American_citizenship by zzzmarcus


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United States nationality law

United States nationality law
Responsibilities of citizens
Citizens have the duty to serve in a jury, if selected. Citizens are also required (under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code) to pay taxes on their total income from all sources worldwide, including income earned abroad while residing abroad. Under certain circumstances, however, U.S. citizens living and working abroad may be able to reduce or eliminate their U.S. federal income tax via the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion and/or the Foreign Tax Credit.[1] U.S. taxes payable may be alternatively reduced by credits for foreign income taxes regardless of the length of stay abroad. The United States Government also insists that U.S. citizens travel into and out of the United States on a U.S. passport, regardless of any other nationality they may possess. Male U.S. citizens (including those living permanently abroad and/or with dual U.S./ other citizenship) are required to register with the Selective Service System at age 18 for possible conscription into the armed forces. Although no one has been drafted in the U.S. since 1973, draft registration continues for possible reinstatement on some future date. In the Oath of Citizenship, immigrants becoming naturalized U.S. citizens swear to defend the Constitution and laws of the US and, when required by the law, to bear arms on behalf of the U.S. and/or perform noncombatant service.

The United States flag Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization. The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, and divestiture from, citizenship of the United States. The requirements have become more explicit since the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, with the most recent changes to the statutory law having been made by the United States Congress in 2001.

Possession of citizenship
Rights of citizens
See also: Voting rights in the United States Adult citizens of the United States who are residents of one of the 50 states have the right to participate fully in the political system of the United States, as well as their state and local governments (with most states having restrictions on voting by persons imprisoned for felonies, some states having restrictions on voting by people convicted of felonies, and a federal constitutional prohibition on naturalized persons running for President and Vice President of the United States), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and are allowed to reside in the United States and certain territories without any immigration requirements.

Acquisition of citizenship
There are various ways in which a person can acquire United States citizenship, either at birth or later on in life.

Birth within the United States
The Supreme Court has never explicitly ruled on whether children born in the United States to illegal immigrant parents are entitled to birthright citizenship via the 14th Amendment,[2] although it has generally been assumed that they are.[3] A birth certificate issued by a U.S. state or territorial


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government is evidence of citizenship, and is usually accepted as proof of citizenship. This differs from most western nations; countries of the European Union which awarded citizenship to children born there (such as Ireland until 31st December 2005) closed this possibility. In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898), the Supreme Court ruled that a person who • is born in the United States • of parents who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of a foreign power • whose parents have a permanent domicile and residence in the United States • whose parents are there carrying on business and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity of the foreign power to which they are subject becomes, at the time of his birth, a citizen of the United States, by virtue of the first clause of the 14th amendment of the Constitution.

United States nationality law
3. A minimum of 2 of these 5 years in the United States were after the citizen parent’s 14th birthday. INA 301(g) makes additional provisions to satisfy the physical-presence requirements for periods citizens spent abroad in “honorable service in the Armed Forces of the United States, or periods of employment with the United States Government or with an international organization”. Additionally citizens who spent time living abroad as the “dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person” in any of the previously mentioned organizations can also be counted. A person’s record of birth abroad, if registered with a U.S. consulate or embassy, is proof of his or her citizenship. Such a person may also apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship to have a record of his or her citizenship. Such documentation is often useful to prove citizenship in lieu of the availability of an American birth certificate. Different rules apply for persons born abroad to one U.S. citizen before November 14, 1986. United States law on this subject changed multiple times throughout the twentieth century, and the law is applicable as it existed at the time of the individual’s birth.

Through birth abroad to two United States citizens
See also: jus sanguinis In most cases, one is a U.S. citizen if both of the following are true: 1. Both parents were U.S. citizens at the time of the child’s birth 2. At least one parent lived in the United States prior to the child’s birth. INA 301(c) and INA 301(a)(3) state, "and one of whom has had a residence." The FAM (Foreign Affairs Manual) states "no amount of time specified." A person’s record of birth abroad, if registered with a U.S. consulate or embassy, is proof of his or her citizenship. He or she may also apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship to have his or her citizenship recognized.


Through birth abroad to one United States citizen
For persons born on or after November 14, 1986, a person is a U.S. citizen if all of the following are true:[4] 1. One of the person’s parents was a U.S. citizen when the person in question was born; 2. The citizen parent lived at least 5 years in the United States before his or her child’s birth;

A judge swears in a new citizen. New York, 1910 A person who was not born a U.S. citizen may acquire U.S. citizenship through a process known as naturalization.

Eligibility for naturalization
To become a naturalized United States citizen, one must be at least eighteen years of age at the time of filing, a legal permanent


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resident of the United States, and have had a status of a legal permanent resident in the United States for five years less 90 days before they apply (this requirement is reduced to three years less 90 days if they (a) acquired legal permanent resident status, (b) have been married to and living with a citizen for the past three years and (c) the spouse has been a U.S. citizen for at least three years prior to the applicant applying for naturalization.) They must have been physically present for at least 30 months of 60 months prior to the date of filing their application. Also during those 60 months if the legal permanent resident was outside of the U.S. for a continuous period of 6 months or more they are disqualified from naturalizing (certain exceptions apply for those continuous periods of six months to 1 year). They must be a "person of good moral character", and must pass a test on United States history and government.[5][6] Most applicants must also have a working knowledge of the English language.[5] There are exceptions, introduced in 1990, for long-resident older applicants and those with mental or physical disabilities.[7][8] This requirement for an ability to read, write, and speak English is not regarded as too difficult, since the test requires that applicants read and write in English.

United States nationality law
specific requirements of naturalization to successfully obtain U.S. citizenship.[12]

Eligibility for public office
A person who becomes a U.S. citizen through naturalization is not considered a natural born citizen. Consequently, naturalized U.S. citizens are not eligible to become President of the United States or Vice President of the United States, which would ordinarily be the case as established by the Presidential Succession Act. For example, though the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor are tenth and eleventh in the presidential line of succession, Elaine Chao and Carlos Gutierrez (respectively former U.S. Secretaries of Labor and Commerce under President George W. Bush) would have been unable to succeed to the presidency because they became U.S. citizens through naturalization. The highest-ranking naturalized citizens to have been excluded from the Presidential Line of Succession were Henry Kissinger and Madeleine Albright, each of whom would have been fourth in line as Secretary of State had they been natural born citizens. Whether this restriction applies to children born to non-U.S. citizens but adopted as minors by U.S. citizens is a matter of some debate, since the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 is ambiguous as to whether acquisition of citizenship by that route is to be regarded as naturalized or natural-born. Those who argue that the restriction does not apply point out that the child automatically becomes a citizen even though violating every single requirement of eligibility for naturalization, and thus the case falls closer to the situation of birth abroad to U.S. citizens than to naturalization. This interpretation is in concert with the wording of the Naturalization Act of 1790, that "the children of citizens of the United States that may be born beyond the sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born citizens", which does not draw a distinction between biological children and adopted children, even though the process of adoption was certainly well known at the time. In fact, the phrase "natural born citizen" is not defined anywhere in the Constitution itself and its interpretation has never been the subject of a U.S. Supreme Court ruling. Thus, some argue that even those born abroad to U.S. citizens are not eligible to ascend to the Presidency, since an act of the United States

Citizenship test
Applicants for citizenship are asked ten questions, and must answer at least six correctly. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has published a list of 96 sample questions (with answers), from which the questions asked are normally drawn. The full list of questions can be found in the "A Guide to Naturalization" which is available for free from the USCIS.[9]

New naturalization test
There is a new naturalization test that is being utilized for all N-400 applications filed on or after October 1, 2008.[10] If the applicant filed the N-400 application before October 1, 2008 then the applicant may choose to take the new test or the old test. The new test examines the applicant’s knowledge of American society and the English language. Sample questions and answers are published by the USCIS in English, Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, and Vietnamese.[11] Besides passing the citizenship test: citizenship applicants must also satisfy other


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Congress such as the Naturalization Act may not overrule the Constitution (see "Natural born citizen" as presidential qualification). Thus far, presidential candidates George W. Romney (born in Mexico), Barry Goldwater and John McCain (born in U.S. territories), were never seriously challenged on the basis of their "natural born" citizenship, but no candidate falling under this classification has ever actually become President, and therefore the question must be regarded as not having been finally decided.

United States nationality law

Dual citizenship
Based on the U.S. Department of State regulation on dual citizenship (7 FAM 1162), the Supreme Court of the United States has stated that dual citizenship is a "status long recognized in the law" and that "a person may have and exercise rights of nationality in two countries and be subject to the responsibilities of both. The mere fact he asserts the rights of one citizenship does not without more mean that he renounces the other," (Kawakita v. U.S., 343 U.S. 717) (1952). In Schneider v. Rusk 377 U.S. 163 (1964), the US Supreme Court ruled that a naturalized U.S. citizen has the right to return to his native country and to resume his former citizenship, and also to remain a U.S. citizen even if he never returns to the United States. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) neither defines dual citizenship nor takes a position for it or against it. There has been no prohibition against dual citizenship, but some provisions of the INA and earlier U.S. nationality laws were designed to reduce situations in which dual citizenship exists. Although naturalizing citizens are required to undertake an oath renouncing previous allegiances, the oath has never been enforced to require the actual termination of original citizenship.[14] Although the U.S. Government does not endorse dual citizenship as a matter of policy, it recognizes the existence of dual citizenship and completely tolerates the maintenance of multiple citizenship by U.S. citizens. In the past, claims of other countries on dual-national U.S. citizens sometimes placed them in situations where their obligations to one country were in conflict with the laws of the other. However, as fewer countries require military service and most base other obligations, such as the payment of taxes, on residence and not citizenship, these conflicts have become less frequent. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in recent years in the number of people who maintain U.S. citizenship in other countries. One circumstance where dual citizenship may run counter to expectations of government agencies is in matters of security clearance. Any person granted a Yankee White vetting must be absolutely free of foreign influence, and for other security clearances one of the grounds that may result in a

Expeditious naturalization of children
Effective April 1, 1995, a child born outside the U.S. to a U.S. citizen parent, if not already a citizen by birth because the parent does not meet the residency requirement (see above), may qualify for expeditious naturalization based on the physical presence of the child’s grandparent in the U.S. In general the grandparent should have spent 5 years in the U.S., 2 years of which after the age of 14. The process of naturalization, including the oath of allegiance, must be completed before the child’s 18th birthday. It is not necessary for the child to be admitted to the U.S. as a lawful permanent resident.[13]

Child Citizenship Act of 2000
Effective February 27, 2001, the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 provided that a non-U.S. citizen child (aged under 18) with a U.S. citizen parent, and in the custody of that parent, automatically acquired U.S. citizenship. To be eligible, a child must meet the definition of "child" for naturalization purposes under immigration law, and must also meet the following requirements: • The child has at least one United States citizen parent (by birth or naturalization) • The child is under 18 years of age • The child is currently residing permanently in the United States in the legal and physical custody of the United States citizen parent • The child has been admitted to the United States as a lawful permanent resident or has been adjusted to this status • An adopted child must also meet the requirements applicable to the particular provision under which they qualified for admission as an adopted child under immigration law


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rejected application is an actual or potential conflict of national allegiances.

United States nationality law
U.S.C. § 1404, Hawaii 8 U.S.C. § 1405, the U.S. Virgin Islands 8 U.S.C. § 1406, and Guam 8 U.S.C. § 1407. Each of these sections confer citizenship on persons living in these territories as of a certain date, and usually confer natural-born status on persons born in those territories after that date. [20] For example, for Puerto Rico, all persons born in Puerto Rico between April 11, 1899, and January 12, 1941, are automatically conferred citizenship as of the date the law was signed by the President Harry S. Truman on June 27, 1952. Additionally, all persons born in Puerto Rico on or after January 13, 1941, are natural-born citizens of the United States. Note that because of when the law was passed, for some, the natural-born status was retroactive. The law contains one other section of historical note, concerning the Panama Canal Zone and the nation of Panama. In 8 U.S.C. § 1403, the law states that anyone born in the Canal Zone or in Panama itself, on or after February 26, 1904, to a mother and/or father who is a United States citizen, was "declared" to be a United States citizen. Note that the terms "natural-born" or "citizen at birth" are missing from this section. All persons born in the U.S. Virgin Islands on or after February 25, 1927, are naturalborn citizens of the United States. The 8 U.S.C. § 1406 also indicate that all the persons and their children born in the U.S. Virgin Islands subsequent to January 17, 1917, and prior to February 25,1927, are declared to be citizens of the United States as of February 25, 1927 if complied with the U.S. law dispositions. All persons born in Alaska on or after June 2, 1924, are natural-born citizens of the United States. Alaska was declared U.S. State on January 3, 1959. All persons born in Hawaii on or after April 30,1900, are natural-born citizens of the United States. Hawaii was declared U.S. State on August 21, 1959. All persons born in the island of Guam on or after April 11, 1899 (whether before or after August 1, 1950) subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, are declared to be citizens of the United States. People born in Guam are not natural-born citizens of the United States. Note that the terms "naturalborn" or "citizen at birth" are missing from this section on the 8 U.S.C. § 1407.

Nationals who are not citizens
According to 8 U.S.C. § 1408, it is possible to be a U.S. national without being a U.S. citizen. A person whose only connection to the U.S. is through birth in an outlying possession (which as of 2005 is limited to American Samoa and Swains Island), or through descent from a person so born acquires U.S. nationality but not U.S. citizenship. This was formerly the case in only four other current or former U.S. overseas possessions[15] • Guam (1898 - 1950) (Citizenship granted by an Act of Congress through the Guam Organic Act of 1950). • the Philippines (1898 - 1935) (Granted independence in 1946; National status rescinded in 1935; Citizenship never accorded) • Puerto Rico (1898 - 1917) (Citizenship granted by an Act of Congress through the Jones-Shafroth Act of 1917). • the U.S. Virgin Islands (1917 - 1927) (Citizenship granted by an Act of Congress in 1927).[16] Not all U.S. nationals are U.S. citizens; all U.S. citizens are U.S. nationals. The U.S. passport bio-page shows one’s status as either a citizen or a non-citizen national.[17][18][19] Noncitizen U.S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, and may apply for citizenship under the same rules as other resident aliens. Like other aliens, U.S. nationals who are not citizens are not prevented from voting in state and federal elections by the federal government, but are not allowed in any U.S. state to vote in federal elections. Further information: Voting rights in the United States, Right of foreigners to vote in the United States

Citizenship at birth on the U.S. territories and former U.S. territories
Separate sections handle territories that the United States has acquired over time, such as Puerto Rico 8 U.S.C. § 1402, Alaska 8


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Currently under the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA) effective from December 24, 1952 to present the definition of the "United States" for nationality purposes, was expanded to add Guam; and, effective November 3, 1986, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States). Persons born in these territories on or after December 24, 1952 acquire U.S. citizenship at birth on the same terms as persons born in other parts of the United States; and "Outlying possessions of the United States" was restricted to American Samoa and Swains Island. [21]

United States nationality law
to bar a former U.S. citizen from entering the United States. Lastly, IRC section 877 and Revenue Rulings was modified in 2004 to discontinue the practice of the Internal Revenue Service issuing rulings to determine if a former U.S. citizen had a tax-related motive in renouncing U.S. citizenship. Instead, IRC section 877 establishes an objective test to determine if the section 877 regime will apply. If the former U.S. citizen fails one of these objective tests, for the following ten years after the individual’s expatriation he or she will be subject to the 877 regime. In practice, given the various modifications since the enactment of 8 USC 1182(a)(10)(E), that the U.S. government has never enforced 8 USC 1182(a)(10)(E) since its inception in 1996, a former U.S. citizen may freely travel to the U.S. subject to normal visa restrictions. After a U.S. citizen satisfies the Department of State procedures, the Department of State issues a Certificate of Loss of Nationality ("CLN") signifying that the Department of State has accepted the U.S. Embassy/Consulate’s recommendation to allow the renunciation. It is also possible to forfeit U.S. citizenship upon conviction for an act of treason against the United States.[22]

Loss of citizenship
As a historical matter, U.S. citizenship could be forfeited upon the undertaking of various acts, including naturalization in a foreign state, service in foreign armed forces, and voting in a foreign political election (with a few exceptions, such as municipal and local elections as opposed to presidential and other national elections). However, a line of U.S. Supreme Court decisions beginning with Afroyim v. Rusk constitutionally limited the government’s capacity to terminate citizenship to those cases in which an individual engaged in conduct with an intention of abandoning their citizenship. In the wake of administrative practice changes adopted by the U.S. Department of State during the mid 1990s, it is now virtually impossible to lose one’s citizenship without expressly renouncing it before a U.S. consular officer.[22] There are also special provisions for persons who are deemed to have renounced citizenship for purposes of avoiding U.S. taxation (which is, in some cases, applicable on certain income for up to ten years after the official loss of citizenship, Internal Revenue Code, section 877), which in theory can result in loss of right to entry into the United States. However, the loss of right of entry (8 USC 1182(a)(10)(E)[23]) has never been enforced by the Attorney General since its enactment in 1996. Further, since the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002, the Attorney General (Department of Justice) would no longer be empowered to bar a former U.S. citizen from entering the United States. No new legislation has modified 8 USC 1182(a)(10)(E) to enable the DHS Secretary

Overseas Americans
There are over 6 million non-military U.S. citizens living abroad.[24]. The list below is a list of the main countries hosting American populations. • Canada - 688,000 (2005)[25] • Mexico - 500,000+[26] • Philippines - 250,000[27] • • • • • • • • • • • Israel - 184,195 United Kingdom - 150,000 Brazil - 60,000[28] Japan - 51,000 Lebanon - 25,000 see List of countries with foreign nationals in Lebanon Saudi Arabia South Korea India[29] People’s Republic of China Hong Kong - 45,000[30](see Americans in Hong Kong) Elsewhere - (Unknown)


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• • • • • • • • • • Taiwan

United States nationality law

Notes and references








[9] "A Guide to Naturalization". U.S.Citizenship and Immigration France Services. Australia natzguide. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. Ireland (USCIS Publication M-476 (rev. 01/09)) Sweden [10] "New Naturalization Test". USCIS. Germany Retrieved Colombia on 2009-04-25. New Zealand [11] "Civics and Citizenship Study Materials". Dominican Republic USCIS. civicsflashcards. Retrieved on Rest of Europe. 2009-04-25. [12] "Form M-685 Pathway to U.S. Citizenship". USCIS. "Foreign Earned Income Exclusion". nativedocuments/M-685.pdf. Retrieved international/article/ on 2009-04-25. 0,,id=97130,00.html. Retrieved on [13] "Expeditious naturalization forchildren 2007-10-01. born outside the United States". U.S. The Heritage Foundation (2005). The Department of State. Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation. info/info_456.html. Retrieved on pp. 385–389. ISBN 159698001X. 2007-10-01. [14] "Dual Citizenship". books?id=-_8N3UeXeesC&pg=PA385&vq=wong+kim+ark&dq=%22the+heritage+guide+to+the+co Erler, Edward J; Thomas G West, John A Retrieved on 2009-03-18. Marini (2007). The Founders on [15] In the Panama Canal Zone only those Citizenship and Immigration: Principles persons born there prior to January 1, and Challenges in America. Lanham, 2000 with at least one parent as a U.S. MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 67. ISBN citizen were recognized as natural born 074255855X. U.S. citizens and were both nationals books?id=yTA0NyesVbcC&pg=PA67&vq=wong+kim+ark&dq=%22The+Founders+on+Citizenship+ and citizens. Hence John McCain, born in Acquisition of U.S. Citizenship By a Child the Canal Zone, is considered a natural Born Abroad, U.S. Department of State, born citizen and eligible to serve as president, although he would have info_609.html anyway through jus sanguinis. Also in ^ "Naturalization". U.S.Citizenship and the former Trust Territory of the Pacific Immigration Services. Islands the residents were considered nationals and citizens of the Trust Retrieved on 2007-10-01. Territory and not U.S. nationals. "22CFR:Code of Federal Regulations". [16] (PDF) Act confering U.S Citizenship U.S.Citizenship and Immigration 1927, The Statutes at Large of the Services. United State of America. from December ProPubVAP.jsp?dockey=371b6ca0a5c40f6544d97bbce385b8a6. 1927, (Washington 1, 1925 to March Retrieved on 2007-10-01. D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, "Naturalization: Requirements for 1927), XLiV, part 2, 1927, 1234-1235., Naturalization". December 1, 1925 to March 1927, Naturalization.asp. Retrieved on citizenshipact.pdf, retrieved on 2007-10-01. 2008-11-22 David D. Murray. "A Brief History Of US [17] Samoa: Country Specific Information, Immigration...". U.S. Department of State, January 23, 2008, 2007,0829-murray.shtm. Retrieved on cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1009.html, retrieved on 2007-10-01. 2008-02-29


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[18] Certificates of Non Citizen Nationality, U.S. Department of State, citizenship_781.html, retrieved on 2008-12-23 [19] (PDF) U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 – Consular Affairs 7 FAM 1140 ACQUISITION OF NONCITIZEN U.S. NATIONALITY BY BIRTH ABROAD, U.S. Department of State, organization/86758.pdf, retrieved on 2008-12-23 [20] Constitutional Topic: Citizenship, U.S. Constitution Online, consttop_citi.html, retrieved on 2008-11-22 [21] "7 FAM 1120 ACQUISITION OF U.S. NATIONALITY IN U.S. TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS" (PDF). U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7- Consular Affairs. U.S. Department of State. 06-01-05. organization/86756.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-11-28. [22] ^ "Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality". U.S. Department of State. citizenship/citizenship_778.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. [23] 8 USC 1182(a)(10)(E): "Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation Any alien who is a former citizen of the United States who officially renounces United States citizenship and who is determined by the Attorney General to have renounced United States citizenship for the purpose of avoiding taxation by the United States is inadmissible." See 8 U.S.C. § 1182 [24] American Overseas Network [25] Record Numbers of Americans Living Abroad, Shelter Offshore, April 24, 2005, index.php/living/more/ americans_living_abroad/ [26] Bill Masterson (2000), How Many Americans Really Live in Mexico? And Who Cares, Anyway?,,

United States nationality law retire/work/bil-maste/ %23americans.html [27] Background Note: Philippines, U.S. Department of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, October 2007, 2794.htm, retrieved on 2007-01-27 [28] Background Note: Brazil, U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, November, 2008, 35640.htm, retrieved on 2008-11-09 [29] Somini Sengupta (October 17, 2006), Americans head to India for high-tech jobs, The International Herald Tribune, business/expats.php [30] "Keith Urges Hong Kong to "Invest in Its Future"". United States Department of 2003-12-11. 20031211155220esrom0.2073633.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-03.

See also
• Birthright citizenship in the United States of America • Citizenship • Honorary Citizen of the United States • Nationality law • Oath of citizenship (United States) • Natural-born citizen

External links
• U.S. Citizenship Information • U.S. Naturalization • Citizenship & Nationality Law - U.S. State Department • Rich Wales Dual Citizenship FAQ • Regulations regarding loss of citizenship • American Overseas Network • U.S. Citizenship Practice Test

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United States nationality law

Categories: United States Constitution, United States law, Constitutional law, Immigration to the United States, Nationality law, United States federal immigration and nationality legislation This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 21:43 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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