 74 56 43 38 81 124 145 201 27 28 27 25 23 22 22 23 24 24 26 18 18 18 16 13 12 12 13 14 15 16 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: Canal do Tempo Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N 26 17

D

9.4 8.6 6.3 3

2.9 2.2 1.7 1.5 3.2 4.9 5.7 7.9

81 82 81 77 73 72 72 73 75 75 79 79 64 64 64 61 55 54 54 55 57 59 61 63 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches

Climate
According the Köppen climate classification São Paulo has a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures seldom reach 30 °C (86 °F) during summer, while frost is rare during Conde Matarazzo Building, São Paulo City Hall.

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Mayor Gilberto Kassab José Serra Marta Suplicy Celso Pitta Paulo Maluf Luiza Erundina Jânio Quadros Mário Covas Entry in 2006 2005 2001 1997 1993 1989 1986 1983 Left Office in 2006 2004 2000 1996 1992 1988 1985

São Paulo
Political Party Democratas PSDB PT PPB, later PTN PPB (PP) PT PTB PMDB

São Paulo’s most recent mayors were:

Boroughs
The city of São Paulo is divided into 31 boroughs, called subprefectures (subprefeituras in Portuguese). Each subprefecture is divided into several districts (in most cases, two or three). The subprefectures with the largest number of districts are the boroughs of Sé, in the historical downtown, Butantã, the location of the University of São Paulo, Lapa, Penha and Mooca, all having eleven districts. Together with the administrative division, there is also a geographic radial division established in 2007 by the mayor Gilberto Kassab. The city is divided in ten regions (historical downtown, extended downtown, north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest), each one identified with a distinct color in the buses and in the street plaques. These divisions have no relationship with the subprefectures and districts, and, in some cases, the same district may be in two or more geographic regions. The district where the headquarters of the subprefecture is located receives the same name of the subprefecture, with exception of M’Boi Mirim.

Metropolitan region

Greater São Paulo. The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") denotes any of São Paulo’s metropolitan area definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total, and a population of more than 19 million inhabitants (as of 2005, according to IBGE). Because São Paulo is sprawling like Los Angeles, it has another definition for its metropolitan area. Analogous to the US’s CSA (Combined Statistical Area) type definition of metropolitan area, it is the second largest city in the world with 27 million inhabitants (Complexo Metropolitano Expandido),[13] which includes 2 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions, and 3 microregions.

Demographics
São Paulo is the most ethnically diverse city in Brazil. After the end of the African slave traffic in the country (1850), São Paulo started to replace the African manpower with immigrants in the coffee plantations. The pioneer in this new project was the senator Nicolau Vergueiro, who brought German, Swiss and Portuguese people to work in his own properties.[14] After the abolition of slavery (1888), São Paulo received large numbers of immigrants, most of them coming from Italy. In 1897,

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Ethnic groups White Pardo (Brown) Black Asian Amerindian Number[24] 7,000,000 2,600,000 527,000 456,000 18,000

São Paulo

Italian immigrants in a factory of São Paulo.

A Street in São Paulo.

Italians were over half of the city’s population. Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans, Japanese, Jews and Christian Lebanese and Syrians also came in significant numbers. From 1908 to 1950, many Japanese immigrants arrived.[15] In the 1960s, Chinese and Koreans started arriving. In the mid-20th century, many people from the poor Northeastern Brazil started to migrate to São Paulo. Nowadays, there is a growing Bolivian community in the city. As in all of Brazil, people of different ethnicities mix with each other, producing a multi-ethnic society. Today, people of 100 different ethnicities make São Paulo their home.[16] The main communities, considering all the metropolitan area, are: • 6 million Italians (including descendants).[17] • 3 million Portuguese (including descendants).[18] • 3 million Africans (including descendants). • 1 million Arabs (including descendants).[19] • 400,000 Germans (including descendants).[19] • 326,000 Japanese (including descendants).[20] • 120,000 Chinese (including descendants).[19] • 60,000 Jews (including descendants).[21] • 60,000 Bolivians (only the immigrants).[22] • 50,000 Greeks (including descendants).[19] • 50,000 Koreans (including descendants).[23] Ethnically, São Paulo is made up of:

Religion
Source: IBGE 2000.[25]

Brooklin Finantial Center

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Religion Catholic Protestant No religion Kardecist Buddhist Jewish Percentage 68.11% 15.94% 8.97% 2.75% 0.65% 0.36% Number 7,107,261 1,663,131 936,474 286,600 67,591 37,500

São Paulo

Japanese immigrants in the immigrants’s hostel of São Paulo (c.1930).

Population growth
Changing demographics of the city of São Paulo

The Japanese-speaking community of São Paulo lived mostly in Liberdade neighbourhood. Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: Liberdade neighborhood is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Although today most Japanese Brazilians can speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese. Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. However, most of the Brazilian-born generations only speak Portuguese.[30] English and Spanish are taught as foreign language in most schools, although only a small percentage of residents exhibit a high degree of fluency in either language.

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.[26]

Languages
As in all Brazil, the language spoken by the vast majority of the population is Portuguese. Due to the large influx of Italian immigrants, the Portuguese spoken in the city reflects a significant influence from the languages of the Italian peninsula, particularly from Neapolitan and Venetian.[27] The Italian dialects mixed with the countryside Caipira accent of São Paulo; some linguists maintain that the São Paulo dialect of Portuguese was born in Mooca, a neighborhood settled in the early 20th century mainly by people from Naples, Southern Italy.[28][29]

Statistics
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São Paulo
being the most important financial centre of the country, São Paulo’s economy also presents a high degree of informality.[37]

Vila Olímpia, Faria Lima Avenue. • Vehicles: 7,856,000 (March 2008)[31] • Daily newspapers: 34 (September 2008)[32] • Foundation date: 01/25/1554[33]

Economy

Paulista Avenue, international financial centre of the city. São Paulo is the business center of the Mercosul economy. Acclaimed as a city of business tourism, attracting today’s biggest and most important international events, be they in the economic, cultural, scientific or sporting area. It holds more than 200 events per day, offering more than 250 thousand square meters of space in pavilions and areas for congresses and fairs. This is without taking into account the supply of spaces within hotels, which adds another 70 thousand square meters, suitable for holding events. Adding space in nightclubs, cultural and business areas, clubs and other alternatives to these numbers, São Paulo boasts approximately 430,000 square meters for the holding of any type of event. There is still the supply of approximately 30,000 apartments of various categories, a number which is to grow significantly in the next two years, predicted to reach 50,000 apartments in 2003, catering for those seeking the more luxurious options of the large chains, to simpler and more economical options. It is worth pointing out that from the tourist attractions the following

Trade panel of BM&F Bovespa, the São Paulo Stock Exchange. São Paulo is the 19th richest city in the world and is expected to be the 13th richest in 2020.[34] According to data of IBGE, its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 was R$ 263,177,148,000.00 (US$ 156,280,780,941.00), equivalent to approximately 12.26% of the Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo.[35] One of the biggest financial centres in Brazil and in the world, São Paulo’s economy is going through a deep transformation. Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo’s economy has become increasingly based on the tertiary sector, focusing on services and businesses for the country. Many analysts point to São Paulo as an important global city, even though this assignment can be criticized considering its serious problems of social exclusion and spacial segregation.[36] Although

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stand out: gastronomy and culture. With more than 12,000 restaurants of more than 40 different world cuisines, besides the 70 museums, more than 200 cinemas, around 50 theaters, art galleries and cultural centers, São Paulo has one of the liveliest night-lives in the world.[38]

São Paulo

São Paulo Art Biennial

São Paulo Art Biennial. The São Paulo Art Biennial is a cultural event hosted in town every two years. Almost 1 million people visited the 26th Biennial in 2004. Its theme was chosen to enable a wide range of artistic positions to feel comfortable. In addition, to an intensification of the North-South dialogue inside Brazil, the Bienal’s aims include the promoting of links between non-European cultures along a South-South orientation.[44] The next edition of the Biennial will take place in 2009.

Brooklin, the most recent financial center of the city, alongside the Pinheiros River. If the city of São Paulo were a country, its economy would be the 47th in the world, bigger than Egypt and Kuwait, about the same size as Hungary or New Zealand, and Israel. The economy of the city of São Paulo would also be bigger than 22 of the U.S. States, such as Hawaii and New Hampshire.[39] In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$ 90 billion in taxes, and the budget of the city spent R$ 15 billion; these figures show that São Paulo contributes to redistribution wealth. The city has 1,500 bank branches. There are 70 shopping malls. Of all the international companies with business in Brazil, 63% have their head offices in São Paulo. According to Mystery Shopping International, the Oscar Freire Street is the eighth most luxurious in the world.[40] The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil’s official stock and bonds exchange. The BM&F Bovespa is the largest stock exchange in Latin America and third largest in the world. In the Stocks Exchange, R$ 6 billion (US$ 3.5 billion) change hands every day.[41] The per capita income for the city was R$ 24,083 (approx. $10,331 USD in 2005).[42]

São Paulo Fashion Week

São Paulo Fashion Week. One of the most important fashion weeks in the world (along with London’s, New York’s, Milan’s and Paris’ editions),[45] São Paulo Fashion Week established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, it is the biggest and most important fashion event in Latin America. Brazil first entered the international fashion circuit with the increasing reputation of famous Brazilian top models such as Isabeli Fontana, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen,

Events
There are some Web sites and magazines specialising in the cultural events in the city, including the Agenda Cultural de São Paulo (São Paulo’s Cultural Calendar).[43]

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Alessandra Ambrosio, Fernanda Tavares, Ana Beatriz Barros, Izabel Goulart and Ana Hickmann, and the "discovery" of some fresh talents such as Alexandre Herchcovitch by some international fashion magazines.

São Paulo
The Parade happens annually, in June, with the aims of bringing visibility to socialsexual categories and fomenting the creation of public policies for homosexuals, bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals. Since its 7th year, the Parade is associated with an intense cultural programming that lasts at least a month. Most international hotel companies in São Paulo have specific hotels for the Gay Parade guests due to the huge number of people in the city looking for a room.[49]

São Paulo Gay Parade

March for Jesus
The March for Jesus is an Evangelical parade that takes place on Corpus Christi Thursday every year in Zona Norte. It is organized by the "Rebirth Church", a Pentecostal denomination created in the 1980s which has grown significantly in the first decade of the 21st century. In 2006, more than 1 million people took part in the event, according to official estimates.[50] Evangelicals from across Brazil went to São Paulo Thursday for the "March for Jesus" event as live Christian bands accompanied the more than one million marchers. The annual march, organized by evangelical churches, featured a concert with 30 Christian bands carried on 17 flatbed trucks performing live as participants marched through Brazil’s financial capital. The 2008’s March for Jesus was part of a controversy caused by the discrepancy between the estimated number of atendees shown by the organizers and the Police, who accompanied the event. According to organizers, over 5 million people were part of the celebration, but according to official numbers presented by the police, attendance was of 1.4 million people [51].

São Paulo Gay Parade on Paulista Avenue, the biggest Gay Parade in the World. The first parade happened in 1997. São Paulo’s version is quite young compared to those in New York, San Francisco and Sydney which have been occurring since the 1970s. It only took 8 years to overcome those cities’ parades in attendance. The tourist event in the city, the São Paulo Gay Parade attracted about 1.5 million people to Paulista Avenue in 2006. It is usually opened by the city’s mayor and a large carnival runs along the avenue, with several Trio Elétricos. The last parade was held on June 10, 2007, but no official estimate was given by the Polícia Militar.[46][47] In 2008, the estimated attendance was of 3.4 million people, according to a story published on Folha de S. Paulo Newspaper on the 28th of May, 2008[48]

Electronic Language International Festival
The Electronic Language International Festival is a non-profit cultural organization, whose purpose is to disseminate and to develop arts, technologies and scientific research, by means of exhibitions, debates, lectures, and courses. The festival promotes a yearly meeting in Brazil, in the city of São Paulo.[52]

Festival of Electronic Art
Every two years, Associação Cultural Videobrasil’s International Electronic Art Festival

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brings groundbreaking work by cream-of-thecrop artists from all over the world to São Paulo. In keeping with the constant transformations in media and support, the curatorship has added installations, performances, VJs, CD-ROM art, and Internet art to the programme. Art shows, debates and meetings introduce new ideas and artwork, setting new guidelines for contemporary art in Brazil. Exhibitions featuring work by prominent electronic artists are also part of the Festival. Brazilian pioneers such as Rafael França and Olhar Eletrônico, and international guests such as Nam June Paik, Bill Viola and Gary Hill, have featured in the event’s past editions. Each edition has a theme of its own.[53]

São Paulo

University Nove de Julho. • Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp) (São Paulo State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho); • Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC) (São Paulo Technological College); • Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) (Federal University of São Paulo); • Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP) (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo); • Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (Mackenzie) (Mackenzie Presbyterian University); • Centro Universitario de Belas Artes de São Paulo (FEBASP) (University of Fine Arts of São Paulo); • Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT) (São Judas Tadeu University); • Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM-SP) (Superior School of Advertising and Marketing); • Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV-SP) (Getúlio Vargas Foundation); • Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP) (Armando Alvares Penteado Foundation); • Universidade Anhembi Morumbi (Anhembi Morumbi University); • Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (Ibmec-SP) (Brazilian Capital Market Institute); • Faculdade de Comunicação Social Cásper Líbero (Cásper Líbero Social Communication College); • and many others.

Education

University of São Paulo.

Campus university of USP. Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions
The city has several universities and colleges: • Universidade de São Paulo (USP) (University of São Paulo);

Primary and secondary schools
The São Paulo high schools that obtained the best results on the 2007 Exame Nacional do

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Ensino Médio (National High School Exam) are Colégio Vértice, Colégio Bandeirantes, Colégio Dante Alighieri,Colégio Móbile, Colégio Santa Cruz, Colégio Agostiniano Mendel, Etapa, Colégio Palmares, Cefet, Colégio Albert Sabin, ETE São Paulo, Colégio Poliedro, Colégio Miguel de Cervantes, Colégio Santa Clara, Colégio Nossa Senhora das Graças, Colégio Ítaca, Colégio Arquidiocesano Marista, Colégio Augusto Laranja, Colégio Porto Seguro, Escola da Vila (Morumbi neighborhood), Colégio Espírito Santo and Centro Educacional Pioneiro.[54] Colégio Santo Américo. Colegio Radial

São Paulo

Sala São Paulo. almost exclusively known in Brazil at that time, Os Mutantes became quite successful abroad after the 1990s (a legend has it that a Brazilian young woman in an exchange programme in California forgot one Mutantes’ vinyl record at her host home when she returned home, and thus helped make the band popular in that U.S. state). In 2000, Technicollor, a cd recorded in English by the band was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.

Culture
Music
Adoniran Barbosa was a famous samba singer and composer who became successful during São Paulo’s radio era. Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the composer to the lower classes of São Paulo, particularly the poor Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bexiga (Bela Vista) and Brás, as well as the poor who lived in the city’s many shanties and cortiços (degraded multifamily row houses). The topics of his songs are drawn from the life of low-wage urban workers, the unemployed and the vagabonds. His first big hit was Saudosa Maloca ("Shanty of Fond Memories", 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. In his Trem das Onze ("The 11am Train", 1964) record, which has been ranked one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives. An old-school samba band called Demônios da Garoa still plays his songs in the traditional Bar Brahma venue in Downtown. In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes led the way in the national avant garde music scene. Their success is sometimes related to that of other tropicalia musicians, but they also had a musical style and ideas of their own. They were regarded as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Os Mutantes released five albums together before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to start a solo career. Although

Ibirapuera Auditorium. After the two oil price shocks in the 1970s, the country suffered from an economic recession during the 1980s, a phenomenon that was named the lost decade. The very repressive military government of the day did not help in any way the social situation. A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment and few actual prospectives from the viewpoint of the youth. Underground rock bars and clubs in town were full of thriving musicians and artists waiting for their moment to come. Examples of bands originating from this movement include Ira! and Titãs. In the 1990s, drum & bass became another musical

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movement in São Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick, and Fernanda Porto.[55] Many heavy metal bands also originated in São Paulo, such as Angra, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. Sin. Many "alternative" cultures of São Paulo mingle at a small shopping mall dubbed Galeria do Rock (English: "Rock Gallery"), which includes shops which cater to a broad range of alternative niches. Famous alternative band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also came from São Paulo. The classical music in São Paulo is also very prevalent. Many of the most important classical Brazilian composers who are still alive, like Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born in and live in São Paulo. São Paulo has two important opera houses: Teatro Municipal de São Paulo and Theatro São Pedro, and some opera performances are sometimes hosted in other theaters like Credicard Hall. Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. The São Paulo State Symphony is one of the outstanding orchestras in Latin America and in the world.

São Paulo
register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar. In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, centered on São Paulo, also began to achieve a similar cultural independence through different means. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually. The first emperor of Brazil, Pedro I, was a legitimate member of the royal Portuguese dynasty. Although he declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal in 1822, the country remained under imperial rule and the dominance of the court in Rio de Janeiro until 1889. With Brazil thus tied to Portuguese culture, Brazilian writers only little by little assumed responsibility for giving expression to their own landscape and ethnic mix of peoples. The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture; and subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin, from different parts of Europe, helped the new nation to find its own voice and to use it. Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade are the prototypical modernists. With the urban poems of Paulicéia desvairada (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. His rhapsodic novel Macunaíma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism’s nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat national hero. Oswald de Andrade’s experimental poetry, avantgarde prose — particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933), and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement’s break with tradition. Both these authors were influential writers form the Modernism in Brazil: • Mário de Andrade • Oswald de Andrade

Literature

Mário de Andrade Library. São Paulo was home to the first jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed pieces of poetry and music for the catechism. Among them were priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. They also helped to

Science and Technology
The city of São Paulo has one of the best Research and Development structures in Latin America, and has been attracting a growing number of companies due to the increasing importance of innovation as a decisive differential in the global market. Among the several factors that justify such an attraction, it’s worth to highlight the presence of several renowned universities that links higher education and internationally renowned

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São Paulo

Biological Institute of São Paulo. laboratories and research centers that acts in several areas of knowledge. With an ample technical training educational system and several internationally renowned institutions of higher education, the city presents excellent infrastructure aimed at qualifying its workforce. The institutions of higher education in the city of São Paulo are the best of the country and many are internationally renowned. The system of science, technology and innovation of São Paulo is also leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - Fapesp), one of the main agencies of promotion of the scientific and technological research of the country.

The Estação da Luz.

International financial centre in the Brooklin district. São Paulo is a major cultural centre. The city has an ethnically diverse metropolitan area, with heavy Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Arabic, Japanese, among other influences. The city is known for its varied and sophisticated cuisine, ranging from Chinese to French, from fast food chains to five star restaurants. There are approximately 62 different types of cuisines in São Paulo, and more than 12,000 restaurants.[56] Other venues such as bars, pubs, lounges and discos cater to a variety of music tastes. São Paulo is home to the São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II in the first half of the XX century and "Pinacoteca do Estado" art museums, a symphonic orchestra (São Paulo State Symphony (OSESP - based in the Sala São Paulo theatre in the gorgeous Julio Prestes train station), and a Formula One Grand Prix racing circuit (Interlagos).

Sites of interest

Anhangabaú Valley.

Landmarks
• Paulista Avenue (one of the most important thoroughfares of the city and

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São Paulo
businesses and residential flats are of innovative urbanism. Edifício Itália (skyscraper with observation deck). Estação da Luz (historical railway station built 1895-1901). Ibirapuera Park (the second largest park of the city (Parque do Carmo is the biggest), is also home to several museums. It is known for its buildings designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, such as the Oca and the new Ibirapuera Auditorium). Mooca (Italian district of São Paulo). Liberdade (Asian district of São Paulo). Mercado Municipal (historical market place in São Paulo). Municipal Theatre of São Paulo (magnificent opera house built in the early 20th century.) Museu de Arte Sacra (museum of religious art located in a colonial convent). Museu do Ipiranga (museum built where the Independence of Brazil was proclaimed in 1822). Museum of the Portuguese Language (located inside Estação da Luz). Pátio do Colégio (founding site of the city, former Jesuit mission-school to convert the natives to Catholicism). Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo (important museum of Brazilian art). Praça da Sé (large square next to the São Paulo Cathedral. Official centre of the city). Shopping Malls Center Leste Aricanduva, Iguatemi, Ibirapuera, Morumbi, Eldorado, Pátio Higienópolis, Anália Franco, Cidade Jardim, and many others.

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Octavio Frias de Oliveira bridge. the site of many cultural centers and museums, such as the MASP and Centro Cultural Itaú). Brooklin (a financial district of São Paulo). Banespa Building (skyscraper with observation deck and museum designed after the Empire State building). Catedral da Sé (the metropolitan cathedral, a symbol of the city). Edifício Copan, designed by Oscar Niemeyer, in the Centro neighbourhood. Built between 1951 and 1966, its wavy shape gives the building an impression of movement, and the integration of small

Theaters

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Theatro Municipal de São Paulo (São Paulo’s Municipal Theatre).

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Many historians believe that the first theatre performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo. The Portuguese Jesuit José de Anchieta (1534-1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Brazilian native Indians. After that, however, São Paulo became a province and cultural activities lost momentum. It was only in the beginning of the 20th century that, thanks to the coffee cycle and the wealth it brought, major European ethnic groups started making presentations in some of the state’s countryside cities. Theatres such as Pedro II, in Ribeirão Preto, welcomed groups that had already performed in Manaus, Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. The most important period for the art in São Paulo took place during the avant-grade time. It was in São Paulo that a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, or TBC (Brazilian Theater of Comedy) made its first presentation. During the 60s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles não usam black tie", a masterpiece by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri that, for the first time in the history of the Brazilian drama, had labor workers as protagonists. Further to that, after the coup of 1964, theater plays started focusing the Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). Teatro de Arena was an embattled stage for the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. Teatro Oficina also played an important role. It was there that the tropical movement began. There was a number of plays that represented historic moments, among which "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972). Today, all kinds of plays are performed at São Paulo’s dozens of theatres, going from classical music, ballet to avant-garde plays.

São Paulo

Ipiranga Museum. approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing, and appliances that once belonged to famous people who took part in the Brazilian history, such as explorers and emperors. Its facilities are also home to a library with 100,000 books and Centro de Documentação Histórica (Historic Documentation Center), with 40,000 manuscripts. • Stretching over 78,000 square meters, Memorial da América Latina (Latin America’s Memorial) was conceived to be a place for the integration of Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. Memorial is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano - Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). Designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion, where there is a permanent exhibition of the continent’s craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and an auditorium with capacity for 1,679 people. • Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant’s Hostel) was opened to gather and preserve the documentation, memory and objects of the immigrants that came to Brazil in search for hope, adventures and wealth, or just to leave behind the difficult lives they had in their countries. Located in one of the few centenarian buildings of the city of São Paulo, the museum occupies part of the former Hostel: an incredible center built in 1886-1888 in Brás with the aim of welcoming the immigrants brought by the Government and helping them find work.

Museums
Museu do Ipiranga The first monument especially built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, was opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum). In 1919, it became once again a historic museum. Its collection, with

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São Paulo

Memorial of the immigrant. From 1882 to 1978, people of more than 60 nationalities and races were guests there, all of them duly registered in the museum’s books and lists. The hostel used to serve approximately 3,000 people on average, but under special circumstances, this number reached 8,000 people. Aside from bringing the immigrants’ history to the public, the museum also restores wooden train cars (they are called cars and not wagons because they were used to transport people, not cargo) from the former São Paulo Railway. There are two restored cars in the museum, one of which a luggage, mail and train car, which dates from 1914, and another one a 2nd class passenger car, which dates from 1931. Memorial do Imigrante (Memorial of the Immigrant) is a fair tribute to the men and women who, thanks to their dreams, desire to grow and hard work, transformed not only São Paulo but also the country. • Occupying an area of 700 square meters, the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country’s tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. In the entrance hall, there is information about the main activities carried out by USP’s staff and by the museum’s researchers. The animals are grouped together according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and some invertebrates such as reefs, crustaceans and mollusks. The library, specialized in zoology, has modern facilities and equipment and serve both the scientific community and the public in general. It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps. •

São Paulo Museum of Art in Downtown São Paulo. The museum was founded by the journalist Assis Chateaubriand and by Pietro Maria Bardi. Its current headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by the architect Lina Bo Bardi. Two enormous colonnades support the 9,2 thousand ton building, forming a 74-meter free space. MASP has one of Latin America’s most important collections of European art, including works of art by distinguished artists such as Degas, Renoir, Modigliani and Bonnard, among others. • The headquarters of the State Government has an important collection of works of art by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, Aldo Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida Júnior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. Additionally, it also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts, and European tapestry. In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo. • Opened in May, 1990, the main aim of Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) is to keep and preserve manifestations in the music, cinema, photography, and graphical arts areas, as well as any other manifestation related to the Brazilian contemporary life. MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images, distributed in thematic collections of diverse content. It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music, and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm. Additionally, MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals, and photography and graphical arts exhibitions.

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Club São Paulo FC League Série A (1st National League Division) Venue Morumbi Stadium 80,000 (138,032 record)[58] Alfredo Schürig Stadium 18.000 Palestra Itália Stadium 29,173 (40,283 record) Canindé Stadium 19,717 (25,000 record) Rua Javari Stadium 2,730 (9,000 record) Nicolau Alayon Stadium

São Paulo
Established 1930

Corinthians Série A (1st National League Division) Palmeiras Portuguesa Juventus Nacional Série A (1st National League Division) Série B (2nd National League Division) 2nd Regional State League division 3rd Regional State League division

1910 1914 1920 1924 1919

Sports
Football

second, third and fourth most popular teams in Brazil).[57] There are three other small clubs in the city, Portuguesa, Juventus and Nacional. Another popular club in São Paulo is Santos FC from the nearby coastal city of Santos. São Paulo is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil is the host nation. Football/Soccer teams

Corrida de São Silvestre
The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year’s Eve. It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres across the streets. Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9.3 mi).

Morumbi Stadium.

Brazilian Grand Prix

Pacaembu Stadium. As in the rest of Brazil, football is by far the most popular sport in the city. The major teams in São Paulo are Corinthians, São Paulo and Palmeiras (in this order, the

Autódromo José Carlos Pace, the venue for the Brazilian Grand Prix. The Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix (Portuguese: Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos continuously since 1990. Since

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1973, the first year Formula One Grand Prix had been held here, 4 Brazilians have won the Grand Prix in São Paulo: Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008). In 2007, new station of Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), Autódromo of the Line C (Line 9), was constructed near the circuit to improve to reach.

São Paulo

Transportation
Highways

Other sports
Volleyball, basketball and tennis are other major sports. There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships. The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, volleyball, swimming, basketball and handball), Clube Atlhetico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), São Paulo Athletic Club (rugby union), Clube de Regatas Tietê and Clube Atlético Ypiranga.

Bandeirantes highway, one of the main lines connecting with the interior of the State of São Paulo. In the photo to enter the city of São Paulo.

International sports events
The following international sports events have been held in São Paulo: • 1950 — FIFA World Cup (football) • 1963 — Pan American Games (Multisports) • 1971 — FIBA World Championship for Women • 1977 — Women’s U20 Volleyball World Championship • 1983 — FIBA World Championship for Women • 1993 — Volleyball World League • 1994 — Women’s Volleyball World Championship • 2000 — FIFA Club World Championship (Football) • 2002 — South American Games (Multisports) • 2005 — World Cup in Artistic Gymnastics • 2006 — International Police and Fire Games (Multi-sports) • 2006 — FIBA World Championship for Women (Basketball) • 2006 —13th World Cup Final in Artistic Gymnastics • 2007 —3rd International Blind Sports Association World Championships and Games

Immigrants highway connects the city to the ocean coast. The city is crossed by 10 major Brazilian motorways and automobiles are still the main means to get into the city. They are: • Rodovia Presidente Dutra/BR-116 (President Dutra highway) - Connects São Paulo to the east and north-east of the country. Most important connection: Rio de Janeiro • Rodovia Régis Bittencourt/BR-116 () Connects São Paulo to the south of the

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country. Most important connections: Curitiba and Porto Alegre Rodovia Fernão Dias/BR-381 (Fernão Dias highway) - Connects São Paulo to the north of the country. Most important connection: Belo Horizonte Rodovia Anchieta/SP-150 (Anchieta Priest highway) - Connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for cargo transportation to Santos Port. Most important connection: Santos Rodovia dos Imigrantes/SP-150 (Immigrants highway) - Connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for tourism. Most important connections: Santos, São Vicente, Guarujá and Praia Grande Rodovia Castelo Branco/SP-280 (President Castelo Branco highway) Connects São Paulo to the west and northwest of the country. Most important connections: Osasco, Sorocaba, Bauru and Campo Grande Rodovia Raposo Tavares/SP-270 (Raposo Tavares highway) - Connects São Paulo to the west of the country. Most important connections: Cotia, Sorocaba, Presidente Prudente Rodovia Anhangüera/SP-330 (Anhanguera highway) - Connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country, including its capital city. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto and Brasília. Rodovia dos Bandeirantes/SP-348 (Bandeirantes highway) - Connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country. It’s considered the best motorway of Brazil. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, Piracicaba and São José do Rio Preto. Rodovia Ayrton Senna/SP-70 (Ayrton Senna highway) - Named after Brazilian Formula 1 pilot Ayrton Senna, this motorway connects São Paulo to east locations of the state, as well as the north coast of the state. Most important connections: São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, São José dos Campos and Caraguatatuba.

São Paulo
avenues, and traffic jams are relatively common on its largest highways. The main means of commuting into the city is by car and by bus. An effective way of avoiding heavy vehicles traffic in the city, such as buses and trucks that crossed the city for other destinations, was planned by ex-governor Mário Covas as a road ring that circles the city, called Rodoanel Mario Covas,[59] and is being built by DERSA.[60]

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Railways

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Luz railway station in Downtown São Paulo. Although poorly maintained by heavy rail services, there is an infrastructure project to build a high-speed railway service linking Brazil’s two largest cities, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[61] The trains would go as fast as 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph) (the trip would last about 1 hour and 30 minutes). This specific project is still waiting an official announcement by the Brazilian government, who is trying to obtain international financing through a public-private partnership. Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes", which is a mediumspeed rail service (about 160 km/h) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from the current one hour and a half by car to about 50 minutes by train, linking the towns of São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport, and Campinas city center. This service is also going to be connected to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport. Major works on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007,[62] which will be a milestone in the revitalisation

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Rodoanel
São Paulo grew quickly from the 1940s to the 1980s and many roads and buildings were built without major planning. As a result, heavy traffic is common on the city’s main

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and improvement of the Brazilian passenger railway services.

São Paulo
Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp.

Airports

Underground and light rail system

Congonhas-São Paulo National Airport.

Map of the metro-rail network in São Paulo (includes lines not yet built or under construction). The city has 613 km (381 mi) of underground railway systems (34.6 km (21.4) fully underground) (the São Paulo Metro,[64] locally known as the Metrô), with 4 lines in operation and 55 stations, complemented by another 2,617 km (1,626 mi) of Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM, or "Paulista Company of Metropolitan Trains") railways. Both CPTM and the underground railway lines carry some 5 million people on an average weekday, and a few new underground lines to be constructed are expected to add another million people to the system within the next five years. The projects expected to expand São Paulo’s urban railway system from the current 323 km (201 mi) to more than 500 km (310 mi) on the next 10 years.[65] São Paulo has three rapid transport systems: • The underground rail system (called "metrô", short for "metropolitano"), with three complete lines • The suburban rail system, Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), has six lines that serve many regions not reached by the underground system, and even some other cities in the metropolitan region. The CPTM network is longer than the underground rail system. • The fast-lane bus system: there are many such bus lines in the city, called "Passa Rápido", which are street-level, placed on large avenues, and connected with the underground or suburban train stations.

São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport São Paulo has three airports. Two are major: São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU), for domestic and international flights, and Congonhas/São Paulo Airport (IATA: CGH), for domestic and regional flights. The third, Campo de Marte Airport, serves light aircraft and helicopters. Guarulhos International, also known to São Paulo dwellers as "Cumbica", is 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the city center, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos. Congonhas Airport operates flights mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. It made headlines on 2007-07-17 as the site of the worst airline accident in Brazil’s history. Campo de Marte lies north of the Old Center of São Paulo, a city with possibly the world’s highest helicopter ownership rate. Largely using this airport, an elite wealthy class takes advantage of some one hundred remote helipads and heliports to conveniently bypass heavy road traffic.[63] Campo de

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São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams used to be common in the first half of the 20th century.[66] São Paulo’s underground train system is modern, safe, clean and efficient, considered one of the best subway systems in the world, as certified by the NBR ISO 9001. It has four lines (a fifth, the Yellow line, is under construction) and links to the metropolitan train network, the CPTM. The underground rail lines are:

São Paulo
connecting to CPTM trains at Santo Amaro station. • : Announced in 2008 and scheduled to be open in 2012, the Orange Line will connect the borough of Freguesia do Ó, in the northwestern side of the city to downtown São Paulo. It will be connected to the subway lines 1 and 4, as well as the line 7 of CPTM. The following lines are composed by surface trains and managed by CPTM, named after precious stones:

Train of São Paulo Metro. • : The first Metrô line built connects the North and the South Side of São Paulo. Connections are available for the Green, Red and Yellow lines and also for CPTM trains. Tietê and Jabaquara bus terminals are also reachable through the use of this line. • : The Green line transverses the Paulista Avenue ridge, connecting Ipiranga to Vila Madalena, and also integrating the Blue and Yellow lines. It was the third Metrô line built. • : One of São Paulo’s busiest lines, the second Metrô line built connects the East Side to the West Side. Connections to the Blue and Yellow lines are possible, as are with CPTM trains. The Barra Funda bus terminal is located on this line. • : Scheduled to be open in 2009, the Yellow line will connect the central Luz station to the west side in a route constructed immediately below the Consolação and Rebouças avenues. Connections will be available to the Blue, Green and Red lines and to CPTM trains. • : Built for users who need to reach specific places in São Paulo’s South Side. Only a short distance of the line is already available (six complete stations), Train of CPTM. • : Formerly the northern part of the ancient São Paulo Railway, it connects the Luz station downtown to the city of Francisco Morato, crossing all of the northwestern side of the city. An operational extension connects Francisco Morato to the city of Jundiaí. This is the longest line of the railway system in São Paulo. • : Formerly part of the ancient Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana, it connects the Julio Prestes station downtown to Itapevi, going across the western side of the city. An operational extension with another train links this line to four more stations in Itapevi. The last station (Amador Bueno) is placed near the border with São Roque. The Julio Prestes station houses the State of the Art concert hall Sala Cidade de São Paulo. • : It’s located along the Nações Unidas Avenue (Marginal Pinheiros), and connects the region of the Interlagos Speedway to the neighbouring city of Osasco. Presently, it makes the only connection with the subway Line 5 - Lilac. • : Formerly the southern part of the ancient São Paulo Railway, it’s actually a

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continuation of the Line 7 - Ruby, and crosses the ABC Region. • : Also known as "Expresso Leste" (East Express), it crosses all the eastern side of São Paulo from downtown, to Guaianases. It is within the largest distance between two stations (between Tatuapé and Itaquera) in all the railway net. There is an operational extension from Guaianases to the campus of the Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes (University of Mogi das Cruzes), in the city of Mogi das Cruzes. • : It crosses the northeastern side of São Paulo, from the Brás station downtown until the city of Itaquaquecetuba.

São Paulo

Modern Trolleybus in São Paulo. (dab vans), but the vast majority of such vans are already fully registered with the city council, legalized and operating under the same color scheme of the main system. In a transportation world that has dreamed up such systems as maglev bullet trains and "smart roads" capable of guiding vehicles, bus-based mass transit may appear quite low-tech. But in São Paulo the buses themselves are only the most visible part of a vast operation that relies on a number of advanced technologies: computer simulations help plan the bus network, GPS monitoring keeps track of the fleet, and electronic payment streamlines fare collection. And in an experiment to reduce pollutant emissions, later this year São Paulo will test a small number of hydrogen fuel cell buses on one of the city’s busiest busways. None of this technology would be of much use without experienced bus engineers, of whom São Paulo has plenty. Over the years this cadre of bus pros has been disseminating its expertise throughout Brazil and beyond. After the terminal in New York City, Bus Terminal Tietê in São Paulo is considered to be one of the largest of the world. It serves directly 565 localities in all the States of Brazil, with the exception of Amazonas, Roraima and Amapá, as well as five countries (Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile and Bolivia). It offers a special line to the airports of Congonhas and Guarulhos, and a ride sharing automobile service São Paulo to Santos.

Buses

Bus Terminal Tietê, the second largest Bus Terminal in the world.

Articulated buses on Tiradentes Express. The bulk of the public transport (government and private companies) is composed of approximately 17,000 buses (including about 210 trolley buses), coloured uniformly according to the non-central region served (ex.: light green for the buses that go South West, dark blue for the Northern area). Until the past few years, there was a strong presence of informal transport vans

Helicopters
Due to the intense traffic jams on the roads combined with a fears of kidnappings among its richer citizens, São Paulo has become the

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city with the highest number of helicopters in the world, more than cities like New York and Tokyo. With more than 400 helicopters and around 70,000 flights per year within central São Paulo, according to the British newspaper The Guardian, is turning into a "real life South-American episode" of The Jetsons.[67] Helicopters enable businessmen and other executives to sharply reduce their commuting time, at least to the most important meetings and conferences. They are also used to bring executives in from their homes in distant parts of the greater metropolitan area and back to them at the end of the work week. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them, and still others use helicopter taxi services. One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles from the center of the city in a suburb called Tamboré, is unique in the sense that it is run and operated totally by women, including its pilots.

São Paulo

Smog in São Paulo.

Current critical problems

Congestion in Consolação Street. Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America. With the arrival of the two World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports to the United States and Europe were critically affected, leading wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities which eventually turned São Paulo into Brazil’s largest industrial hub. The new job positions thereof contributed to attracting a significant number of immigrants from Europe and Asia and migrants from within the country, especially the northeastern states. From a population of merely 32,000 inhabitants in 1880, São Paulo increased its population to approximately 250,000 in 1900, 1,800,000 in 1940, 4,750,000 in 1960 and 8,500,000 in 1980. The effects of this population boom have been: • Although urban planning has been implemented in some areas, São Paulo has developed quickly without major planning. • Overcrowded public transport associated with a high number of cars and other

23 de Maio Avenue.

Homes in poor conditions in São Paulo.

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vehicles in circulation lead to consistently congested traffic on many roads of the city. Due to heavy usage and poor maintenance, the quality of the pavement on certain roads (especially in the outskirts of the city) is problematic, and potholes and other asphalt defects are common. For a long time considered to be one of the most critical problems found in the city, crime rates are, finally, about to reach acceptable levels, according to the UN parameters of violence, with its numbers consistently decreasing for the past 8 years.[68] The number of murders state-wide in 2007 was 67% lower than it was in 2000,[69] one-quarter of that in the State of Rio de Janeiro.[70] During the first nine months of 2008, 19 people were kidnapped.[71] Approximately 13.3% of the population in São Paulo lived in poor conditions.[72] High air pollution,[73] mainly due to the high circulation of automobiles and buses in town. The two major rivers crossing the city, Tietê and Pinheiros, are highly polluted. A major project to clean up these rivers is in process.

São Paulo

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Map of the districts of São Paulo by human development index. • Pinheiros (0.960) - (Equal to Ireland 0.960) • Jardim Paulista (0.957) - (Greater than Sweden - 0.956) • Perdizes (0.957) - (Greater than Sweden - 0.956) • Itaim Bibi (0.953) - (Equal to Japan, Netherlands - 0.953) Districts in last 5 places: • Marsilac (0.701) - (In line with Mongolia - 0.700) • Parelheiros (0.747) - (In line with Azerbaijan - 0.746) • Lajeado (0.748) - (In line with Azerbaijan - 0.746) • Jardim Angela (0.750) - (In line with Guyana - 0.750) • Iguatemi (0.751) - (In line with Guyana - 0.750)

Human development
The city of São Paulo had in 2007 a survey about the quality of life of its inhabitants, for helping the government in the social politics of the city. The indicator used was the HDI the same used by the United Nations for qualifying the development of the countries in the world. It was noted in this survey that the neighbourhoods around in the centre of the city tend to be more developed than the neighborhoods located around the border areas of the city. There are neighborhoods that had very high human development indexes in 2000 (equal to or greater than the indexes of some Scandinavian countries), but also those in the lower range (in line with, for example, the Magreb) region. Most of the districts have high human development (higher than 0.800) and none of them have low human development (lower than 0.500). Top 5 districts • Moema (0.961) - (Equal to Canada 0.961)

International relations
Twin towns - Sister cities
São Paulo is twinned with:[74]

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São Paulo
States (2005)[74]

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Milan, Italy (1962)[74][75] Seoul, South Korea (1977)[74] Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (1981)[74] Osaka, Japan (1985)[74]

• Coimbra, Portugal (1996)[74] • Havana, Cuba (1997)[74] • Amman, Jordan (1997)[74] • Sydney, Australia (1997)[74] • Seoul, South Korea (1997)[74] Mendoza, Argentina (1998)[74] • Funchal, Portugal (1998)[74] • Asunción, Paraguay (1998)[74] • Santiago, Chile (1998)[74] • Naha, Japan (1998)[74] La Paz, Bolivia (1999)[74] Macau, China (1999)[74] • Buenos Aires, Argentina (1999)[74]

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Beijing, China (1999)[74] Yerevan, Armenia (1999)[74]

• Damascus, Syria (1999)[74] • Toronto, Canada (1999)[74]

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• Barcelona, Spain (1985)[74] • Miami, United States (1988)[74] Shanghai, China (1988)[74] • La Plata, Argentina (1989)[74] • San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain (1990)[74] Luanda, Angola (1993)[74] Presidente Franco, Paraguay (1994)[74] • Johannesburg, South Africa (1995);[74] • Lisbon, Portugal (1995)[74] Belo Horizonte, Brazil (1967)[74] Leiria, Portugal (1996)[74] •

•

Santiago de Compostela, Spain (2000)[74] • List of municipalities in the state of São Paulo by population • • Conservatório Dramático Musical de São Bamako, Paulo Mali • 1963 Pan American Games in São Paulo (2000)[74] • Sister cities of São Paulo • • São Paulo Turismo S/A - Official Tourism Bucarest, Board of the City of São Paulo Romania • Large Cities Climate Leadership Group (2000)[74]

See also

•

Cluj- Favelas in São Paulo Napoca, Romania • Heliópolis (2000)[74] • Paraisópolis • Vila Nova Jaguaré • Góis, • Radar Portugal • Vietnã (2000)[74] • Favela da Alba • • Buraco Quente Montevideo, Morro do Piolho • Uruguay (2001)[74] •

•

References

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•

Córdoba, [1] "Emplasa". Emplasa.sp.gov.br. http://www.emplasa.sp.gov.br/ Spain portalemplasa/infometropolitana/rmsp/ (2001)[74] rmsp_dados.asp. Retrieved on Lima, 2009-05-06. Peru (2002)[74] [2] "Mirante do Vale, São Paulo". Emporis.com. http://www.emporis.com/ Ningbo, en/wm/bu/?id=mirantedovale-saopauloChina brazil. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. (2002)[74] [3] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Paris, Estatística; Estimativas das Populações France Residentes, em 1o. De Julho de 2008. (2004)[74] Zip-file from ftp-archive. Estimated Tel population of municipalities in Brazil on Aviv, Israel 2008-07-01. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. (2004)[74] [4] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; Resolução No. 05, de 10 de Algiers, Outubro de 2002, Área Territorial: UF – Algeria São Paulo – SP - 35 Pdf-file from ftp(2005)[74] archive. Areas of municipalities in São Paulo state. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. Chicago, [5] Citimayors website - Largest cities United

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[6] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; Estimativas das Populações Residentes, em 1o. De Julho de 2008. Zip-file from ftp-archive. Estimated population of municipalities in Brazil on 2008-07-01. 22,105,060 is the total population of the 39 municipalities within the official metropolitan area of São Paulo. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. [7] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística; Resolução No. 05, de 10 de Outubro de 2002, Área Territorial: UF – São Paulo – SP - 35 Pdf-file from ftparchive. Areas of municipalities in São Paulo state. Total area of the 39 municipalities within the official metropolitan area of São Paulo. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. [8] Consejo Nacional de Población, México; Proyecciones de la Población de México 2005-2050 The total population of Zona metropolitana del Valle de México (Distrito Federal plus 60 other municipalities) was estimated to 19,826,918 in 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-14. [9] "E São Paulo". Navios De Guerra Brasileiros. Brazilian Navy. http://www.naval.com.br/NGB/S/S031/ S031.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-03. [10] "São Paulo holds Gay Pride parade," BBC [11] Brazilian Departamento de Águas e Energia Elétrica, "International Competitive Bidding Tender Announcement" [12] Climate of São Paulo [13] Empresa Paulista de Planejamento Metropolitano S.A. [14] "Nicolau Pereira De Campos Vergueiro". Orbita.starmedia.com. http://orbita.starmedia.com/ ~personaltop/Not00001.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [15] "Folha Online - Especial - 2005 - São Paulo 451". .folha.uol.com.br. 2005-01-24. http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/ especial/2005/saopaulo451/ cronologia.shtml. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [16] Ethnicities of São Paulo [17] Italian descent in the city of São Paulo [18] Portuguese descent in the city of São Paulo [19] ^ "450 Anos de São Paulo". Colunista.com.br.

São Paulo
http://www.colunista.com.br/sp450/ index.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [20] Japanese descent in the city of São Paulo [21] Jews in the city of São Paulo [22] "Bolivianos são o grupo mais atingido pela tuberculose em São Paulo" (in Portugese). Etni-cidade. 2005-03-24. http://www.etni-cidade.net/ bolivianos_saude.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [23] Enciclopédia das Línguas no Brasil. "ELB". Labeurb.unicamp.br. http://www.labeurb.unicamp.br/elb/ asiaticas/leiamais_coreano.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [24] "Portal da Cidadania". Radiobras.gov.br. http://www.radiobras.gov.br/especiais/ saopaulo450/sp450_mat15_2004.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [25] "Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática - SIDRA". Sidra.ibge.gov.br. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/ listabl.asp?z=cd&o=7&i=P&c=2094. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [26] Barsa Planeta Ltda [27] "PELOS CANTOS DA CIDADE: MÚSICA POPULAR EM SÃO PAULO NA PASSAGEM DO SÉCULO XIX AO XX" (in Portuguese) (PDF). http://www.revistafenix.pro.br/PDF6/ 5%20-%20ARTIGO%20-%20AILTONPEREIRA.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-07. [28] "Bot generated title ->". Jornal Mercado Paulista<!. http://www.jornalmercadopaulista.com.br/ cultura_jan2006.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [29] Diário do Comércio - Especiais - Locarno [30] "ELB". Labeurb.unicamp.br. http://www.labeurb.unicamp.br/elb/ asiaticas/asiaticas.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [31] Number of vehicles in the city of São Paulo [32] Number of Daily Newspapers [33] "IBGE Área Territorial Oficial" (in Portuguese). Orcamento e Gestão. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/ geociencias/cartografia/ default_territ_area.shtm?c=5. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. [34] "BBC - Último Segundo - São Paulo será 13ª cidade mais rica do mundo em 2020, diz estudo". Ultimosegundo.ig.com.br. http://ultimosegundo.ig.com.br/bbc/ 2007/03/07/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

São Paulo

sao_paulo_sera_13_cidade_mais_rica_do_mundo_em_2020_diz_estudo_706174.html. [58] "Estádio do Morumbi - Cícero Pompeu de Retrieved on 2009-05-06. Toledo". Pinheiros.com.br. [35] "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e http://www.pinheiros.com.br/city/ Estatística". IBGE. morumbi/estadio.htm. Retrieved on http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/ 2009-05-06. presidencia/noticias/ [59] Dersa website, "Rodoanel Mário Covas" noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1061&id_pagina=1. [60] DERSA official website Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [61] Nasdaq website 2007, "Brazil May Take [36] FERREIRA, João Sette Whitaker; The Bids On Rio-To-São Paulo High-Speed myth of the global city , presented thesis Rail Link" of doutorado to the FAUUSP, 2003 [62] Secretaria dos Transportes [37] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografía e Metropolitanos do Estado de São Paulo Estatística. (2006) (in Portuguese) (PDF). "PPP for construction of Guarulhos informal economy. São Paulo, Brazil: Airport Express railway". Retrieved 5 IETS. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. June 2007. http://www.iets.org.br/ [63] Brazil’s Elites Fly Above Their Fears article.php3?id_article=567. Retrieved Washington Post article dated June 1, on 2008-01-27. 2002. [38] Events in São Paulo [64] Downloadable map (pdf) of the [39] Economy of São Paulo and U.S. states underground network retrieved from the [40] Oscar Freire Street - 8th most luxurious Metro SP website. street in the world [65] All the main projects from the São Paulo [41] BM&F Bovespa: About us railway and underground system for the [42] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografía e next 10 years can be found on the Metrô Estatística. (2004) (in Portuguese) (PDF). website and CPTM (in Portuguese). per capita income. São Paulo, Brazil: [66] For the history of São Paulo tramways, IBGE. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. see Tramz website http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/ [67] [3] The Guardian: High above São S%C3%A3o_Paulo_%28cidade%29. Paulo’s choked streets, the rich cruise a Retrieved on 2007-07-18. new highway [43] Agenda Cultural [68] Secretaria de Segurança Pública [44] South-South orientation in Sao Paulo Art website, [4]. Retrieved 14 February Biennial 2008. [45] SP Fashion Week [69] Época magazine website, "Taxa de [46] BBC News website, "São Paulo holds Gay homicídio cai para 10,3 no estado de SP; Pride parade". Retrieved 14 June 2007. índice é 67% menor do que em 2000", [47] Folha Online website, "Parada Gay bate published 31 October 2008. Retrieved 1 recorde, dizem organizadores". November 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2007. [70] McClatchy Newspapers, [5], published [48] [1] 27 December 2007. Retrieved 18 [49] SP Gay Pride Parade February 2008. [50] March of Jesus in SP [71] Folha de São /paulo [6] [51] [2] [72] http://www.seade.gov.br/produtos/msp/ [52] FILE - Festival Internacional de ren/ren1_001.htm Linguagem Eletrônica official website. [73] School of Public Health, University of [53] Video Brasil website Sao Paulo (2003). "Air pollution and [54] Top High schools of São Paulo children’s health in Sao Paulo [55] Movement website (1986-1998)". Soc Sci Med. 53 (Dec): [56] São Paulo Convention and Visitors 2013–2022. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Bureau, "City Facts". Retrieved 5 June entrez/ 2007. query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14 [57] "Time de Preferência". Retrieved on 2006-05-06. Datafolha.folha.uol.com.br. 2008-01-14. [74] ^ "São Paulo - Sister Cities Program". © http://datafolha.folha.uol.com.br/po/ 2005-2008 Fiscolegis - Todos os direitos ver_po.php?session=538. Retrieved on reservados Editora de publicações periodicas 2009-05-06. LTDA / © 2008 City of São Paulo.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.netlegis.com.br/indexRJ.jsp?arquivo=/ detalhesNoticia.jsp&cod=41796. Retrieved on 2008-12-09.

São Paulo

Other Web sites
• (English) Gringoes Website • (English) The New York Times São Paulo’s Travel Guide • (English) UK House of Commons Trade and Industry Committee report on Brazil

[75] "Milano - Città Gemellate". © 2008
Municipality of Milan (Comune di Milano). http://www.comune.milano.it/portale/wps/portal/ CDM?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/ connect/ContentLibrary/In%20Comune/ In%20Comune/Citt%20Gemellate. Retrieved on 2008-12-05.

Related Wiki links
• São Paulo travel guide from Wikitravel

External links
Official Web sites
• (English) São Paulo Tourism Office home page • (English) City of São Paulo home page • (English) São Paulo official tourist agency Web site • (Portuguese) São Paulo City Hall Web site • (English) São Paulo Metro Underground official Web site • (English) (Portuguese) Bovespa - São Paulo Stock Exchange Web site • (English) (Portuguese) (Spanish) São Paulo Convention & Visitors Bureau

Maps
• (Portuguese) Maplink — São Paulo Street Guide and Maps

News
• (English) Rich Brazilians Rise Above RushHour Jams • (English) "Sao Paulo: A City Without Ads" • The Times, "Cutting-edge style in Sao Paulo", by Alex Bello. • The Times, "Where cafezinho is the key to commerce", retrieved 6 December 2007. • Guardian Unlimited, "Blog by blog guide to ... Sao Paulo". • The New York Times, "36 Hours in Sao Paulo".

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Paulo" Categories: Settlements established in 1554, Cities, towns and villages in São Paulo State, São Paulo (city), Cities in Brazil This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 23:57 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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