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					Global best practices
in contractor safety
IOSH/ASSE good practice guidelines




direction




10.1
IOSH publishes a two-tier                 Global best practice in contractor         These guidelines represent the
                                          safety – IOSH/ASSE good practice           combined global experience of many
range of free technical                   guidelines                                 senior health and safety advisers,
guidance. Our guidance                    This document is aimed at anyone who       brought together at a joint IOSH/ASSE
                                          needs to ensure good and continuously      seminar in October 2000. There are
literature is designed to
                                          improving health and safety performance    sections covering:
support and inform members                in contracting organisations worldwide.    - client and contractor practices,
                                          It summarises current good practice           culture and contract arrangements
and motivate and influence
                                          standards which apply to:                     that lead to good health and safety
health and safety stakeholders.           - all contract situations, both project-      performance
                                              related and for ongoing work           - issues and their solutions in
Direct info                               - all economic situations, in                 developed economies
Brief, focused information on health          developed and developing countries     - issues and their solutions in
and safety topics, typically operation-   - clients and contractors.                    developing economies
or sector-specific.                                                                  - issues and their solutions in
                                          We encourage all IOSH and ASSE                international contracts.
                                          members to implement the good
Direction
                                          practices described in this document.      The guidelines are intended for use by
Strategic corporate guidance on health
                                          We also welcome suggestions for            all those with a stake in workplace
and safety issues.
                                          improvements to these guidelines,          contractor health and safety
                                          based on wider experiences from            performance.
                                          clients and contractors. We’ll update
                                          the guidelines as appropriate.             February 2010
Contents




1 Introduction                                          02
2 What is good practice contractor health and safety?   03
3 Implementing good practice contractor
  health andsafety in developed countries               05
4 Implementing good practice contractor
  health andsafety in developing countries              06
5 Implementing good practice contractor
  health andsafety in international contracts           07
6 Acknowledgments                                       08

Appendices
A Keynote address: UK and North America
  construction health and safety                        09
B The UK Construction (Design and Management)
  Regulations 2007: a global best practice              10
C Construction best practices: a global perspective     11
D The UK client’s perspective                           12
E A multinational corporate perspective                 13
F Contractor safety checklist                           14
1 Introduction




These guidelines summarise the              Note: Although the seminar’s title
presentations and subsequent                refers to ‘best practice’, it’s less
discussions at a joint IOSH/ASSE            contentious, but equally effective, to
seminar, Global best practices in           use the term ‘good practice’ and the
contractor safety, held in London in        discussion summaries therefore use the
October 2000. Around 60 delegates           latter phrase.
attended, mostly based in the UK or
US but with international work
experience. Others had global
responsibilities managed from a UK or
US base. There were also delegates
from the Gulf states and Australia.
Overall, the delegates represented a
wide range of global health and safety
experience.

The seminar included five
presentations, which are summarised in
the appendices. Although three of
them focus on construction issues and
practices, much of their material has a
wider application. The two
presentations relating to the client’s
perspective cover the full range of
contracted services. After the
presentations, the delegates broke into
groups to share their experiences and
develop ideas concerning best practice
in a variety of situations. The following
sections summarise these group
discussions.




02
2 What is good practice contractor health and safety?




2.1                                          2.3                                          2.5
Key aspects of good practice health          For all contracts, good practice clients     Good practice contracts will have the
and safety culture include:                  will:                                        following elements:
- an organisational vision that              - use health and safety responses to
   includes ethical and moral values,            pre-tender questionnaires                2.5.1 Before mobilisation
   not just purely commercial reasons            throughout the tender, clarification     - monitoring against a contract-
   for good health and safety results            and award processes                         specific plan, developed using the
- externally verifiable excellent results    - create a culture that fosters co-             contractor’s specialist experience
   – with consistently low injury, illness       operation, co-ordination,                   where appropriate
   and damage statistics in a culture of         communication and competence,            - ensuring workforce competence –
   open, honest reporting                        avoiding confrontation based on             maximise use of passport schemes
- management systems that take                   narrow interpretations of the               to cover industry-wide competence
   account of local situations but               contract, both internally and with          and training issues
   which also meet global standards              the contractor                           - agreement on suitable key
- excellent contractors working with         - consistently manage their own                 performance indicators, including
   excellent clients                             dealings with the contractor and            relevant health and safety measures
- an expectation of continuous                   expect the contractor to do the          - agreement on and communication
   improvement in all aspects of health          same with their subcontractors              of co-operative culture, expected
   and safety, aided by external             - have clear contract health and                health and safety performance
   benchmarking                                  safety management processes and             standards and any rewards or
- enough resources and time                      accountabilities, including regular         sanctions to be used
   allocated for training and                    active monitoring and enforcement        - consideration of client–contractor
   competence development among                  of performance standards where              team-building activities for safety-
   workers, professionals and                    appropriate.                                critical contracts.
   managers
- prequalification of contractors and        2.4                                          2.5.2 On site (for contracts carried
   subcontractors based on their             Good practice contractors will               out at the client’s premises)
   regional or local, as well as global,     consistently:                                - site- or contract-specific induction
   processes and results.                    - identify hazards and implement risk-          training, clearly linked to any
                                                based controls for all their activities      passport scheme used for generic
2.2                                          - create a culture which fosters co-            inductions
For capital projects, good practice             operation, co-ordination,                 - making sure that site inductions
clients will:                                   communication and competence,                include ‘good neighbour’ issues and
- make sure that overall project                avoiding confrontation based on              procedures, ie addressing the
    objectives are realistic and don’t          narrow interpretations of their              expectations of local health and
    compromise health and safety                contract – both internally and with          safety stakeholders
    results; projects will be on time, on       the client                                - providing suitable welfare facilities,
    budget and safe                          - adopt up-to-date regional and                 making sure that the standard does
- stress best value over the life of the        global health and safety standards           not imply that contract personnel
    project rather than lowest initial       - be good practice clients for their            are treated as ‘second class citizens’
    cost                                        own subcontractors.                       - active interface management and
- make sure that health and safety is                                                        regular review, particularly to ensure
    thoroughly integrated into the                                                           consistent communication between
    design phase as well as into                                                             client and contractor and joint
    construction, start-up and operation                                                     ability to manage any pressures for
- make sure that there is enough                                                             improved performance, including
    time and resources for adequate                                                          refusing to condone or ignore short
    planning, for example when                                                               cuts
    mobilising construction contractors.




                                                                                                                                  03
- regular, planned joint health and      2.5.3 After completion of the
     safety performance monitoring and   contract (often forgotten or
     feedback, including providing       ignored)
     enough time and resources for       - adopt a holistic approach, covering
     workplace contacts and worker          the performance, both good and
     representatives, where appointed       bad, of the client, contractor and
-    processes to communicate and           subcontractors and its root causes
     manage change, including the        - link feedback and improvement
     revision of risk assessments by        opportunities to the likelihood of
     competent people, and agreement        repeat business orders; where
     that changes mustn’t take place        possible, expect and plan for more
     without such assessments               contracts with those who
-    implementation of systems to           demonstrate continuous health and
     recognise and reward both good         safety improvement
     practice and new best practice –    - make sure client and contractor
     the systems should be clear,           feedback is linked to agreed
     consistent, communicated and           precontract performance standards
     followed, and may be used for          and other expectations.
     individuals and groups.




04
3 Implementing good practice contractor health
  and safety in developed economies




Note: At the October 2000 seminar,           If these issues are successfully             Other aspects to consider include:
the phrase ‘developed countries’ was         managed, the benefits for contractors        - less confrontational contracts and
used. However, health and safety             include:                                        relationships can lead to the
standards vary greatly between               - increased and retained skills and             reduction of resources and costs
economic sectors as well as between              experience                                  devoted to accident claims and
countries. Some employment sectors in        - market edge                                   detailed contract variations
‘developed’ countries may have               - reduction in losses and insurance          - the UK’s Construction (Design and
‘developing economy’ health and                  costs.                                      Management) Regulations 2007
safety characteristics, and vice versa.                                                      (CDM) – see Appendix B – represent
                                             3.3                                             global best practice for defining
3.1                                          There are also some issues facing both          construction project health and
There are two main issues for clients:       clients and contractors:                        safety responsibilities, especially for
- leadership and focus on the key            - investment in best practice may               clients and designers. However,
   health and safety issues must come            appear as a short term cost,                standard methods for complying
   from clients, even where they’re less         although most of the benefits are           with the previous (1994) version of
   familiar with the details of health           long term                                   CDM were overly bureaucratic.
   and safety good practice than their       - an adequate pre-qualification                 CDM 2007 has tried to address this
   specialist contractors                        process requires significant effort,        problem; only time will tell whether
- a need to move from the cheapest               especially when it is also required to      this approach has been successful.
   price to value for money as the               comply with free competition rules.      - US employer liability insurance
   award criterion – this requires more          This can be eased by using industry-        assessments and ranking represent
   sophisticated tender assessment.              or sector-wide systems and data,            a global best practice to reflect
   Transparency of the assessment and            rather than company-specific                actual health and safety results in
   award process is still vital but harder       processes                                   premiums.
   to achieve, because some elements         - the desire for partnering and longer
   of ‘value’ are not easy to assess             term contracts is often affected by
   monetarily.                                   market conditions, and in some
                                                 situations can be difficult to
If these issues are successfully                 reconcile with an ‘independent
managed, the benefits for clients                contractor’ philosophy
include:                                     - there is a need to develop joint
- improved health and safety results,            health and safety-related incentives
    often linked with other business             that drive the right individual, group
    results                                      and organisational behaviours. It’s
- transfer of skills and competence              also necessary to incorporate
    from the contractor to the client            leading indicators, because
    organisation                                 traditional lagging indicators may
- reduced insurance costs                        become very rare events. However,
- positive relations with both internal          when these do occur, a single
    and external stakeholders.                   serious accident may not mean a
                                                 specific individual or group should
3.2                                              be identified as failing
The two main issues for contractors          - although accidents represent failure,
are:                                             they’re also learning opportunities.
- the need for comprehensive but                 Nevertheless, it can be difficult to
   simple risk assessments linked to             investigate root causes fully and
   method statements, covering all               share learning openly in the
   tasks carried out                             success-oriented culture which
- an increasing emphasis on                      good practice and partnering
   workforce competence and formal               typically aim to foster.
   systems to demonstrate and verify
   this, which can require significant
   investment and management
   resources.


                                                                                                                                 05
4 Implementing good practice contractor health
  and safety in developing economies




Note: At the October 2000 seminar,          4.2                                       4.2.2 Local workforce
the phrase ‘developed countries’ was        For both clients and contractors, good    - providing brief, practical and
used. However, health and safety            practice solutions include:                  relevant training related to daily
standards vary greatly between                                                           hazards, rather than long courses
economic sectors as well as between         4.2.1 Management personnel                - implementing an agreed education
countries. Some employment sectors in       - the use of a core, highly skilled,         and training strategy, and
‘developed’ countries may have                 expatriate management team which          recognising and rewarding those
‘developing economy’ health and                is familiar with, or can become           showing positive behaviour and
safety characteristics, and vice versa.        familiar with, local culture and          willingness to learn
                                               expectations                           - making sure that the local
4.1                                         - supplementing this with skilled local      workforce feels valued, for example
The key issues are:                            people, training them elsewhere if        by providing family welfare facilities
- communication – the need to be               necessary to ensure that good          - making time for individual
   able to speak and listen to local           practices are more readily                communication about health and
   people in their own language, not           transferred                               safety good practices and involving
   via interpreters                         - the setting of high personal               families, perhaps in workplace
- the local availability of suitably safe      standards by management team              health issues
   and reliable equipment. In some             members, showing that all              - fostering trust, for example by
   cases, stopping work due to refusal         members of the workforce are              protecting local workers from
   to accept substandard equipment,            valued, and sharing a vision for          hazards they may not be aware of.
   though unpalatable, may be the              national and/or local development
   best long term solution                     including continuous health and
- community and/or government                  safety improvement
   expectations for infrastructure          - involving local government bodies
   development and education or                to increase their long term
   training as part of the contract,           ownership of and responsibility for
   with the consequent widening of             health and safety results,
   the extent of health and safety             infrastructure, training and
   issues to be managed, and the               education
   competent resources required             - being visible on site to engage with,
- the flawed assumption that health            praise and police the workforce
   and safety standards always need to      - monitoring results using meaningful
   be raised in the local workforce.           local measures, in addition to
   Where new workers are trained and           required corporate criteria.
   enabled to adopt good practices
   from the start, developing economy
   contractors often produce verifiable
   health and safety results well in
   advance of typical developed
   economy results.




06
5 Implementing good practice contractor health
  and safety in international contracts




5.1                                         5.2                                        - including all identifiable contractor
The key issues are:                         For both clients and contractors, good         and subcontractor personnel in
- how to achieve an acceptable              practice management solutions                  published corporate health and
   balance between corporate and            include:                                       safety results and improvement
   local values, standards and cultures     - the publication of clear corporate           targets
   at a typical worksite (involving             value statements covering ethics,      -   setting realistic, balanced health
   international and/or national                human rights and health and safety         and safety key performance
   employers) with a potentially                risk acceptance                            indicators, including both leading
   multinational workforce                  - being willing to challenge local             and lagging indicators, and defining
- the availability and use of                   health and safety values and               clear accountabilities
   internationally agreed standards, for        standards constructively, where        -   identifying leaders and followers
   example from the International               they’re lower than corporate ones,         (from audit data) and encouraging
   Labour Organization, the                     but accepting variances which are          them to share best practices and
   International Organization for               based on local preferences – eg            learn from each other, to
   Standardization, the World Bank,             working hours, dress or social             disseminate good practices more
   the International Monetary Fund              hierarchy                                  quickly
   and the United Nations                   - in extreme cases, clients deciding to    -   publishing and sharing results and
   (Note: The 2001 International                decline to do business in certain          lessons learned, both internally and
   Labour Organization guidelines for           situations, or contractors walking         through external bodies
   health and safety management                 away from certain clients              -   including poor results as well as
   systems are particularly relevant in a   - regularly updating internal bid lists        good ones, since much can be
   global context, as they’re designed          with contract-specific feedback            learned from the root cause analysis
   as a basis for sectoral and national         from all parties (see 2.5.3), using        of failures.
   guidance as well as for direct use in        industry-wide feedback where
   larger organisations.)                       available (eg First Point Assessment
- the key differences in style and              Ltd for the UK sector of the North
   content between major regional               Sea)
   health and safety standards, for         - at both corporate and site level,
   example prescriptive versus goal-            implementing health and safety
   setting regimes, or the US                   management systems, based on a
   Occupational Safety and Health               recognised standard which includes
   Administration versus the EU versus          expectations of continuous
   the Association of South East Asian          improvement from ‘good’ towards
   Nations                                      ‘best’ practice
- variations in type of contract and        - using management system audit
   size of organisation – for example,          plans, reports and auditors as a
   those working on a small                     means to drive and disseminate
   subcontract have much less                   improvements, rather than as a
   freedom of action.                           basic ‘tick-box’ exercise




                                                                                                                             07
6 Acknowledgments




We thank everyone who participated in      Contacts for feedback on these
this seminar and contributed their         guidelines are:
experiences, both as speakers and in
the subsequent discussions. In             IOSH                                  ASSE
particular, we thank Black & Veatch,       Richard Jones                         Rennie Heath
sponsor of this event. We also thank       Policy and Technical Director         Manager, Practice Specialties
IRATA for permission to use the front      richard.jones@iosh.co.uk              ASSE
cover image.                                                                     1800 East Oakton Street
                                           Sarah Hamilton                        Des Plaines
We’ve tried, in this summary, to           Networks and International Director   IL 60018
identify the key points at issue and       sarah.hamilton@iosh.co.uk             USA
make them widely available as a basis
for further understanding of what          IOSH                                  t +1 847 768 3436
global good practice is in contractor      The Grange                            rheath@asse.org
health and safety. Many of the             Highfield Drive                       www.asse.org
practices identified may also be applied   Wigston
to environmental hazards.                  Leicestershire
                                           LE18 1NN
                                           UK

                                           t +44 (0)116 257 3100
                                           www.iosh.co.uk




08
Appendix A – Keynote address: UK and North America
construction health and safety




Tackling the construction health and      construction is largely driven by lowest       All stakeholders in construction can
safety record in both the United          cost rather than best value.                   make a positive contribution to health
Kingdom and the United States                                                            and safety in the industry by:
presents opportunities for identifying    The CDM Regulations of 1994 brought            - focusing on the relevant issues and
common problems, sharing good             about one of the most significant of all           where best to make the greatest
practice and exchanging information       recent UK legislative initiatives by               contribution
through partnership.                      engaging all responsible parties,              - having an action plan and putting it
                                          including clients and designers, in the            into effect
Clients are beginning to realise that     elimination or control of risk. One of         - targeting resources to make it
taking an active role in achieving        the objectives of the CDM Regulations              happen.
construction health and safety makes      is to reduce the overall risk introduced
sound commercial and financial sense.     into the construction process by:              Dr Rodger Evans
In simple terms, the client has           - a strategic approach to health and           Head of Construction Sector, Health
information on risk, while the                safety in project design                   and Safety Executive
contractor’s role in managing risk is     - planning and preparation, and the            London, UK
pivotal in securing good health and           execution of those plans
safety practices on site. However, the    - the effective management and co-             Addendum
project designer or architect often           ordination of health and safety            Since this event, in addition to
introduces risk and the workers must          throughout                                 improving CDM, there have been
almost always endure the risk.            - the selection of competent and               further UK initiatives, including one
Everyone in the construction chain has        resourceful professionals                  aimed at improving worker
a crucial role in reducing unacceptable   - the improved management of                   competence through minimum
loss.                                         construction work.                         knowledge requirements (passport
                                                                                         scheme) and another standardising the
From the UK perspective, much still       In 1998, a Construction Task Force             pre-qualification scheme for those
needs to be done. The USA’s               published Rethinking construction,             tendering for construction work. There
Occupational Safety and Health            which cited particularly the need to           have also been national awareness
Administration has published a goal       secure a cultural change to ensure the         raising projects on issues such as
for 2000 and beyond of “sending           provision of decent and safe working           working at height, co-operative
every worker home whole and healthy       conditions. The UK government then             working, and various construction-
every day”, and such a laudable goal      assisted industry in the development of        related occupational health issues,
is equally valid in the UK. Given that    the Movement for innovation initiative         including asbestos.
the construction industry in both the     to help carry forward the findings of the
UK and US exposes people to higher        Task Force’s report. The government,           In 2009, a report for the government
than average risk, with the worst         recognising itself to be one of the            into the underlying causes of fatal
health and safety record of any           largest procurers of construction work,        accidents in construction made 28
industrial sector, the successful         then launched its Achieving excellence         recommendations for improvement,
management of those risks poses           campaign to enhance the health and             including amending the Building
special problems.                         safety performance of government               Regulations to cover the safety of the
                                          departments.                                   building process, positive directors’
Endemic problems include:                                                                duties and licensing of gangmasters in
- an itinerant workforce                  In mid-2000, 10 government                     construction.
- too little skill and experience         departments and agencies working
- lack of investment in training          together launched Revitalising health          In the last decade, the construction
- inadequate access to health and         and safety, a 10-year programme aimed          industry worldwide has benefited from
   safety advice, especially for small    at raising the profile of health and safety,   the development of high speed global
   companies.                             and promoting better working                   communications, meaning that best
                                          conditions for all. The strategy contains      practice solutions can be shared more
However, the extent of the problem is     several specific action points for the         quickly and widely.
greater than can be explained simply      construction industry, as well as planned
by contractors, clients and designers     changes to the current penalty structure,      John Lacey
not acting responsibly. Too often,        in an effort to improve enforcement and        Chair, IOSH Construction Group
safety during construction is perceived   to deter some employers from breaking
as the responsibility of the contractor   the law, especially at the expense of
alone. A continuing problem is that       their workers.
                                                                                                                               09
Appendix B – The UK Construction (Design
and Management) Regulations 2007:
a global best practice



Safety management has evolved from            rethink their approach to health and      To accomplish this, the principal
‘no interest’ through ‘focus on               safety in order to co-ordinate and        contractor prepares a construction
incidents or problems’ to ‘focus on           manage a construction project             phase plan that lists key tasks,
systems to deal with health and safety’       effectively.                              including:
and finally to an inclusive ‘focus on an                                                - implementing the plan
entire vision of a project’.                  Clients must use only competent           - setting up safe systems, such as
                                              personnel and be satisfied that               segregation of traffic and
Before the implementation of the CDM          sufficient resources – including time –       pedestrians
Regulations in 1994 and the recent            are allocated to the project. Designers   - employing competent contractors
updated version in 2007, there were           must work to avoid risks to health and    - obtaining and checking method
invariably differences in the way that        safety, or at least to minimise them.         statements
the client, architect, structural engineer,   Information about the risks which         - providing training for and
safety adviser and contractor each            cannot be designed out must be                communication with competent
perceived a project. Now, with                provided to the CDM co-ordinator              contractors
improved communication between                (CDMC) to be included in the              - preventing unauthorised access to
these parties, there is a better climate      preconstruction phase health and              the site
for competently managed, accident-            safety information document. In turn,     - monitoring and review of all
free, completed-on-time construction          the CDMC (which may be a group                systems.
projects.                                     within an organisation, not necessarily
                                              a single person) ensures that an          A final responsibility is for the CDMC
Co-operation, partnership and                 information document is prepared and      to hand over a project file containing
planning are key elements of any              must monitor the health and safety        health and safety information that the
project but are particularly important in     aspects of the design which will be       project user may need, for example to
construction. Competent contractors           included in the information document.     manage health and safety during
can provide an innovative team which                                                    maintenance activities, refurbishment
values health and safety, information,        The principal contractor is then          and so on.
training, planning and public                 responsible for taking over the health
protection. An important element in           and safety information to prepare and     Bob Sayers
achieving these values is a monitoring        implement a construction phase plan,      Group Safety, Health and Environment
system that takes account of a project’s      co-ordinating the activities of all       Manager, Redrow plc
accident potential and the need for risk      contractors, ensuring co-operation        London, UK
assessment.                                   between all the relevant parties and
                                              providing information, training and
The CDM Regulations 2007 require              consultation with employees.
clients, designers and contractors to




10
Appendix C – Construction best practices:
a global perspective




The speaker used Black & Veatch’s              organise their tasks effectively by        Black & Veatch puts together joint
health and safety programme to                 identifying hazards and preparing a        labour/management health and safety
illustrate his presentation.                   plan to control them                       agreements which help to define
                                           -   fall protection and working in             awareness, responsibility,
The key elements of a health and               confined spaces – the areas of most        recommendations, scheduling,
safety programme are:                          concern.                                   inspections and (if necessary)
- utilising the most stringent of                                                         investigations, and other reviews. In
   governmental, international and         The beginning of the construction              this way, all participants in a
   Black & Veatch requirements             phase triggers daily activities such as:       construction project are jointly aware
- involving senior level management        - a crew safety meeting                        and responsible and can contribute
- providing an on-site safety              - communication of health and safety           from their own personal experience
   manager, certified in the relevant         information among employees                 and expertise.
   country                                 - supervisor safety meetings, which
- involving local health and safety           devolve accountability to front line        Les Murphy
   personnel.                                 supervisors.                                Health and Safety Manager, Black &
                                                                                          Veatch Energy Services
While the project is in preparation, the   Emergency plans must be established            Kansas City, USA
following should be considered:            with strategies in place for:
- contractor prequalification,             - heavy lift activities
    including a background check and       - scaffold tagging, grounding
    insurance review                          [earthing]
- pre-employment procedures,               - barrier identification and tagging
    including drug and alcohol             - 100 per cent fall protection
    screening and site safety              - hazardous materials labelling
    orientation, plus specific task        - hearing conservation and protection
    orientation with a middle              - respirator systems.
    management foreman
- employee training, including 10          Additional safeguards typically include
    hours of class time                    a permit-to-work system, particularly
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation/first      linked with the commissioning of
    aid, emergency procedures              equipment, and an inspection system
- the presentation of a job hazard         for fire watches, and aerial lifts, if these
    analysis. This allows the workers to   are used.




                                                                                                                               11
Appendix D – The UK client’s perspective




The speaker used AstraZeneca’s health        of projects. These alliances have
and safety programme to illustrate his       provided project timescale reductions
presentation.                                of more than 30 per cent, with
                                             attendant cost benefits.
Safety is implicit in best practice – and
best practice results in both time and       It can be demonstrated that, as the
cost benefits. There is no bad safety –      number of alliance partnership projects
only bad safety management.                  increases, costs reduce in the areas of
                                             electrical works, piping, steelwork and
AstraZeneca operates by forming              design, while safety performance
alliances with strategic partners; it does   improves.
not rely on one organisation satisfying
all its needs. In a typical project,         Safety management is a vital part of
AstraZeneca manages the construction,        best practice and through it both client
and works with partner organisations         and contractor benefit. Even where
to facilitate the implementation of          different methods are used, in
shared goals and strategies, continuity      countries outside the UK, the same
on site and familiarity with standards       standards of project and operational
and systems. The additional benefits of      safety must be achieved.
such alliances include an extended
knowledge base which promotes input          John Sudgen
and challenge during the design phase        Construction Group Head, AstraZeneca
and encourages innovation in a variety       Manchester, UK




12
Appendix E – A multinational corporate perspective




The speaker used Hasbro Inc’s health          The safety process involves                Postwork requirements include a
and safety programme to illustrate his        prequalification review and pre- and       contractor performance evaluation that
presentation.                                 postwork requirements. During the          rates the contractor’s performance in
                                              prequalification review, the contractor    eight categories. This evaluation will
Hasbro’s challenge has been to make           completes a safety questionnaire which     determine whether the contractor will
contractor safety management a                summarises the contractor’s safety         remain on an approved bidder list.
globally consistent process, but with         programme, performance, training
locally relevant implementation.              standards and any certification. As part   Hasbro’s process for managing risks
                                              of the prework requirements, project       comprises five basic operating
The organisation uses a range of              and safety co-ordinators at the site       principles:
contractors to achieve its ultimate           complete a safety orientation for          - management commitment and
goals of ensuring business continuity         contractor personnel, which includes:          leadership
and preventing damage to people,              - adherence to government                  - risk identification, evaluation and
property and the environment. Its                 regulations                                control
specific aim is to prevent all contractor     - reporting injuries                       - responsibility and accountability
accidents – even near misses –                - housekeeping and storage                 - employee involvement
particularly those associated with slips,     - personal protective equipment            - continuous improvement.
trips and falls, electrical incidents, fire   - fall protection
hazards and defective equipment and           - fire protection                          Jack Popp
tools. The inherent risks in the type of      - working in confined spaces.              Director of Corporate Safety, Health,
work activities involved in a project are                                                Environment and Security Services,
considered, together with effective                                                      Hasbro Inc
means of ensuring that any contractors                                                   Pawtucket, Rhode Island, USA
hired have safety knowledge and
commitment and have undergone
training.




                                                                                                                                 13
Appendix F – Contractor safety checklist




Introduction                               As outlined above, many organisations       Notes
This checklist is intended for use by      will act as both client and contractor in   The checklist is self-explanatory when
internal or external assessors as a        different circumstances, so we’ve used      used alongside the rest of this guide,
simple way of recording and                a single checklist. For convenience, we     but the brief best practice descriptions
summarising how well an organisation       give a cross-reference to the relevant      listed here are not sufficient on their
is following the best practices            section of the IOSH/ASSE guide for          own.
recommended in the guide. We’ve            each practice, and also an abbreviation
included section references to the         to show whether it applies to clients       In the second column, ‘App’ is short
guide for convenience.                     (Cl) or contractors (Co). You can mark      for ‘Applicability’ and can refer to
                                           as ‘not applicable’ those items that are    clients (Cl), contractors (Co) or both.
A key concept in the guide is that         not relevant to the organisation you’re
clients need to use occupational safety    assessing, but remember that most           Scoring system
and health (OSH) best practices so that    contractors will also act as clients for    n/a This element is not applicable to the
their contractors can do likewise. In      their subcontractors.                           organisation being assessed
turn, contractors need to be best                                                      0 No or minimal evidence that this
practice clients for their own             Using the results                               practice is in effective use. The
subcontractors. The single checklist       For comparison, the assessment results          opportunities for improvement are
therefore covers both roles – client and   can be converted to an overall                  obvious, so need not be
contractor.                                Improvement Opportunity rating, using           summarised
                                           the method given at the end of the          1 The practice is only partly deployed
Completing the checklist                   checklist. An Improvement Opportunity           and/or effective. Complete the
You can use the checklist to assess        of 25 per cent or lower indicates that          ‘Opportunities for improvement’
either a whole organisation or a part.     contractor OSH best practices are widely        column to summarise how it could
The assessor may need evidence from        deployed and effective. A score of 50           be made fully effective
documents, interviews and worksite         per cent shows many opportunities for       2 The practice is fully deployed and
observations before coming to a firm       improvement, and a score of over 50 per         fully effective across the
decision about each best practice. Any     cent indicates serious deficiencies             organisation
inconsistencies in the evidence can be     compared with best practice – there
recorded in the ‘Opportunities for         must be some zero assessments, not          If you need an overall assessment score
improvement’ column.                       balanced by an equivalent number of 2s.     (see ‘Using the results’ above),
                                                                                       calculate it as follows:
The most revealing evidence is typically   However, this is a relatively crude
found at worksite level, rather than in    measure and you should be careful not       There are 63 best practices overall. Let
documents – some practices may be          to use this percentage rating in an         X equal the number of practices
very effective without being perfectly     overly simplistic or competitive way.       assessed as not applicable, and let Y
documented. Conversely, many good          The most fruitful benefits are likely to    equal the overall total score (on page
practices may be clearly described in      come from a detailed review of the          17). The Improvement Opportunity (IO)
internal documents, but more or less       opportunities for improvement, leading      score can be expressed algebraically as:
absent in the workplace. It’s important    to a prioritised improvement plan.
to assess whether each practice is both                                                IO = (2 ¥ (63 -X) -Y) ¥
fully deployed (ie available for use       This type of application could be used           100 / (2 ¥ (63 - X))
wherever it’s needed) and fully            as an example of continual
effective. The rating scheme combines      improvement within a wider OSH              ‘Using the results’ above tells you how
these two aspects; a more complex          management system audit or                  to interpret this figure.
rating could be devised which              verification process.
considers each aspect separately.                                                      Do you know of any other best
                                                                                       practices that aren’t included in this
                                                                                       guidance? If so, please let us know
                                                                                       using the contact details on page 08,
                                                                                       so that we can include them in future
                                                                                       revisions.




14
Best practice                                 App    Score Opportunities for improvement

2.1 OSH culture

OSH more than just ‘good business’            Both

Verifiable excellent results                  Both

Open, honest reporting                        Both

OSH management system standard                Both

Expectation of continuous improvement         Both

Resources for competence development          Both

Prequalification includes local OSH results   Both

2.2 Capital projects

Realistic objectives and timescales            Cl

Best value, not lowest initial cost            Cl
OSH integrated into all phases,
                                               Cl
including design
Adequate planning                              Cl

2.3 All projects

OSH pre-tender responses used                  Cl

Non-confrontational culture                    Cl

Consistent interface management                Cl
OSH accountabilities, active monitoring,
                                               Cl
enforcement
2.4 All projects

Hazard identification, risk-based controls    Co

Non-confrontational culture                   Co

Global or regional OSH standards used         Co

2.5.1 Contracts – pre-mobilisation

Contract-specific plan, contractor buy-in     Both
Workforce competence, including
                                              Both
passport schemes
OSH key performance indicators                Both
Agree performance standards (PSs),
                                              Both
rewards and sanctions
Team-building activities                      Both

                                 Page total


                                                                                           15
Best practice                                App    Score Opportunities for improvement

2.5.2 Contracts – on site

Site/contract-specific inductions            Both

Community expectations in induction          Both

Welfare facilities                           Both

Active interface management and review       Both

Planned OSH monitoring and feedback          Both

Effective change management                  Both
Good/best OSH practices recognised and
                                             Both
rewarded
2.5.3 Contracts – after completion
Identify and feed back root causes of
                                             Both
good and bad results
Link this feedback to future work
                                             Both
opportunities
Compare feedback with pre-contract PSs       Both

5.2 International contracts

Published corporate values                   Both
Challenging local OSH standards where
                                             Both
appropriate
‘Walking away’ from some work
                                             Both
opportunities
Current bid lists                            Both

OSH management system standard               Both

Audits for continuous improvement            Both
Published corporate OSH results include
                                              Cl
contractors
Balanced OSH key performance indicators      Both
Best practice sharing, based on audit
                                             Both
results
Internal and external publishing of lessons
                                            Both
learned
Willingness to share lessons from failures   Both

                                Page total




16
Best practice                                    App    Score Opportunities for improvement
3.1 Implementation in developed
economies – clients
Clear OSH leadership and focus                    Cl

Contracts awarded on best value                   Cl
3.2 Implementation in developed
economies – contractors
Simple, comprehensive risk assessments           Co

Demonstrating workforce competence               Co
3.3 Implementation in developed
economies – clients and contractors
Investing resources in best practices            Both

Adequate prequalification                        Both

Partnering arrangements                          Both

OSH incentives                                   Both

Learning from accidents                          Both
4.2.1 Implementation in developing
economies – management personnel
Highly skilled core management team              Both

Locals trained elsewhere if needed               Both
Managers’ personal standards and
                                                 Both
community vision
Local government bodies involved                 Both

Management visibility with local workers         Both
Both corporate and local OSH results
                                                 Both
measured
4.2.2 Implementation in developing
economies – local workforce
Practical, focused local training                Both

Training/education strategy                      Both

Valued local workforce                           Both

Targeted workforce OSH communications            Both

Fostering trust                                  Both

                                    Page total

                              Overall total



                                                                                              17
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