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American Jews

American Jews
American Jews Predominant spoken languages American English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions

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Total population 5,128,000 approx. (2007) 1.7% - 2.2% of the U.S. population Regions with significant populations New York metropolitan area, all along the BosWash Megalopolis in the Northeastern United States, South Florida, Washington DC area, the West Coast (especially the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas), the Chicago-Milwaukee corridor, the eastern and Great Lakes region and Las Vegas areas Languages Traditional Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and other Jewish languages (most endangered, and some now extinct) Liturgical languages Hebrew and Aramaic

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Jews who are American citizens or resident aliens. The United States is home to the second largest Jewish community in the world (after Israel) depending on religious definitions and varying population data. The American Jewish population was estimated to be approximately 5,128,000 (1.7%)[1] of the total population in 2007 (301,621,000).[2] However, it may be as high as 6,444,000 (2.2%).[3] As a contrast, Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics estimated the Israeli Jewish population was 5,435,800 in 2007 (75.7% of the average population).[4] The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their U.S.-born descendants. There is, however, a minority from all Jewish ethnic divisions including Sephardics and Mizrahis, as well as a number of converts. The Jewish community in America, therefore, manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to Jews who live a secular lifestyle.

History
Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America as early as the seventeenth century, if not earlier, though they were small in numbers and almost exclusively Sephardic Jewish immigrants of Spanish and Portuguese ancestry.[13][14] Until about 1830 Charleston, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large scale Jewish immigration, however, did not commence until the nineteenth century,

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when, by mid-century, many secular Ashkenazi Jews from Germany arrived in the United States, primarily becoming merchants and shop-owners. There were approximately 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, and largely secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish immigration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants also were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, though most came from the poor rural populations of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova. Over 2,000,000 Jews arrived between the late nineteenth century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 and the National Origins Quota of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in New York City and its immediate environs (New Jersey, etc.), establishing what became one of the world’s major concentrations of Jewish population. At the beginning of the twentieth century, these newly-arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Ashkenazi Jewish Landsmannschaften (German for "Territorial Associations") for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, and Jews quickly became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews (or half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50) fought in World War II, and after the war Jewish families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became increasingly assimilated as rising intermarriage rates combined with a trend towards secularization. At the same time, new centers of Jewish communities formed, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.

American Jews
came to America with experience in the socialist and communist movements as well as the Labor Bund, emanating from Eastern Europe. Many Jews rose to leadership positions in the early 20th century American labor Movement and helped to found unions that played a major role in left wing politics and, after 1936, in Democratic Party politics. While Jews leaned Republican in the second half of the 19th century, polls showed American Jews gave 90% support to Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman in the elections of 1940, 1944 and 1948. They gave almost 70% of their vote to Democrat Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956, rather than Republican Dwight Eisenhower. In 1960 they voted 83% for Democrat John F. Kennedy, who was Catholic. In 1964, when the Republicans nominated arch-conservative Barry Goldwater (whose father was Jewish), 90% of American Jews voted for his opponent, Lyndon Johnson.[5] Since 1968, American Jews have voted about 70%-80% Democratic, increasing to 87% for Democratic House candidates during the 2006 elections.[6] Jimmy Carter (1976) is the only Democrat after Roosevelt to be elected president with less than 78% of the Jewish vote.[7][8] In 1992, 1996, and 2000, Bill Clinton and later, Al Gore each won 79% of the Jewish vote, and in 2004, John Kerry, a Catholic, received 74%.[8] In the 2008 presidential election, 78% of Jews voted for Barack Obama, who became the first African-American to be elected president.[9] Additionally, 83% of white Jews voted for Obama compared to just 34% of white Protestants and 47% of white Catholics, though 67% of those identifying with another religion and 71% identifying with no religion also voted Obama.[10] Currently there are 14 Jews among 99 U.S. Senators: 12 Democrats (Michael Bennet, Barbara Boxer, Benjamin Cardin, Russ Feingold, Dianne Feinstein, Herb Kohl, Frank Lautenberg, Carl Levin, Charles Schumer, Ron Wyden, Arlen Specter), and both of the Senate’s independents (Joe Lieberman and Bernie Sanders; both caucus with the Democrats). Al Franken from Minnesota is expected to become a Jewish Senator in the 111th Congress (replacing fellow Jewish senator, Republican Norm Coleman). Two states have two Jewish Senators: Wisconsin (Kohl and Feingold) and California (Feinstein and Boxer).[11]

Politics
While Jewish immigrants from Germany tended to be politically conservative, the wave of Eastern European Jews starting in the early 1880s, were generally more liberal or left wing and became the political majority. Many

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There are 30 Jews among the 435 U.S. Representatives;[12] 29 are Democrats and one (Eric Cantor) is Republican. In November 2008, Cantor was elected as the House Minority Whip, the first Jewish Republican to be selected for the position.[13] In the 2000 presidential election, Joe Lieberman was the first American Jew to run for national office on a major party ticket when he was chosen as Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore’s vice-presidential nominee.

American Jews
this dilemma when he attempted to understand Auschwitz: "To try to answer is to commit a supreme blasphemy. Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray [of] God’s radiance in the jungles of history."[16]

International affairs
Jews began taking a special interest in international affairs in the early twentieth century, especially regarding pogroms in Imperial Russia, and restrictions on immigration in the 1920s. This period is also synchronous with the development of political Zionism and the Balfour Declaration. Large-scale boycotts of German merchandize were organized during the 1930s, which was synchronous with the rise of Fascism in Europe. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s leftist domestic policies received strong Jewish support in the 1930s and 1940s, as did his foreign policies and the subsequent founding of the United Nations. Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion. The founding of Israel in 1948 made the Middle East a center of attention; the immediate recognition of Israel by the American government was an indication of both its intrinsic support and the influence of political Zionism. This attention initially was based on a natural and religious affinity toward and support for Israel and world Jewry. The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding Israel and Zionism itself. A lively internal debate commenced, following the Six-Day War. The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary. A tension existed especially for leftist Jews, between their liberal ideology and (rightist) Zionist backing in the midst of this conflict. This deliberation about the Six-Day War showed the depth and complexity of Jewish responses to the varied events of the 1960s.[17] Similar tensions were aroused by the 1977 election of Begin and the rise of revisionist policies, the 1982 Lebanon War and the continuing occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.[18] Disagreement over Israel’s 1993 acceptance of the Oslo Accords caused a further split among American Jews;[19] this mirrored a similar split among

Civil Rights
As a group, American Jews have been very active in fighting prejudice and discrimination, and have historically been active participants in civil rights movements since the 1930s, including active support and participation in the black civil rights / desegration movement, active support and participation in the women’s rights movement, and active support for gay rights movement. Seymour Siegel suggests that the historic struggle against prejudice faced by Jews led to a natural sympathy for any people confronting discrimination. Joachim Prinz, president of the American Jewish Congress, stated the following when he spoke from the podium at the Lincoln Memorial during the famous March on Washington on August 28, 1963: "As Jews we bring to this great demonstration, in which thousands of us proudly participate, a twofold experience—one of the spirit and one of our history... From our Jewish historic experience of three and a half thousand years we say: Our ancient history began with slavery and the yearning for freedom. During the Middle Ages my people lived for a thousand years in the ghettos of Europe... It is for these reasons that it is not merely sympathy and compassion for the black people of America that motivates us. It is, above all and beyond all such sympathies and emotions, a sense of complete identification and solidarity born of our own painful historic experience. "[14][15]

The Holocaust
The Holocaust had a profound impact on the community in the United States, especially after 1945, as Jews tried to comprehend what had happened, and especially to commemorate and grapple with it when looking to the future. Abraham Joshua Heschel summarized

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Israelis and led to a parallel rift within the pro-Israel lobby.[20][21] A 2004 poll indicated that a majority of Jewish Americans favor the creation of an independent Palestinian state and believe that Israel should remove some or all of its settlements from the West Bank.[22] Despite Israeli security being among the motivations for American intervention in Iraq, Jews were less supportive of the Iraq War than Americans as a whole.[23]. At the beginning of the conflict, Arab Americans were more supportive of the Iraq War than American Jews were (although both groups were less supportive of it than the general population).

American Jews

Percentage of Jewish population in the United States, 2000. Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on halakhic considerations, or secular, political and ancestral identification factors. There were about 4 million adherents of Judaism in the U.S. as of 2001, approximately 1.4% of the US population.[26] The community selfidentifying as Jewish by birth, irrespective of halakhic (unbroken maternal line of Jewish descent or formal Jewish conversion) status, numbers about 7 million, or 2.5% of the US population. According to the Jewish Agency, for the year 2007 Israel is home to 5.4 million Jews (40.9% of the world’s Jewish population), while the United States contained 5.3 million (40.2%).[27]. The most recent large scale population survey, released in the 2006 American Jewish Yearbook population survey estimates place the number of American Jews at 6.4 million, or approximately 2.1% of the total population. This figure is significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the 2000–2001 National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.2 million Jews. A 2007 study released by the Steinhardt Social Research Institute (SSRI) at Brandeis University presents evidence to suggest that both of these figures may be underestimations with a potential 7.0-7.4 million Americans of Jewish decent.[28] Jews in the U.S. settled largely in and near the major cities. The Ashkenazi Jews, who are now the vast majority of American Jews, settled first in the Northeast and Midwest cities, but in recent decades increasingly in the South and West. Within the metropolitan areas of New York City, Los Angeles, and Miami lives nearly one quarter the world’s Jews.[29]

African American Jews
The American Jewish community includes African-American Jews and other Jews of African descent. Black Jews belong to each of the major American Jewish denominations — Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist — and to the smaller movements as well. Like their white Jewish counterparts, there are also Black Jewish atheists and Black ethnic Jews who may rarely or never take part in religious practices. Estimates of the number of Black Jews in the United States range from 20,000[24] to 200,000.[25] The term "Black Jews" is sometimes used by those who do not consider Jews of European descent to be true Jews, and who claim to be the true descendants of the Israelites of the Torah. Although cordial relationships exist between some of these groups and the mainstream Jewish community, they are generally not considered to be members of that community, since they have not formally converted nor do they have Jewish parents. However, The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem is one group that was granted permanent residency status in Israel. Notable African American Jews include Lisa Bonet, Sammy Davis, Jr., Yaphet Kotto, Jordan Farmar, Yitzchak Jordan, and notable Rabbi Capers Funnye.

Population
The Jewish population of the United States is either the largest in the world, or second to that of Israel, depending on the sources and methods used to measure it.

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Metropolitan areas with largest Jewish populations[29] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Metro area New York City Miami Los Angeles Philadelphia Chicago San Francisco Boston BaltimoreWashington Number of Jews 1,750,000 535,000 490,000 254,000 248,000 210,000 208,000 165,000

American Jews
The Israeli immigrant community in America is less widespread. The significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in Los Angeles, New York City, Miami, and Chicago.[31] • The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development calculated an ’expatriate rate’ of 2.9 persons per thousand, putting Israel in the mid-range of expatriate rates among the 175 OECD countries examined in 2005. [32] Immigrant Soviet Jews began arriving after the Jackson-Vanik laws of the 1970s. In the last decade Miami has become the primary destination for Soviet Jews, although they are also heavily concentrated in Los Angeles and New York City. Persian Jews began arriving to the United States in large numbers in the late 1970s before the Islamic Revolution and most of them settled in Los Angeles and Great Neck on Long Island. Most Bukharian Jews arrived after the Collapse of the Soviet Union to New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, Atlanta, Arizona and elsewhere. According to the 2001 undertaking of the National Jewish Population Survey, 4.3 million American Jews have some sort of strong connection to the Jewish community, whether religious or cultural.

States with the highest proportion of Jews[30] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 State New York New Jersey Florida District of Columbia Massachusetts Maryland Connecticut California Pennsylvania Illinois 9.1 5.5 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.3 Percent Jewish

Assimilation and population changes
The similarity between the historic and legal framework of the United States of America and the predominant social and cultural beliefs of European Jews, near the turn of the twentieth century, gave hope and encouraged massive immigration. These parallel themes have facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community, but also have contributed to widespread cultural assimilation.[33] More recently however, the propriety and degree of assimilation has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both political and religious skeptics.[34]. While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Intermarriage rates have

Although New York is the second largest Jewish population center in the world, (after the Gush Dan metropolitan area in Israel)[29], the Miami metropolitan area has a slightly greater Jewish population on a per-capita basis (9.9% compared to metropolitan New York’s 9.3%). Several other major cities have large Jewish communities, including Baltimore, Boston, Chicago and Philadelphia. In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in suburban areas. In Detroit, for example, the Jewish population is particularly concentrated in suburban Oakland County. Jewish Texans have been a part of Texas History since the first European explorers arrived in the 1500s. [15] By 1990, there are around 108,000 adherents to Judaism in Texas. [16]

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risen from roughly 6% in 1950 to approximately 40%-50% in the year 2000.[17][18] Only about 33% of intermarried couples raise their children with a Jewish religious upbringing. This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s.[19]. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older. [20] Despite the fact that only 33% of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations. In the Boston area, for example, one study shows that 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised as Jews by religion; giving the perception that intermarriage is contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.[21] As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children. In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number. [22] In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called "ultra-orthodox" (Haredi) Jews in USA (7.2%).[35] The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%). [35] About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are White, 5% Hispanic (Some are Argentine Ashkenazim, many are Hispanics who converted after finding out they are descendants of Jews forced to convert to Roman Catholicism during the Spanish Inquisition. See Hispanic#Religious_diversity), 1% Asian (Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews), 1% Black and 1% Other (Mixed Race.etc). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.[36]

American Jews
However, as stated by Rabbi Harold M. Schulweis: "One of the unique aspects of Judaism is its rejection of Judaism as a biological entity, an inherited spiritual DNA, racial or ethnic. The point is that being a Jew is not a matter of genes and chromosomes. To the contrary, Judaism is the first religion to recognize the ’ger’, the stranger who chooses to identify himself with Judaism. Judaism is not rooted in race or clan or in a genetic matter but a religious tradition of choice."[37]

Observances and engagement
Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as "strongly connected" to Judaism, over 80% report some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to as little as attendance Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other. A 2003 Harris Poll found that 16% of American Jews go to the synagogue at least once a month, 42% go less frequently but at least once a year, and 42% go less frequently than once a year.[38] The survey found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a synagogue. Among those who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of Reform synagogues, 33% Conservative, 22% Orthodox, 2% Reconstructionist, and 5% other types. Traditionally, Sephardic and Mizrahis do not have different branches (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc) but usually remain observant and religious. The survey discovered that Jews in the Northeast and Midwest are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West. Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant. In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more religious, in most cases, Orthodox, style of observance. Such Jews are called baalei teshuva ("returners", see also Repentance in Judaism). It is uncertain how widespread or demographically important this movement is at present.

Religion
Jewishness is sometimes considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one.

Religious beliefs
American Jews are more likely to be atheist or agnostic than most Americans, especially

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Rank University Enrollment % of for Jewish Student Students body (est.) 6,500 5,400 5,000 4,500 4,000 26% 15% 13% 11% 16% 10% 10% 14% 14% 9% 10% 31% 9%

American Jews
Undergraduate Enrollment

1 2 3 4 5

University of Maryland, College Park University of Florida Rutgers University University of Central Florida University of Michigan Pennsylvania State University Indiana University University of Wisconsin-Madison California State University, Northridge Florida State University University of Texas, Austin University at Albany Florida International University

25,857 34,612 37,072 39,545 25,555 36,612 32,000 28,462 26,854 40,474 36,878 12,013 39,500

6

3,800

7

3,500

so compared with Protestants or Catholics. A 2003 poll found that while 79% of Americans believe in God, only 48% of American Jews do, compared with 79% and 90% for Catholics and Protestants respectively. While 66% of Americans said they were "absolutely certain" of God’s existence, 24% of American Jews said the same. And though 9 percent of Americans believe there is no God (8% Catholic and 4% Protestant), 19 percent of American Jews believe God does not exist.[38]

Today, American Jews no longer face the discrimination in college admissions that they did in the past. By 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate clubs at Harvard were Jewish,[39] and Paul Samuelson’s nephew, Lawrence Summers, became President of Harvard University in 2001. Public Universities Private Universities "Hillel’s Top 10 Jewish Schools". Hillel. Hillel.org. February 16, 2006. http://www.hillel.org/about/news/2006/feb/ 20060216_top.htm. Retrieved on 6 January 2009. There are an estimated 4,000 Jewish students at the University of California, Berkeley.[23]

Education
The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools. Until the 1950s, a quota system at elite colleges and universities limited the number of Jewish students. Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities. In 1941, anti-Semitism drove Milton Friedman from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.[39] Harry Levin became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire Paul Samuelson in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.[40]

Contemporary politics
Today, American Jews are a distinctive and influential group in the nation’s politics. Jeffrey S. Helmreich writes that the ability of American Jews to effect this through political or financial clout is overestimated, [45] that the primary influence lies in the group’s voting patterns.[8] "Jews have devoted themselves to politics with almost religious fervor," writes Mitchell Bard, who adds that Jews have the highest percentage voter turnout of any ethnic group. While 2-2.5% of the United States population is Jewish, 94% live in 13 key electoral college states, which combined have enough electors to elect the president.[46][47] Though the majority (60-70%) of the

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Rank University

American Jews
Enrollment % of Undergraduate of Jewish Student Enrollment Student body (est.) 6,500 4,000 3,500 3,100 2,800 33% 20% 25% 22% 31% 30% 99% 20% 29% 30% 30% 30% 56% 23% 29% 19,401 15,981 13,515 14,000 10,394 9,718 2,803 12,500 6,819 6,510 6,715 6,533 3,158 7,826 6,097

1 2 3 4 5

New York University Boston University Cornell University University of Miami The George Washington University University of Pennsylvania Yeshiva University Syracuse University Columbia University Emory University Harvard University Tulane University Brandeis University[42] Northwestern University[43] Washington University in St. Louis[44]

8 9

2,500 2,000

13

1,800

country’s Jews identify as Democratic, Jews span the political spectrum and Helmreich describes them as "a uniquely swayable bloc" as a result of Republican stances on Israel.[8][47][48] A paper by Dr. Eric Uslaner of the University of Maryland disagrees, at least with regard to the 2004 election: "Only 15% of Jews said that Israel was a key voting issue. Among those voters, 55% voted for Kerry (compared to 83% of Jewish voters not concerned with Israel)." The paper goes on point out that negative views of Evangelical Christians had a distinctly negative impact for Republicans among Jewish voters, while Conservative Orthodox Jews favored the Republican Party. [49] A New York Times article suggests that the Jewish movement to the Republican party is focused heavily on faithbased issues, similar to the Catholic vote, which is credited for helping President Bush taking Florida in 2004. [50] Though critics charge that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans are actually more strongly opposed to the Iraq war than any other major religious group or even most Americans. The greater opposition to the war is not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U.S. Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions are more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who share the same political leanings. The widespread Jewish opposition to the war in Iraq is

also not simply a matter of the majority of Americans now also opposing the war because the majority of Jews already opposed the war in 2003 and 2004 when most Americans did not.[51][52] Owing to high Democratic identification in the 2008 United States Presidential Election, 78% of Jews voted for Democrat Barack Obama versus 21% for Republican John McCain, despite Republican attempts to connect Obama to Muslim and pro-Palestinian causes.[53] It has been suggested that running mate Sarah Palin’s conservative views on social issues may have nudged Jews away from the McCain-Palin ticket.[8][53] Obama’s chief strategist, David Axelrod, is Jewish.[54] American Jews are largely supportive of gay rights, though a split exists within the group by observance. Reform, Reconstructionist and, increasingly, Conservative, Jews are far more supportive on issues like gay marriage than Orthodox Jews are.[55] A 2007 survey of Conservative Jewish leaders and activists showed that an overwhelming majority now supports gay rabbinical ordination and same-sex marriage.[56] Accordingly, 78% percent of Jewish voters rejected Proposition 8, the bill which banned gay marriage in California. No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it.[57] Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy. Eighty-six percent of Jewish Americans

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opposed arresting nonviolent marijuana smokers, compared to 61% for the population at large and 68% of all Democrats. Additionally, 85% of Jews in the United States opposed using federal law enforcement to close patient cooperatives for medical marijuana in states where medical marijuana is legal, compared to 67% of the population at large and 73% of Democrats.[58]

American Jews
Many recent Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in Brighton Beach in New York City and Sunny Isles Beach in Miami. American Bukharian Jews speak Bukhori (a dialect of Persian) and Russian. They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live in Queens, New York. Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to 108th Street, which is called by some "Bukharian Broadway"[24], a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Many Bukharians are also represented in parts of Arizona, Miami, Florida, and areas of Southern California such as San Diego. Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh (Bible) and Siddur (prayerbook). Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel, which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language. Some of the Jews in Miami and Los Angeles, the second largest Jewish community in the United States, immigrated from the countries of Latin America. Many of these Hispanic Jews (many of them of Sephardic origin dating back to the Spanish and Portuguese colonial era, but also many of Ashkenazi descent from recent Central and Eastern European immigration to Latin America) speak Spanish in the home, and some have intermarried with the non-Jewish Hispanic population. Recent Jews from Spain and among their descendants speak Spanish. Spanish may be spoken by other Jews with ancestry outside Spain and Latin America living in areas near predominantly Hispanic populations. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. Many Luso-Jews with origin from Brazil and Portugal (Sephardic Jews but including in Brazil, Sephardic Jews with Spanish origin, Ashkenazi, and Mizrahi) speak Portuguese in home. There are a handful of older European immigrant communities that still speak Ladino.

Jewish American culture
See also: Secular Jewish culture Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America (over 2,000,000 Eastern European Jews who arrived between 1890 and 1924), Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.

Language
Although almost all American Jews are today native English-speakers, some American Jews are bilingual with Modern Hebrew. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities which are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up America’s Jewish population. Many of America’s Hasidic Jews (being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent) are raised speaking Yiddish. Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million European Jews who immigrated to the United States (it was, in fact, the original language in which The Forward was published). Yiddish has had an influence on American English, and words borrowed from it include chutzpah ("effrontery", "gall"), nosh ("snack"), schlep ("drag"), schmuck ("fool", literally "penis"), and, depending on ideolect, hundreds of other terms. (See also Yinglish.) The Persian Jewish community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, California, primarily speak Persian (see also Judeo-Persian) in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as Kew Gardens and Great Neck, Long Island.

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American Jews

Jewish American literature
Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall (see the following section), there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Generally exploring the experience of being a Jew, especially a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history, the literary traditions of J.D. Salinger, Norman Mailer, Philip Roth, Saul Bellow, Chaim Potok, Leon Uris, Herman Wouk, Cynthia Ozick and Bernard Malamud all fall into this category. Younger authors (e.g., Paul Auster, Lisa Crystal Carver, Allegra Goodman, Gary Shteyngart, Michael Chabon and Jonathan Safran Foer) continue this view of Jewish American literature, examining the Holocaust, and the meaning of being an American Jew.

Notable American Jews
Popular culture

Lauren Bacall, film and Woody Allen, film dir- stage actress ector, writer, actor, comedian

Irving Ber- Michael Chabon, lin, composer and author lyricist

E. L. Doctorow, author Steven Spielberg, director, producer, screenwriter

Richard Dreyfuss, George Gershwin, actor composer

Bob Dylan, singersongwriter, author, poet, and painter

Jerry Seinfeld, comedian, actor, writer

Adam Sandler,

Bette Midler, Grammy,

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actor and comedian Golden Globe and Tony winning singer, actress

American Jews

Heller, E.L. Doctorow, Lillian Hellman, Allen Ginsberg, Isaac Asimov, and Harlan Ellison, in addition to the authors listed above. On the countercultural and radical political front, Jewish hippies Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, with help from Stew Albert, formed the controversial Youth International Party ("Yippies"), and the four main organizers of the 1969 Woodstock Festival concert were all Jewish, as was Max Yasgur, the man on whose farm the legendary concert took Alan place. In addition, master sound mixer and Gloria Judith Res- Greenspan, producer Eddie Kramer was Jewish. Beverly Steinem, nik, NASA former Many Jews have been at the forefront of Lynn Burns, Women’s astronaut Chairman women’s issues, most notably Betty Friedan. first woman right who was of the Jewish Women’s rights activist Gloria in the world activist killed in Federal Steinem once became a Playboy Bunny in orto captain the Space Reserve der to write a book on how women were the Boeing Shuttle treated at their clubs. Captain Beverly Lynn 747 Challenger Burns made history as the first woman in the explosion world to captain the Boeing 747 jumbo jet. Many individual Jews have made significant One of the astronauts on the ill-fated Space contributions to American popular culture. Shuttle Challenger was Judith Resnik. There have been many Jewish American actJews have also done well in the field of ors and performers, ranging from early sport, most notably Baseball Hall of Famer 1900s actors like Carmel Myers, Fanny Brice Hank Greenberg and Sandy Koufax, NFL and the first cowboy film star, Broncho Billy Quarterback Sid Luckman and swimmer Anderson, to classic Hollywood film stars like Mark Spitz who won 7 gold medals at the Lauren Bacall, Kirk Douglas, Tony Curtis, 1972 Munich Olympics. and culminating in many currently known Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg has actors, including Goldie Hawn, Kate Hudson, recently gained international prominence Shiri Appleby, Winona Ryder, Leonard with the immense popularity of this online soNimoy, Alicia Silverstone, Natalie Portman, cial networking site. Evan Rachel Wood, Jennifer Connelly, Scarlett Johansson, David Schwimmer, Lisa Government and military Kudrow, Ben Stiller, Adam Sandler, Jerry Seinfeld, Robert Downey Jr., amongst others. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish, such as Barney Balaban (Paramount Pictures), Henry Cohen (Columbia Pictures), Samuel Goldwyn and Louis B. Mayer (MGM), Carl Laemmle (Universal), William Fox, Jesse L. Lasky, Carl Laemmle, Marcus Loew, Adolph Zukor, and the original Warner Brothers. The characteristically Jewish field of American comedy includes the Marx Brothers, Three Stooges, Milton Berle, Bea Arthur, Mel Brooks, George Burns, Woody Allen, Joan Rivers, and Gilda Radner. The legacy also inGrave of Confederate Jewish soldier near cludes songwriters as diverse as Irving BerClinton, Louisiana lin, Burt Bacharach, Carole King, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott, Robert B. Sherman and Richard Politicians · Military figures M. Sherman (aka "The Sherman Brothers") Since 1845, a total of 34 Jews have served in Neil Diamond, Lou Reed,Paul Simon and the Senate, including present-day senators writers as diverse as J.D. Salinger, Joseph

11

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chuck Schumer (D-NY), Ben Cardin (D-MD), Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Arlen Specter (DPA), Norm Coleman (R-MN) or Al Franken (D-MN) (results still pending as of April 2009), Russ Feingold and Herb Kohl (both DWI), Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein (both D-CA), Carl Levin (D-MI), Ron Wyden (D-OR), Bernie Sanders (Independent-VT), and Joe Lieberman (Independent DemocratCT), along with one Senator appointed in January 2009 to replace incoming Obama Administration personnel: Michael Bennet (DCO). Judah P. Benjamin (D-LA) was the first practicing Jewish Senator, and would later serve as Confederate Secretary of War and Secretary of State during the Civil War. Rahm Emmanuel was named the Chief Of Staff for President Barack Obama. The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all time high of 30. Seven Jews have been appointed to the United States Supreme Court. Sixteen American Jews have been awarded the Medal of Honor.

American Jews
Leo Szilard, Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, Isidor I. Rabi, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, Otto Frisch, Samuel Goudsmit, Jerome Karle, Stanisław Ulam, Robert Serber, Louis Slotin, Walter Zinn, Robert Marshak, Felix Bloch, Emilio G. Segrè, James Franck, Joseph Joffe, Eugene Rabinowitch, Hy Goldsmith, Samuel Cohen, Victor F. Weisskopf, and David Bohm. Hans Bethe and Niels Bohr both had Jewish mothers, which also necessitated their fleeing from Nazi-occupied lands during the war.

Finance
Paul Warburg, one of the leading advocates of the establishment of a central bank in the United States, and subsequently one of the first governors of the newly-established Federal Reserve, was jewish. The last two Chairmen of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke, have been jewish.

World War II
After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the American entry into World War II, hundreds of thousands of Jews joined national service. More than 550,000 served in the U.S. military during World War II; about 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded. There were three recipients of the Medal of Honor, 157 recipients of the Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Cross, or Navy Cross, and about 1600 recipients of the Silver Star. About 50,242 other decorations. citations and awards were given to Jewish military personnel, for a total of 52,000 decorations. During this period, Jews were approximately 3.3 percent of the total U.S. population but constituted about 4.23 percent of the U.S. armed forces. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and medics.[59] Many Jewish physicists were involved in the Manhattan Project, the secret World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb. Many of these were refugees from Nazi Germany or from antisemitic persecution elsewhere in Europe. Jewish scientists involved in the Manhattan Project include Robert Oppenheimer, Richard P. Feynman, Wolfgang Pauli,

Science, business, and academia
Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally been drawn to business and academia (see Secular Jewish culture for some of the causes), and have made major contributions in science, economics, and the humanities. Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37% have been Jewish Americans (19 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 71% of the John Bates Clark Medal winners (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage). While Jewish Americans only constitute roughly 2.5% of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7% of board seats at U.S. corporations.[60] Since many jobs/careers in science, business, and academia generally pay well, Jewish Americans also tend to have a higher average income than most Americans. A 2008 Pew Research Center study found that "46 percent of Jews in the US make more than $100,000 a year." [61]

Distribution of JewishAmericans
According to the Glenmary Research Center, which publishes Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States [25], the 100 counties and independent cities in 2000 with the largest Jewish communities, based by percentage of total population, were:

12

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American Jews

County

Jewish % population of total 90,000 31.4%

18 Montgomery 59,550 % 7.9% County Jewish County, population of Pennsylvania total 52 Howard 19 Middlesex 10,000 113,700 4.0%7.8% County, County, Maryland Massachusetts 53 Lake Richmond 25,000 20 County, 33,700 3.9%7.6% Illinois County, New York[64] 54 Portsmouth, 3,800 3.8% Virginia 21 Marin County, 18,500 7.5% California 11,100 55 Somerset 3.7% County, New 22 Camden 36,000 7.1% Jersey County, New 55 WestJersey Baton 800 3.7% Rouge Parish, 22 Morris 33,500 7.1% Louisiana County, New Jersey 57 Rockdale 2,500 3.6% County, 24 Suffolk 100,000 7.0% Georgia County, New York 57 Suffolk 24,700 3.6% County, 25 Denver 38,100 6.6% Massachusetts County, Colorado 1,760 59 Bristol 3.5% County, Rhode 26 Oakland 77,200 6.5% Island County, Michigan 150 59 Custer 3.5% County, Idaho 27 San Francisco 49,500 6.4% County, 59 Hartford 30,000 3.5% California County, Connecticut 28 Bronx County, 83,700 6.3% New York 28,900 59 New Haven 3.5% County, 29 Middlesex 45,000 6.0% Connecticut New County, Jersey 59 Passaic 17,000 3.5% County, New 30 Los Angeles 564,700 5.9% Jersey County, California 24,500 59 San Mateo 3.5% County, 30 Norfolk 38,300 5.9% California County, Massachusetts 59 Schenectady 5,200 3.5% County, New 32 Atlantic 14,600 5.8% York County, New Jersey 66 Ulster County, 5,900 3.3% New Bucks County, 34,800 32 York 5.8% Pennsylvania 67 Norfolk, 7,600 3.2% Virginia 32 Union County, 30,100 5.8% New Jersey54,000 67 Santa Clara 3.2% County, 35 Cuyahoga 79,000 5.7% California County, Ohio

69 Burling County, Jersey

1

Rockland County, New York New York County, New York[62] Falls Church, Virginia Fairfax, Virginia Nassau County, New York Kings County, New York[63] Palm Beach County, Florida Broward County, Florida Queens County, New York

69 Monroe County, York

2

314,500

20.5%

71 Essex C Massac

3 4 5

1,800 3,600 207,000

17.4% 16.7% 15.5%

72 Berkshi County, Massac

72 Delawa County, Pennsy

6 7

379,000 167,000

15.4% 14.8%

72 Monroe County, Michiga

72 Multno County, Oregon

8

213,000

13.1%

76 Hennep County, Minnes

9

238,000

10.7%

76 Sussex County, Jersey

10 Monmouth County, New Jersey 11 Westchester County, New York 12 Sullivan County, New York 13 Essex County, New Jersey 14 Bergen County, New Jersey 15 Montgomery County, Maryland 16 Baltimore, Maryland 17 Fulton County, Georgia

65,000

10.6%

78 Alleghe County, Pennsy

94,000

10.2%

78 Fayette County, Georgia

7,425

10.0%

78 Hamilto County,

76,200 83,700

9.6% 9.5%

78 Johnson County, Kansas

82 Mercer County, Jersey

83,800

9.1%

82 Nantuc County, Massac

56,500 65,900

8.7% 8.1%

82 Ozauke County, Wiscon

82 Pinellas County, Florida

13

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American Jews
summer of 2007. (The Pew Forum on 82 Prince Ge20,700 2.6% Religion & Public Life, Washington, DC, orge’s County, ‘‘U.S. Religious Landscape Survey’’; Maryland released February 2008.)[1] 82 [2] US Census Bureau, USA Statistics in Worcester 19,500 2.6% County, Brief--Population by Sex and Age, 2007. Massachusetts [2] 88 [3] US Census Bureau Statistical Abstract San Diego 70,000 2.5% 2009, Table 76, Christian Church County, Adherents, 2000, and Jewish Population, California 2007— States. The Jewish population 88 Milwaukee 22,900 2.5% includes Jews who define themselves as County, Jewish by religion as well as those who Wisconsin define themselves as Jewish in cultural 90 Pima County, on Jewish population are 2.4% terms. Data 20,000 Arizona primarily on a compilation of based individual estimates made 2.3% by local 91 Alameda 32,500 Jewish federations (as reported in the County, American Jewish Yearbook). [3] California [4] Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical 91 Chester 10,100 2.3% Abstract of Israel, 2008, Table 2.2.[4] County, [5] Mark R. Levy and Michael S. Kramer, Pennsylvania The Ethnic Factor (1973) p. 103 91 [6] 2006 exit polls at [5] They 2.3% 74% for Contra Costa 22,000 were County, Kerry, a Catholic, in 2004.[6] John California [7] "Jewish Vote In Presidential Elections". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 91 Cumberland 6,000 2.3% http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/ County, Maine jsource/US-Israel/jewvote.html. 91 Hampden 10,600 2.3% Retrieved on 2008-10-28. County, [8] ^ Jonathan Weisman and Michelle Massachusetts Boorstein. "Obama Working To Ensure 91 Ocean County, 11,500 2.3% Jewish Vote". CBS Interactive Inc.. New Jersey http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/

35 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 37 Clark County, Nevada 37 Miami-Dade County, Florida 39 Baltimore County, Maryland 39 Pitkin County, Colorado

86,600

5.7%

75,000 124,000

5.5% 5.5%

38,000

5.0%

750

5.0% 5.0%

39 Plymouth 23,600 County, Massachusetts 42 St. Louis County, Missouri 43 Boulder County, Colorado 43 Washington, District of Columbia 45 Cook County, Illinois 45 Fairfield County, Connecticut 45 Orange County, New York 47,100

4.6%

13,200

4.5%

25,500

4.5%

234,400 38,800

4.4% 4.4%

content/story/2008/07/24/ 2.3% 91 Santa Cruz 6,000 ST2008072400052.html. Retrieved on County, 2008-08-14. California [9] OP-ED: Why Jews voted for Obama by 48 Alexandria, 5,400 4.2% 98 Bristol 11,600 2.2% Marc Virginia County, Stanley, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), Massachusetts November 5, 2008 49 Albany 12,000 4.1% (retrieved on December 6, 2008). County, New 98 [10] CNN Exit Poll Clay County, 75 2.2% York Georgia [11] http://www.jpost.com/servlet/ Satellite?cid=1167467657033&pagename=JPost/ 49 Alpine County, 50 4.1% 98 Washtenaw 7,000 2.2% JPArticle/ShowFull California County, [12] See Ynet News at [7] Michigan 49 Sarasota 13,500 4.1% [13] What is the future for Republican Jews? County, by Eric Fingerhut, Jewish Telegraphic Florida Agency (JTA), November 25, 2008. [14] Joachim Prinz March on Washington Speech [15] Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement [1] US Census Bureau Statistical Abstract March on Washington 2009, Table 74. For persons 18 years or [16] Staub (2004) p.80 older, based on the Religious Landscape [17] Staub (2004) Survey, a survey conducted in the 15,000 4.4%

Notes and references

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[18] Roberta Strauss Feuerlicht. “The Fate of the Jews, A people torn between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics”. Times Books, 1983. ISBN 0812910605 [19] Danny Ben-Moshe, Zohar Segev, Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish Identity, Published by Sussex Academic Press, 2007, ISBN 1845191897, Chapter 7, The Changing Identity of American Jews, Israel and the Peace Process, by Ofira Seliktar, p126[8]. The 1993 Oslo Agreement made this split in the Jewish community official. Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin’s handshake with Yasir Arafat during the 13 September White House ceremony elicited dramatically opposed reactions among American Jews. To the liberal universalists the accord was highly welcome news. As one commentator put it, after a year of tension between Israel and the United States, “there was an audible sigh of relief from American and Jewish liberals. Once again, they could support Israel as good Jews, committed liberals, and loyal Americans.” The community “could embrace the Jewish state, without compromising either its liberalism or its patriotism”. Hidden deeper in this collective sense of relief was the hope that, following the peace with the Palestinians, Israel would transform itself into a Western-style liberal democracy, featuring a full separation between the state and religion. Not accidentally, many of the leading advocates of Oslo, including the Yossi Beilin, the then Deputy Foreign Minister, cherish the belief that a “normalized” Israel would become less Jewish and more democratic. However, to the hard-core Zionists --- the Orthodox community and right wing Jews --- the peace treaty amounted to what some dubbed the “handshake earthquake.”

American Jews
From the perspective of the Orthodox, Oslo was not just an affront to the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael, but also a personal threat to the Orthodox settlers -- often kin or former congregants --- in the West Bank and Gaza. For Jewish nationalists such as Morton Klein, the president of the Zionist organization of America, and Norman Podhoretz, the editor of Commentary, the peace treaty amounted to an appeasement of Palestinian terrorism. They and others repeatedly warned that the newly established Palestinian Authority (PA) would pose a serious security threat to Israel.</blockqoute> [20] Danny Ben-Moshe, Zohar Segev, Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish Identity, Sussex Academic Press, 2007, ISBN 1845191897, Chapter 7, The Changing Identity of American Jews, Israel and the Peace Process, by Ofira Seliktar, p126 Abandoning any pretense of unity, both segments began to develop separate advocacy and lobbying organizations. The liberal supporters of the Oslo Accord worked through Americans for Peace Now (APN), Israel Policy Forum (IPF) and other groups friendly to the Labour government in Israel. They tried to assure Congress that American Jewry was behind the Accord and defended the efforts of the administration to help the fledgling Palestinian authority (PA) including promises of financial aid. In a battle for public opinion, IPF commissioned a number of polls showing widespread support for Oslo among the community. Working on the other side of the fence, a host of Orthodox groups, such as ZOA, Americans For a Safe Israel (AFSI), and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA)

15

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
launched a major public opinion campaign against Oslo. On 10 October 1993, the opponents of the Palestinian-Israeli accord, organized at the American Leadership Conference for a Safe Israel, where they warned that Israel was prostrating itself before a “an armed thug”, and predicted and that the “thirteenth of September is a date that will live in infamy”. Hard-core Zionists also criticized, often in harsh language, Prime Minister Rabin and Shimon Perez, his foreign minister and chief architect of the peace accord. With the community so strongly divided, AIPAC and the Presidents Conference, which was tasked with representing the national Jewish consensus, struggled to keep the increasingly shrill discourse civil. Reflecting these tensions, Abraham Foxman from the Jewish Anti-defamation League was forced by the conference to apologize for bad mouthing ZOA’s Klein. The Conference, which under its organizational guidelines was in charge of moderating communal discourse, reluctantly censured some Orthodox spokespeople for attacking Colette Avital, the labor-appointed Israel Council General in New York and an ardent supporter of the peace process.</blockqoute> [21] Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 6, No. 1 - March 2002, Scott Lasensky, Underwriting Peace in the Middle East: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Limits of Economic Inducements The Palestinian aid effort was certainly not helped by the heated debate that quickly developed inside the Beltway. Not only was the Israeli electorate divided on the Oslo accords, but so, too, was the American Jewish community,

American Jews
particularly at the leadership level and among the major New York and Washington-based public interest groups. U.S. Jews opposed to Oslo teamed up with Israelis "who brought their domestic issues to Washington" and together they pursued a campaign that focused most of its attention on Congress and the aid program. The dynamic was new to Washington. The Administration, the Rabin-Peres government, and some American Jewish groups teamed on one side while Israeli opposition groups and anti-Oslo American Jewish organizations pulled Congress in the other direction. [22] [9] [23] [10] [24] David Whelan (2003-05-08). "A Fledgling Grant Maker Nurtures Young Jewish ’Social Entrepreneurs’". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. http://philanthropy.com/ jobs/2003/05/15/20030515-359473.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [25] Michael Gelbwasser (1998-04-10). "Organization for black Jews claims 200,000 in U.S.". j.. http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/ module/displaystory/story_id/8426/. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. [26] ARIS Key Findings at http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/ research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm [27] Pfeffer, Anshel. "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/ 903585.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. [28] Brandeis University Study Finds that American-Jewish Population is Significantly Larger than Previously Thought - Press Release [29] ^ "The Largest Jewish Communities". adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/largecom/ com_judaism.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-08. [30] "The Largest Jewish Communities". adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/largecom/

16

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American Jews

com_judaism.html. Retrieved on http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/ 2008-11-08. jsource/US-Israel/lobby.html. Retrieved [31] Gold, Steven; Phillips, Bruce (1996), on 2008-09-22. "Israelis in the United States" (PDF), [47] ^ Sophia Tareem. "Family ties: Obama counts rabbi among relatives". The American Jewish Yearbook, 1996 96: Associated Press. http://ap.google.com/ 51–101, http://www.ajcarchives.org/ article/ AJC_DATA/Files/ ALeqM5gr3Tlt4jLh-22i1pjxPpAe5ULeWgD9380CUO1 1996_3_SpecialArticles.pdf Retrieved on 2008-09-22. [32] "Database on immigrants and [48] "Busting the Myth: Jews Remain expatriates:Emigration rates by country Democrats, New Independent Polling of birth (Total population)". Organisation Shows". National Jewish Democratic for Economic Co-ordination and Council. http://www.njdc.org/media/ Development, Statistics Portal. entry/ http://www.oecd.org/document/51/ busting_the_myth_jews_remain_democrats_new_inde 0,3343,en_2825_494553_34063091_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-02. Retrieved on April 15 2008. [49] www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/uslaner/ [33] Postrel, Virginia (May 1993). Uncommon uslanerlichbachjewishvotingbehaviorsummary.pdf Culture. Reason Magazine. [50] http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/05/ http://www.reason.com/news/show/ politics/campaign/ 29368.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-05. 05religion.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&oref=slogin [34] Review of Jewish Assimilation in Modern [51] Jeffrey M. Jones. "Among Religious Times by Bela Vago. Marsha L. Groups, Jewish Americans Most Strongly Rozenblit, Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 44, Oppose War". Gallup, Inc.. No. 3/4 (Summer - Autumn, 1982), pp. http://www.gallup.com/poll/26677/ 334-335 [11] Among-Religious-Groups-JewishReligious Jews regarded those Americans-Most-Strongly-Opposewho assimilated with horror, War.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-10-04. and Zionists campaigned [52] "Editor’s Comments" (PDF). Near East. against assimilation as an act of http://www.aipac.org/Publications/ treason. AIPACPeriodicalsNearEastReport/ NER011507.pdf. Retrieved on [35] ^ http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/ 2008-10-04. news/archive/list/item/ [53] ^ Yitzhak Benhorin. "78% of American ?id=2932&year=2007&month=07 Jews vote Obama". Yedioth Internet. [36] ARIS 2001 http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/ [37] [12] 0,7340,L-3618408,00.html. Retrieved on [38] ^ While Most Americans Believe in God, 2008-10-05. Only 36% Attend a Religious Service [54] "Barack Obama tells Jewish voters of his Once a Month or More Often support for Israel". Telegraph Media [39] ^ Milton Friedman and Rose D. Group Limited 2008. Friedman, Two Lucky People: Memoirs http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ (1998) p. 58 online newstopics/uselection2008/2017043/ [40] Morton Keller, Making Harvard Modern: Barack-Obama-tells-Jewish-voters-of-hisThe Rise of America’s University. (2001), support-for-Israel.html. Retrieved on pp 75, 82, 97, 212, 472. 2008-11-06. [41] ^ Hillel’s Top 10 Jewish Schools [55] http://www.jewsonfirst.org/ [42] Brandeis University howjewsseegr.html [43] Northwestern University [56] Rebecca Spence. "Poll: Conservative [44] Washington University Leaders Back Gay Rabbis". Forward [45] Steven L. Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Association. http://www.forward.com/ Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago articles/9989/. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. Press, 1985), pp. 150-165. [57] "L.A. Jews overwhelmingly opposed Prop. [46] Mitchell Bard. "The Israeli and Arab 8, exit poll finds". LA Times. Lobbies". The American-Israeli http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/ Cooperative Enterprise.

17

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2008/11/la-jews-overwhe.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-10. [58] "Majority of Americans Oppose US Marijuana Policies". NORML. http://norml.org/ index.cfm?Group_ID=5052. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. [59] Brody, Seymour. "Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America: World War II to the Present, A Judaica Collection Exhibit." [60] "Mother Jones, the Changing Power Elite, 1998". http://www.motherjones.com/news/ feature/1998/03/zweigenhaft.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. [61] New Study Claims US Jews Have Reasons to Be Proud - News Briefs Arutz Sheva [62] Manhattan [63] Brooklyn [64] Staten Island

American Jews
• Moore, Deborah Dash. To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A. 1994 • Moore, Deborah Dash. GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation (2006) • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. 1999. • Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp. • Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-10197-X 512pp • Shapiro, Edward S. A Time for Healing: American Jewry since World War II. Jewish People in America, vol. 5. 1992. • Sorin, Gerald. Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America. 1997. • Staub, Michael E. ed. The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. ISBN 1-58465-417-1 online review • Svonkin, Stuart. Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties. 1997 • Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don’t Know about the Judaism of America’s Jews." Contemporary Jewry (2002) 23: 72-95. Issn: 0147-1694 Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973-2002. • Wertheimer, Jack, ed. The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed. 1987. • Whitfield, Stephen J. In Search of American Jewish Culture. 1999

Bibliography
• Antler, Joyce., ed. Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture. 1998. • Cohen, Naomi. Jews in Christian America: The Pursuit of Religious Equality. 1992. • Cutler, Irving. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb. 1995 • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004) online • Dinnerstein, Leonard. Antisemitism in America. 1994. • Dollinger, Marc. Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America. 2000. • Eisen, Arnold M. The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology. 1983. • Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2nd ed., 1989. • Goren, Arthur. The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews. 1999. • Gurock, Jeffrey S. From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America. Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998. • Hyman, Paula, and Deborah Dash Moore, eds. Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 1997 • Lederhendler, Eli. New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970. 2001

External links
• American Jewish University • American Jewish Historical Society • Short article on the archaeology of immigrant California Jews see Chapter 3. • Resources > Jewish communities > America > Northern America The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem • Feinstein Center. Comprehensive collection of links to Jewish American history, organizations, and issues. • United Jewish Communities of North America. Also site of population survey statistics.

18

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Jews in America from the Jewish Virtual Library. • Jewish-American Literature • Thoughts About The Jewish People By American Thinkers • Jewish-American History on the Web • Jewish American Hall of Fame

American Jews
• The Jewish Impact on America • Jewish Success In The American Media • 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey • 2005 Great Boston Jewish Community Study

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