Rotterdam by zzzmarcus

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Rotterdam - City - Land - Water 319 km2 (123.2 sq mi) 206 km2 (79.5 sq mi) 113 km2 (43.6 sq mi)

Population (1 January 2007)[1][2] 584,046 - City 2,850/km2 (7,381.5/sq mi) - Density 1.2 million approx. - Metro 6,659,300 - Randstad Time zone - Summer (DST) Website CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2)

Skyline of Rotterdam with lights commemorating the Rotterdam Blitz

Coat of arms


Nickname(s): Rotjeknar, Rotjeknor, Waterstad, Maasstad, Manhattan aan de Maas, Roffa Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)

Rotterdam (pronounced /ˈrɒtərdæm/; Dutch [rɔtərˈdɑm] ); city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland, situated in the west of the Netherlands. The municipality is the second largest in the country (behind Amsterdam), with a population of 584,046 as of January 2007. It forms the southern part of the Randstad, the sixth-largest metropolitan area in Europe, with a population of 6.7 million. The port of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe. From 1962 to 2004, it was the world’s busiest port; then it was superseded by Shanghai. Rotterdam is situated on the banks of the river Nieuwe Maas (’New Meuse’), one of the channels in the delta formed by the Rhine and Meuse rivers. The name Rotterdam derives from a dam in the Rotte river.

Location of Rotterdam

Netherlands Zuid-Holland Ahmed Aboutaleb Jeannette Baljeu Lucas Bolsius Leonard Geluk Rik Grashoff Mark Harbers Hamit Karakus Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer

Coordinates: 51°55′51″N 4°28′45″E / 51.93083°N 4.47917°E / 51.93083; 4.47917 Country Province Government - Mayor - Aldermen

Area [1]

On 1 January 2007 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land) with a population of 584,046. It is part of a larger metropolitan area called Rijnmond (’Mouth of the Rhine’) with a total population of about 1.2 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization. Rotterdam consists of 11 submunicipalities: Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, HillegersbergSchiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord,


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Overschie, and Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants). Two other areas, Centrum (’Center’) and Pernis, do not have official submunicipality status. As partly mentioned above already, Rotterdam is situated in the Zuidvleugel (’South Wing’) of the Randstad (’Rim City’) conurbation, with 6.7 million inhabitants, the sixth largest metropolitan area in Europe (after Moscow, London, the Ruhr Area, Istanbul, and Paris). The Zuidvleugel includes Leiden, The Hague, Zoetermeer, Delft, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Capelle aan den IJssel, Spijkenisse and Dordrecht, and has a population of around 3 million.


Rotterdam, by James Webb (before 1895)

Municipal additions
The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities,[3] some of which now are a submunicipality: • Delfshaven (added on 30 January 1886) • Charlois (added on 28 February 1895) • Kralingen (added on 28 February 1895) • Hoogvliet (added on 1 May 1934) • Pernis (added on 1 May 1934) • Hillegersberg (added on 1 August 1941) • IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941) • Overschie (added on 1 August 1941) • Schiebroek (added on 1 August 1941)

Rotterdam centre after the 1940 aerial bombing. The ruined Laurens Church has been restored. large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk (’Schieland’s High Sea Dike’) along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or ’Rotterdam’ was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat (’High Street’). On 7 June 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2000 inhabitants. Around 1350 a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local transshipment center between Holland, England and Germany, and to slowly urbanize. The port of Rotterdam slowly but steadily grew into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six ’chambers’ of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), or the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the


Rotterdam, by Johan Barthold Jongkind (1856) Settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, ’muddy’ and a, ’water’, thus ’muddy water’) dates from at least 900. Around 1150,


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completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper,[4] inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Chateau-style, is evidence of Rotterdam’s rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. The German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Germany had planned to conquer the country in one day, but after meeting unexpectedly fierce resistance, it finally forced the Dutch army to capitulate on 14 May 1940 by bombing Rotterdam and threatening to bomb other cities. The heart of the city was almost completely destroyed by the German Luftwaffe, and 800 people were killed, while about 80,000 others were made homeless. Ossip Zadkine later captured the event strikingly with his statue Stad zonder hart (’City without a heart’). The City Hall survived the bombing. The statue is now located near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. From the 1950s through the 1970s, the city was rebuilt. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more ’livable’ city center with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business center.

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. Nearly 50% of the population are not native to the Netherlands or have at least one parent born outside the country. Recent figures show that Muslims comprise close to 25% of the city’s population.[5] The current mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is also home to one of the largest Cape Verdean communities in the world, as well as the largest Dutch Antillean community.

Historical population
• • • • • • • • • • • 1796: 1830: 1849: 1879: 1899: 1925: 1965: 1984: 2005: 2006: 2007: 53,200 inhabitants 72,300 90,100 148,100 318,500 547,900 731,000 555,000 596,407 588,576 584,046


With 55% of the inhabitants earning a low income, Rotterdam has its fair share of typical urban problems, such as dilapidated inner city areas. A satellite image of Rotterdam and its port Rotterdam is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug (’Erasmus Bridge’); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel (’Willems railway tunnel’); the Willemsbrug (’Willems Bridge’); the Koninginnebrug (’Queen’s Bridge’); and the Van Brienenoordbrug (’Van Brienenoord Bridge’). The former railway lift bridge De Hef (’the Lift’) is preserved as a monument in

Ethnic make-up
Figures are from 2006: • Total: 588,718 • Dutch: 317,943 • Surinamese: 52,329 • Turkish: 45,415 • Moroccan: 36,831 • Antillean / Aruban: 19,701 • South-European: 17,774 • Other non-industrialised nations: 66,464 • Other industrialised nations: 32,261


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are located offices of major multinationals. In the center of the city are the above-mentioned Unilever offices, but also Robeco, Fortis (including Mees Pierson and Stad Rotterdam Verzekeringen), ABN AMRO, ING (Nationale Nederlanden), and the Rotterdam WTC.


Climate diagram lifted position between the Noordereiland (’North Island’) and the south of Rotterdam. The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the center to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid (’the Head of South’, i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbor area. Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 meters below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or ’Amsterdam Ordnance Datum’. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 meters (22 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel. The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.

The Waalhaven by night

Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe. Rotterdam has the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2003 Singapore took over, and in 2005 Shanghai, as the world’s busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world’s seventh largest container port in terms of Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled.[6] The port’s main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as

Commerce and industry
Rotterdam is home to the Dutch half of consumer goods giant Unilever, and Mittal Steel Company N.V., subsidiary of Luxembourgbased Arcelor Mittal, the world’s largest steel company. The Erasmus University has a strong focus on research and education in management and economics. The University is located on the east side of the city and is surrounded by numerous multinational firms. On Brainpark I, Brainpark II, Brainpark III and Het Rivium


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an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, has been completed. In 1872, the Nieuwe Waterweg (’New Waterway’) opened, a ship canal constructed to keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels as the natural Meuse-Rhine channels silted up. The canal proper measures approximately 6.5 kilometers (4 mi) from the western tips of its protruding dams to the Maeslantkering (’Maeslant Barrier’). Many maps, however, include the Scheur as part of the Nieuwe Waterweg, leading to a length of approximately 19.5 kilometers (12 mi). In the first half of the twentieth century, the port’s center of gravity shifted westward towards the North Sea. Covering 105 square kilometers (40.5 sq mi), the port of Rotterdam now stretches over a distance of 40 kilometers (25 mi). It consists of the city center’s historic harbor area, including Delfshaven; the Maashaven/Rijnhaven/Feijenoord complex; the harbors around Nieuw-Mathenesse; Waalhaven; Vondelingenplaat; Eemhaven; Botlek; Europoort, situated along the Calandkanaal, Nieuwe Waterweg and Scheur (the latter two being continuations of the Nieuwe Maas); and the reclaimed Maasvlakte area, which projects into the North Sea. The construction of a second Maasvlakte received initial political approval in 2004, but was stopped by the Raad van State (the Dutch Council of State, which advises the government and parliament on legislation and governance) in 2005, because the plans did not take enough account of environmental issues. On 10 October 2006, however, approval was acquired to start construction in 2008, aiming for the first ship to anchor in 2013.

Masters of Management, the school reached a second place with the CEMS Master in Management and a thirteenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe’s largest student association, STAR Study Association RSM Erasmus University. The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research, behind the Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University. As a combined medical treatment and research center it is particularly noted for its patient cohort studies in which large numbers of patients are followed for long periods of time. There are also three Hogescholen (lower level universities) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a Bachelor’s degree and postgraduate or Master’s degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool INHOLLAND and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts.

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra with its world famous musical director Valery Gergiev, a large congress and concert building called De Doelen, plus many theatres (including the new Luxor theatre) and movie theatres. The Ahoy complex in the south of the city is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium. The city is home to the Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts (’Willem de Kooning Akademie’). Rotterdam is currently going through somewhat of a renaissance, with some urban renewal projects featuring ambitious architecture, an increasingly sparkling nightlife, and a host of summer festivals celebrating the city’s multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired ’Summer Carnival’, the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World

Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, named after one of the city’s famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) the Rotterdam School of Management. In Financial Times’ 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2006 rankings of European


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Harbor days. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It’s a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam. The self-image of the city is that of a nononsense workers’ city. In that sense, there is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, divided in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". An other saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn’t need it". Rotterdam has had a rich hiphop scene since the early 1980s. It is also the home of Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam. The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A’R’dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation.[7] One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.

shipyard and museum Scheepswerf ’De Delft the reconstruction of Ship of the Line ’De Delft’ can be visited.[10]

Architecture and skyline

Modern residential architecture (cube houses) in downtown Rotterdam In 1898, the 45 meter high-rise office building, the White House our official in Dutch Witte Huis, was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord’s football stadium de Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. During the early stages of World War II the center of Rotterdam was bombed by the Germans, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis reconstruction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture. Rotterdam is also famous for its Kubuswoningen or cube houses built by architect Piet Blom in 1984. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), MVRDV, Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat to name a few. Rotterdam houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands. • The Erasmus Bridge (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up

Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the Boijmans-van Beuningen Museum, the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), the Historisch Museum (Historical museum), the Volkenkundig Museum (foreign peoples and cultures), the Kunsthal (design by Rem Koolhaas),the center for contemporary art Witte de With,[8] the Maritiem Museum[9] and the Brandweermuseum (Fire brigade museum). Other museums include the tax museum, the nature historical museum, historical museum the Dubbelde Palmboom and the Schielandhuis. At the historical


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the ’New Orleans Tower’, which will be about 158 meters (518 ft) and the Zalmhaven Urban Tower 195 meters (640 ft).[13]

The Erasmus Bridge Rotterdam is the home of two Eredivisie (’Honorary Division’, or Dutch Premier League) football clubs, Feyenoord and Sparta, and one Eerste Divisie club, Excelsior. Rotterdam also has two Hoofdklasse (main class) club, PVV DOTO and TOGR. Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup. Seating 51,480, its stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip (’the Tub’), is the second largest in the country. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. Feyenoord also has the biggest supporter group in the Netherlands. Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title in 1959; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any. Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Dinsamo. The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam. Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the ’Holland Acht’, winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996. In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men’s and women’s teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.

The Euromast by a 138 meters (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname ’De Zwaan’ (’the Swan’). • Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the Montevideo Tower (160 m (524 ft)). • Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building ’Delftse Poort’ (160 m (520 ft)) which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group.[11][12] • The city also houses the 186 meters (610 ft) tall Euromast, which has long been a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 meters (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 meters (279 ft) to its current height. Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues. Rotterdam is standing in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Moscow, Brussels and Warsaw. Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment, including the 165 meters (541 ft) high ’Maas Tower’,


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Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups. Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December. Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.

position, crossing Rotterdam’s main street Coolsingel below street level).

Tour De France
In November 2008 it was announced that Rotterdam will host the Grand Depart of the 2010 Tour De France. "Rotterdam is a great metropolis and (as the start venue) is sure to be a big popular success – it does all it can to enable people to get around by bike," said Tour de France Director Christian Prudhomme according to the AFP. Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany’s Dusseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizers of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 edition. The start in Rotterdam will mark the fifth time The Netherlands kicks off the Tour de France. More details about the Grand Départ will be announced on December 11 in a press conference at the Nieuwe Luxor Theater in Rotterdam The Blaak open market of Rotterdam The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Ahoy’ Rotterdam, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.

Yearly events
• January: International Film Festival Rotterdam[14] • April-June • Rotterdam Marathon[15] • August: Pleinbioscoop[16] • June till September: the Rotterdam Summer festivals, including • North Sea Jazz Festival (second weekend of July) • Summer Carnival[17] • FFWD Heineken Dance Parade (technoparade)[18] • September: • World Port Days (2006: 1, 2 and 3 September)[19]

Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the shopping center the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse (’Stock Exchange Traverse), better known by the informal name ’Koopgoot’ (’Buying/Shopping Gutter’, after its low-lying

Rotterdam is well connected in international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway system.



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The ’Ring’ (ring road) of Rotterdam is displayed in darker red. There are several motorways which run to/ from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its ’Ring’ (ring road): • A20 (Ring North): Hoek van Holland Rotterdam - Gouda • A16 (Ring East): Rotterdam - Breda (Belgium) • A15 (Ring South): Europoort - Rotterdam Nijmegen • A4 (Ring West). The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam: • A13, The Hague - Rotterdam • A29, Bergen op Zoom - Rotterdam

Rotterdam Central Station, built in 1953, demolished in 2008.

Although much smaller than the international hub Schiphol airport, Rotterdam Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the second largest airport in the country. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers Zestienhoven Airport offers advantages due to rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.

The modular, temporary station at Rotterdam • North-West direction The Hague, Amsterdam • North-East direction Utrecht • A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line was converted to the light-rail system Randstadrail in 2006.

Railway stations
• Rotterdam station • Rotterdam Rotterdam • Rotterdam Rotterdam • Rotterdam Rotterdam • Rotterdam Rotterdam • Rotterdam Rotterdam Centraal -Rotterdam’s main Alexander - Northern part of Blaak - Close to the centre of Lombardijen - Southern part of Noord - Northern part of Zuid - Southern part of

Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railroad system, and has several international connections. The train system hosts: Four trainlines • South direction Dordrecht-and further (including international to Belgium/France) • West direction Hoek van Holland


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• Rotterdam Stadion - A station near the De Kuip stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts Main connections • Direct international services to Belgium and France via high speed train system: Thalys • Frequent international trains to Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium • Frequent services within the Netherlands: • Intercity line to The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport and Amsterdam (north) • Intercity line to Utrecht and on to Deventer or Enschede (the east), Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east) • Intercity line to Dordrecht, Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen (south west) • Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven and Venlo (south east) • Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal. • Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda. • Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)[20]


Rotterdam metro • Caland Line: two lines from the northeast of Rotterdam (Ommoord and since September 2005 to the new constructed neighborhood Nesselande (before it ended at Zevenkamp which is one stop before Nesselande), both in Prins Alexander) and one from Capelle aan den IJssel join; the combined line terminated in the west of Rotterdam, but on 4 November 2002, an extension was opened: the line now connects to the main railway network at Schiedam railway station, has a stop in Pernis and joins the Erasmus Line in Hoogvliet; trains on the Caland Line, like those on the Erasmus Line, terminate in Spijkenisse. The eastern parts of the Caland Line have some level crossings (with priority), and could therefore be called light rail instead of metro; however, they are integrated in the system; these parts have overhead wires, while the rest has a third rail, the vehicles can handle both.

Light Rail
To bridge the gap between national train services and local public transportation the Dutch Randstad has developed a regional lightrail system called Randstad Rail. First trains ran in September 2006.

Rotterdam offers 10 tramlines with a total length of 93.4 kilometers.

See also: List of Rotterdam metro stations In 1968 Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a subway system. Currently the system consists of two main lines, each of which has some variants. • Erasmus Line: Rotterdam Central station Albrandswaard (Rhoon, Poortugaal) Hoogvliet - Spijkenisse

Rotterdam offers 38 buslines with a total length of 432.7 kilometers.

Fast ferry
Every half hour a fast ferry goes from Rotterdam to Dordrecht and vice versa. The trip takes an hour, inclusive stops along the way. The ferry can carry about 130 passengers


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and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops are: • Rotterdam Willemskade - Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder - Ridderkerk De Schans - Alblasserdam Kade -Papendrecht Westeind - Dordrecht Merwekade. Romania 1976 • Gdańsk, Poland 1977[23]

Russia 1984[25] • Baltimore, Maryland USA 1985[26]


Turin, Italy 1958

Since the summer of 2003 an artificial beach is created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, ca. 50 cm. Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is still a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne, Renesse.

Partner Cities
• Hull, United Kingdom 1936[30] Antwerpen, Belgium 1940 • • Duisburg, Germany 1950 • Nuremberg, Germany 1961 • Bratislava, Slovakia 1991 [32] • Budapest, Hungary 1991 •


Buen Aires Argen 1990

Notable Rotterdammers
• Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist. • Piet Heyn, naval fleet officer. • Willem de Kooning, painter. • Pim Fortuyn, politician, assassinated in 2002. • Robin van Persie, Arsenal F.C. forward and Dutch international footballer. • Pierre Bayle, enlightenment philosopher.

• Jakarta, • Basel, Indonesia Durban, Switzerland 1983 South 1945 Africa • Osaka, • Oslo, 1991[33] Japan 1984 Norway • 1945[31] Prague, Czech Republic 1991[34]

Sister Ports
• • • • Kobe, Japan 1967[35] Seattle, Washington USA 1969
Seattle List

International Relations
Rotterdam has the following city and port connections throughout the world: • 14 Sister Cities • 13 Partner Cities • 4 Sister Ports

Busan, South Korea 1987[36] Tokyo, Japan 1989


[1] ^ "Kerncijfers Rotterdam 2006" (PDF). City of Rotterdam. May 2006. Twin towns - Sister cities Rotterdam/Internet/Overig/rdm/ABCRotterdam is twinned with: IRIS/COSkerncijfers2006.pdf. Retrieved • • on 2007-04-04. Dresden, • Liège, • Cologne, Germany1988 Belgium Shanghai, [2] "Randstadmonitor 2006" (PDF). [27] Germany 1958 China 1979 Regio Randstad. 1958 • • • January 2007. http://www.regioIstanbul, • EschHavana, Burgas, Turkey sur-Alzette, Cuba Randstadmonitor_DEF_2006.pdf. Bulgaria 2005[28][29] Luxembourg 1983[24] Retrieved on 2007-04-04. 1976 1958 [3] Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, • Saint • "Repertorium van Nederlandse • Lille, Petersburg, Constanta, gemeenten", KNAW, 2006. [1] France 1958[21]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[4] "The Witte Huis or White House,". [20] "Dutch Railway website". Retrieved on BuildingDetail/229.php. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2008-05-15. [21] "Lile Facts & Figures". [5] Europe works to assimilate Muslims, Journal Constitution en/Menu_horizontal_haut/discovering[6] "Home". Port of Rotterdam. lille/lille-facts-figures/lille-facts-figures. Retrieved on 2007-12-17. home/. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [22] Turin City Hall - International Affairs [7] "Concertgebouw and Holland Festival (English) Retrieved on 2008-01-26. manifesto". [23] "Gdańsk Official Website: ’Miasta index.php?id=18253&type=article. partnerskie’" (in Polish & English). © Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. [8] "Witte de With museum". Retrieved on samorzad,25,176.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2009-02-19. [9] "Maritiem Museum official site". [24] Granma - En La Habana vicealcalde de la ciudad de Rotterdam -La delegación Retrieved on 2008-05-15. visitante hará la entrega oficial de una [10] "Scheepswerf ’De Delft’ official site". donación de implementos deportivos, en Retrieved on momentos en que se celebra el 2008-05-15. aniversario 25 de las relaciones entre [11] "ING building brief". ambas urbes [25] "Saint Petersburg in figures buildings/delftsepoort.html. Retrieved on International and Interregional Ties". 2008-05-15. Saint Petersburg City Government. [12] "Sky Scraper City ING site". Retrieved on 2008-03-23. 100.php?id=4&bid=1. Retrieved on [26] "Baltimore City Mayor’s Office of 2008-05-15. International and Immigrant Affairs [13] "Sky scraper city project view". Sister Cities Program". showthread.php?p=17425220#post17425220. government/intl/sistercities.php. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. Retrieved on 2008-10-16. [14] "International Film Festival official [27] "Dresden - Partner Cities". © 2008 website". Landeshauptstadt Dresden. index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. Retrieved on 2008-12-29. [15] "Rotterdam Marathon official website". [28] "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Retrieved on 2008-05-15. sister_cities.htm. Retrieved on [16] "Pleinbioscoop official website". 2007-09-08. Retrieved [29] Erdem, Selim Efe (2003-11-03). on 2008-05-15. "İstanbul’a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). [17] "Zomer Carnival official website". Radikal. haber.php?haberno=94185. "49 sister index.php?lang=eng. Retrieved on cities in 2003" 2008-05-15. [30] "Christmas around the world". Hull in [18] "FFWD Heineken Dance Parade official print. Kingston upon Hull City Council. website". 2003. hullinprint/archive/dec2006/ Retrieved on 2008-05-15. christmas_around_the_world.php. [19] "World Port Day (Rotterdam) official Retrieved on 2007-09-30. website (in Dutch)". [31] Partners - Oslo kommune [32] "Bratislava City - Twin Towns". © Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2003-2008


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retrieved on 2008-10-26.

[35] City of Kobe - "Sister City, Friendly City, Friendship & Cooperation City". Retrieved February 15, 2007. [36] Port of Busan, Sister Ports, Busan

[33] "Durban Official Website: Sister Cities Home Page" (in English). © 2009 eThekwini Municipal Communications Department. durban/government/ international_and_government_relations/ sc. Retrieved on 2009-02-19. [34] "Partner cities". 72647_Partnerska-mesta. Retrieved on 2008-10-09.

External links
Rotterdam travel guide from Wikitravel • Rotterdam • Port of Rotterdam • Rotterdam Tourism • Rotterdam Welcome Card Coordinates: 51°55′18″N 4°28′52″E / 51.92167°N 4.48111°E / 51.92167; 4.48111

Retrieved from "" Categories: Rotterdam, Cities in the Netherlands, Settlements on the Rhine, Carnival cities and towns, Municipalities of South Holland, Cities, towns and villages in South Holland, Port cities and towns in the Netherlands, Port cities and towns of the North Sea, Turkish communities outside Turkey This page was last modified on 24 May 2009, at 15:55 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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