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Goal CELL BIOLOGY The fundamental life processes of plants and

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Goal CELL BIOLOGY  The fundamental life processes of plants and Powered By Docstoc
					                     Connecticut Technical High School System
                                    BIOLOGY




           Connecticut
    Technical High School System




                                Biology


                                2007 – 2008



Revised June, 2008
                                   Page 1 of 17
                        Connecticut Technical High School System
                                       BIOLOGY
   Power Standards
         a. The Power Standards have been outlined in BOLD text. These are the
            understandings and skills that all students must become proficient in upon
            exiting the course.
         b. We must instruct and assess the entire curriculum not just the identified
            power standards. These other “nice to know” standards are still important
            in the understanding of the curriculum.
         c. Power Standards will be assessed:
                 i. Through Trimester Benchmark Assessments
                ii. Through School-based benchmark assessment which lead to the
                    Trimester Benchmark Assessment
               iii. Multiple times; students will have multiple attempts to demonstrate
                    proficiency in each of the identified Power Standards




Revised June, 2008
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                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                            BIOLOGY
Goal CELL BIOLOGY: The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a
variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.

Big Idea (s):
   1. Energy is essential for life.
   2. Cells carry out fundamental processes to capture energy from the sun.
   3. Cells carry out fundamental processes to release stored energy from the sun
   4. More energy is stored in large molecules because they contain more bonds.

Essential Question (s):
   1. How is energy from the sun captured and stored so living organisms can use it?
   2. How do living organisms release energy stored in chemical bonds?
   3. How are molecules able to store enough energy to meet the needs of a living
       organism?
                                 Learning Outcomes
           Students will:                             As evidenced by:
Cell Bio 1       Model the regulation     1. Diagramming the structure of a semi-permeable
of a cell’s interaction with their           membrane.
surroundings by the semi-permeable        2. Dramatizing the regulation of molecules across
membranes.                                   the semi-permeable cell membrane.

Cell Bio 2                                1. Analyzing biochemical reactions that require
Describe the functioning of enzymes       catalysts.
 as catalysts for biochemical
                                          2. Describing what effect temperature, ionic
reactions
                                          conditions, and pH will have on enzymes within
 without altering the reaction
                                          biochemical reactions.
equilibrium.
List factors that affect the activities
of enzymes including
 temperature,
 ionic conditions, and
 the pH of the surroundings.

Cell Bio 3                                1. Creating a 3 part Venn Diagram of prokaryotic
Compare and contrast                         cells, eukaryotic cells and viruses.
 prokaryotic cells,
                                          2. Analyzing the relationship between general
 eukaryotic cells (including those
                                             structures and the complexity of the organism or
from plants and animals), and                cell.
 viruses.
Elaborate on the description of
differences in complexity and general
structure.

Cell Bio 4     Outline the flow of        1. Creating a flow chart of protein synthesis from
information in protein synthesis             creation of tRNA to production of proteins.
from:
 transcription of ribonucleic acid
Revised June, 2008
                                            Page 3 of 17
                              Connecticut Technical High School System
                                             BIOLOGY
(RNA) in the nucleus
 to translation of proteins on
ribosomes in the cytoplasm.




                                   Learning Outcomes (cont.)
             Students will:                              As evidenced by:
Cell Bio 5     Define the role in the     1. Explaining the role of endoplasmic reticulum and
secretion of proteins of                  Golgi apparatus in releasing proteins for use by the
 the endoplasmic reticulum and           cell or another part of the organism.
 Golgi apparatus.
                                          2. Describing some proteins humans produce in one
                                          part of the body that are used in another location.


Cell Bio 6    Describe the process        1. Illustrating the flow of energy from the sun to
of photosynthesis in which usable            stored sugar by photosynthesis in chloroplasts.
energy is captured from sunlight          2. Writing a balanced chemical equation for
by chloroplasts and is stored                photosynthesis.
through the synthesis of sugar
from carbon dioxide.

Cell Bio 7     Describe the process       1. Illustrating the flow of energy from chemical
of cellular respiration in which the         bonds of glucose to the availability for the cell’s
mitochondria is makes stored                 use.
chemical-bond energy available to         2. Writing a balanced chemical equation for
cells by completing the breakdown            cellular respiration.
of glucose to carbon dioxide.

Cell Bio 8 Model the formation            1. Creating models of polysaccharides, nucleic
of macromolecules                         acids, proteins and lipids.
(polysaccharides, nucleic acids,          2. Correlating the macromolecules to their
proteins, lipids) from a small
                                          building blocks of simple sugars, nucleotides,
collection of simple precursors.          amino acids and fatty acids.


Resources:


Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.

    Common Formative Assessment(s)                    Summative District Assessment(s)
    TBD                                            TBD

Revised June, 2008
                                            Page 4 of 17
                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                          BIOLOGY

GENETICS Goal 1: Genetic variation in a population is the result of mutation and sexual
reproduction.
Big Idea (s):
    1. Meiosis occurs in sex organs producing gametes that have a haploid set of
    chromosomes.
    2. Random segregations of chromosomes in gametes produces new combinations
    when fertilization occurs with half of the genetic material coming from each parent.
    3. Genes on specific chromosomes determine an individual’s sex.
    4. Punnett Squares can be used to predict possible allele combinations in zygotes
    from the genotypes of the parents.
Essential Question (s):
    1. How is the genetic material in chromosomes passed on through gametes?
    2. How are traits passed on randomly?
    3. How is the sex of an organism determined genetically?
    4. How can the genotype of offspring be predicted?
                                     Learning Outcomes
                          (Note 1 – 7 are review of Grade 9 Content)
            Students will:                                 As evidenced by:
Genetics 1     Diagram the process       3. Drawing a diagram illustrating the steps of
    of                                      meiosis including:
meiosis , an early step in sexual               Reduction of chromosomes from diploid to
reproduction                                   haploid
 in which the pairs of chromosomes             Production of gametes (sperm or egg)
separate and                                   containing one each chromosome pair
 segregate randomly during cell                Production of 4 sperm or 1 egg + 3 polar
division                                       bodies
to produce gametes containing one
chromosome of each type.
Genetics 2     Define which cells        1. Identifying cells that undergo meiosis (reduction
(somatic) in a multi-cellular               division).
organism undergo meiosis.                2. Identifying cells that do not undergo meiosis
                                            because they need an exact copy of the complete
                                            set of chromosomes.
Genetics 3      Explain random            3. Identifying random segregation in the process of
chromosome segregation.                      meiosis. Showing how pairs of chromosomes
Demonstrate and explain the                  separate independently.
probability that a particular allele will 4. Selecting a specific allele and calculating the
be in a gamete.                              probability that the allele or combination of alleles
                                             will be in a gamete.
Genetics 4      Demonstrate using a      2. Determining the gametes for homozygous or
Punnett Square new combinations of          heterozygous (mono-hybrid and di-hybrid)
alleles generated in a zygote through       parents.
the fusion of male and female            3. Performing crosses using Punnett Squares to
gametes (fertilization).                    demonstrate the resulting combinations in zygotes
Revised June, 2008
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                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                          BIOLOGY
                                           resulting from fertilization.

Genetics 5    Explain how half of       1. Using the meiosis diagram, identify the point in
    an                                     the process that reduces each parent’s contribution
individual’s DNA sequence comes            of DNA to half.
from each parent.                       2. Describe how an individual gets a full set of
                                           chromosomes.
Genetics 6     Explain how an           3. Identify the non-homologous sex chromosomes.
individual’s sex is genetically         4. Describe the combination of sex chromosomes
determined.                                that determine males and females.
Genetics 7     Demonstrate how          3. Using a Punnett Square determine the possible
possible combinations of alleles in a      genotypes and phenotypes from a given cross.
zygote can be predicted from the
genetic makeup of the parents using
Punnett Squares.
Resources:

Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD




Revised June, 2008
                                          Page 6 of 17
                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                          BIOLOGY
GENETICS Goal 2: A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its
phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.
Big Idea (s):
   1. Gregor Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment are the basis of
       genetics.
   2. Different modes of inheritance and parental genotypes allow probable phenotypes
       to be predicted.
   3. Pedigree diagrams with phenotypes can be used to determine mode of
       inheritance.
   4. Frequencies of recombination at meiosis can lead to estimation of distances
       between genes on chromosomes and interpretation of genetic maps of
       chromosomes.
Essential Question (s):
   1. What are the laws of segregation and independent assortment?
   2. How can offspring phenotypes be predicted?
   3. How can mode of inheritance be determined by analyzing familial phenotypes?
   4. How does frequency of recombination assist with interpretation of genetic maps
       of chromosomes?
                                    Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                                As evidenced by:
Genetics 8     Use a Punnett           1. Using Punnett Squares determine the probability
Square predict the probable               of each genotype and phenotype in offspring from
phenotypic outcome in a genetic           crosses with the following modes of inheritance:
cross based on the genotypes of the              a.    Dominant
parents and mode of inheritance:
                                                 b.    Recessive
 autosomal linked                               c.    X-linked
 X-linked                                       d.    autosomal linked
 dominant
 recessive

Genetics 9    Explain and illustrate   1. Draw a complete set of chromosomes for a species
Mendel’s law of segregation and law       and illustrate Mendel’s:
of independent assortment.
                                                 a. Law of segregation and
                                                 b. Law of independent assortment
Genetics 10 Predict the probable       1. Analyze a pedigree showing phenotypes for the
mode of inheritance from a pedigree       following modes of inheritance.
diagram showing phenotypes.                   a. Dominant
                                              b. Recessive
                                              c. X-linked
                                              d. autosomal linked
Genetics 11 Utilize data on            1. Analyze data on frequency of recombination.
frequency of recombination in          2. Use data to estimate genetic distances between
meiosis                                   gene loci.
 to estimate genetic distances        3. Interpret genetic maps of chromosomes based on
between loci and                          data for frequency of recombination.
 to interpret genetic maps of
chromosomes.
                                         age 7 of 17
                          Connecticut Technical High School System
                                         BIOLOGY
Resources:


Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD


GENETICS Goal 3: Genes influence traits by the instructions encoded in the DNA sequence
that specify a sequence of amino acids in characteristic proteins.
Big Idea (s):
    1. Proteins are synthesized by the translation of the genetic code to amino acids.
    2. Some mutations may or may not affect genetic expression or the protein formed.
    3. Specialization of cells is due to gene expression and the differences of proteins
        produced.
Essential Question (s):
    1. How are proteins synthesized from the genetic code?
    2. How can mutations affect genetic expression or protein synthesis?
    3. How are cells with the same DNA molecules responsible for specialization of
        cells?
                                     Learning Outcomes
             Students will:                                 As evidenced by:
Genetics 12 Illustrate how              1. Draw the sequence of steps in protein synthesis
ribosomes synthesize proteins, using       from DNA to protein. Include the following:
tRNA to translate genetic                      a. DNA
information in the mRNA.                       b. mRNA
                                               c. ribosomes
                                               d. tRNA
Genetics 13 Predict the sequence        1. Using the universal genetic coding rules create a
of amino acids in a protein from the       sequence of amino acids in a protein by reading
sequence of codons in the RNA, by          the codons in the RNA.
applying universal genetic coding
rules.
Genetics 14 Demonstrate how             1. Changing the DNA sequence of a gene and show:
mutations in the DNA sequence of a             a. Effect on sequence of amino acids in
gene may or may not affect the                    protein
expression of the gene or the                  b. Effect on expression of a gene
sequence of amino acids in an
encoded protein.
Genetics 15 Explain how                 1. Describe how DNA common to all cells in a
specialization of cells in multi-          multicellular organism can have genes that
cellular organisms is usually due to       express themselves in specific cells and not in
different patterns of gene                 other cells.
expression rather than to               2. Describe how specialization of cells is usually
differences of the genes themselves.        due to different patterns of expression instead
                                           age 8 of 17
                          Connecticut Technical High School System
                                         BIOLOGY
                                          of different genes.

Genetics 16 Illustrate how              1. Describe differences in proteins based on:
proteins can differ from one                       a. Number of amino acids
another in the number and                          b. Sequence of amino acids
sequence of amino acids.
Genetics 17 Explain differences         1. Explain differences in proteins based on:
   in                                              a. Different sequences of amino acids
proteins:                                          b. Different shapes of molecules
1. different amino acid sequences                  c. Different chemical properties
2. different shapes of molecules
   and
3. different chemical properties.
Resources:

Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD


GENETICS Goal 4: The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of
foreign DNA into the cells.
Big Idea (s):
    1. Different techniques can be used to construct new recombinant DNA molecules.
    2. New protein products can be created from foreign DNA by using bacteria that
       reproduce quickly.
Essential Question (s):
    1. How is DNA manipulated to create new recombinant DNA molecules?
    2. How are bacteria used to create new protein molecules?
                                    Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                                As evidenced by:
Genetics 18 Demonstrate the             1. Illustrate replication of DNA.
    precise                             2. Illustrate transcription from DNA into mRNA.
copying of DNA during semi-             3. Compare and contrast the processes of replication
conservative replication and               and transcription.
transcription of information from
DNA into mRNA using base-pairing
rules.
Genetics 19 Describe how genetic        1. Describe genetic engineering applications in:
engineering (biotechnology) is used                a. biomedical
to produce novel biomedical and                    b. agricultural products
agricultural products.




                                           age 9 of 17
                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                          BIOLOGY
Genetics 20 Explain processes of 1. Describe DNA technology processes used to
DNA technology (restriction                create recombinant DNA molecules including:
digestion by endonucleases, gel                    a. restriction digestion by endonucleases
electrophoresis, ligation, and                     b. gel electrophoresis
transformation) used to construct                  c. ligation
recombinant DNA molecules.                         d. transformation

Genetics 21 Describe how                1. Describe how bacteria are altered by inserting
    exogenous                              exogenous DNA to change their genetic makeup.
DNA is inserted into bacterial cells    2. Describe some examples of how this process
to alter their genetic makeup and          supports the expression of new protein products.
support expression of new protein
products.

Resources:


Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.

       Common Formative Assessment(s)               Summative District Assessment(s)
       TBD                                       TBD




Goal ECOLOGY: Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.

Big Idea (s):
   1. An ecosystem gains stability from its producers and decomposers.
   2. Energy is transferred, stored or lost as it moves through different trophic levels.
   3. Organisms can accommodate to the environment or adapt through genetic change.

Essential Question (s):
   1. How do producers and decomposers provide stability to an ecosystem?
   2. What happens to energy at the links in a food web?
   3. How does accommodation to the environment differ from adaptation through
   genetic change?
                                 Learning Outcomes
           Students will:                              As evidenced by:
ECO1 Explain biodiversity and how       1. Identify components of biodiversity for a variety
it is affected by alterations of            of ecosystems.
habitats.                               2. Make predictions of how alterations of habitats
                                            affect biodiversity.

                                          age 10 of 17
                             Connecticut Technical High School System
                                            BIOLOGY
ECO 2 Describe the changes in an         3. Describe a variety of ecosystems.
ecosystem resulting from changes in: 4. For each ecosystem make a prediction of changes
- climate,                                   to the ecosystem when:
- human activity,                            1. climate changes
- introduction of nonnative species,         2. human activity and development increases
- changes in population size.                3. non-native species are introduced
                                             4. one or more populations increase or decrease
ECO 3 Relate fluctuations in             5. Identify the fluctuations resulting in an ecosystem
population size in an ecosystem to:          for both increases and decreases in:
- relative rates of birth,                    Birth rates
- relative rates of immigration,              Immigration rates
- relative rates of emigration, and           Emigration rates
- relative rates of death                     Death rates
ECO 4 Illustrate cycling of water,       1. Diagram cycling of abiotic resources and organic
carbon, and nitrogen between abiotic          matter between photosynthesis and respiration.
resources and organic matter in the      2. Identify the cycling of water, carbon, nitrogen and
ecosystem and oxygen cycles                   oxygen between photosynthesis and respiration.
through photosynthesis and
respiration.
ECO 5 Explain how stability of           6. Define the role of producers and identify
producers and decomposers                     examples.
contribute to the stability of an        7. Define the role of decomposers and identify
ecosystem.                                    examples.
                                         8. Describe the stability producers and
                                              decomposers contribute to the stability of an
                                              ecosystem.
ECO 6 Illustrate the transfer of         1. Draw a food web.
energy at each link in a food web:       2. Identify three different ways energy is
- some energy is transferred                 transferred at each link.
- some energy is stored in newly
made structures
- some energy is dissipated into the
environment as heat.
ECO 7 Contrast the                       1. Define and give examples of accommodation.
accommodation of an individual           2. Define and give examples of adaptation.
organism to its environment to the 3. Compare and contrast accommodation to the
gradual adaptation of a lineage of           environment and adaptation through genetic
organisms through genetic change.            change.




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                          Connecticut Technical High School System
                                         BIOLOGY

Resources:


Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.

     Common Formative Assessment(s)                 Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                         TBD



EVOLUTION Goal 1: The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on
many factors and may be stable or unstable over time.
Big Idea (s):
   1. Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes can eliminate or maintain alleles in a
   gene pool.
   2. New mutations constantly appear in a gene pool.
Essential Question (s):
   1. What happens to a lethal allele in homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and
   how is it maintained in the gene pool?
   2. How does a gene pool change?
                                    Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                            As evidenced by:
Evolution 1 Demonstrate how           1. Define natural selection
natural selection acts on the         2. Describe a reason for phenotype to be favored or
phenotype rather than the genotype         not favored.
of an organism.                       3. Explain why phenotype is acted upon rather than
                                           genotype in natural selection.
Evolution 2 Illustrate how lethal     1. Define lethal alleles.
alleles in a homozygous individual    2. Describe what happens if a lethal allele shows up
may be carried in a heterozygote         in a homozygote and a heterozygote.
and thus maintained in a gene         3. Explain how a heterozygote will help maintain a
pool.                                    lethal allele in the gene pool
Evolution 3 Describe how              5. List and describe how mutations occur in the
mutations are constantly being             gene pool.
generated in a gene pool.             6. Describe conditions that contribute to constant
                                           generation of mutations.
Evolution 4 Explain how variation     4. Describe examples of variation within a species.
within a species increases the        5. Describe how some variations in a species will or
likelihood that at least some members    will not survive under changed environmental
of a species will survive under          conditions.
changed environmental conditions.     6. Explain how variation increases likelihood of
                                           species survival.
Resources:


                                         Page 12 of 17
                          Connecticut Technical High School System
                                         BIOLOGY
Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD



EVOLUTION Goal 2: Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly
changing environments.
Big Idea (s):
   1. Natural selection impacts survival of groups of organisms differently.
   2. Diversity of species increases chance of survival.
   3. Genetic drift, reproductive isolation, and geographic isolation affect the diversity
   in populations and the development of new species.
Essential Question (s):
   1. How does natural selection impact survival of populations of living organisms?
   2. What things can increase chance of survival?
   3. How do genetic drift, reproductive isolation and geographic isolation affecr
   diversity in populations and the development of new species?
                                    Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                               As evidenced by:
 Evolution 5 Describe how natural     1. Define natural selection.
 selection impacts the differential   2. Given a diverse group of organisms in an
 survival of groups of organisms.        ecosystem, describe how different groups’
                                         survival is impacted.
 Evolution 6 Explain how the          1. Describe an example of diversity within a
 chance that at least some               species.
 organisms survive major changes 2. Describe examples of major environmental
 in the environment increases by a       changes that organisms might be subject to.
 great diversity of species.          3. Explain how a great diversity of species
                                         increases the chance that some organisms can
                                         survive.
 Evolution 7 Illustrate how genetic 1. Define genetic drift.
 drift affects the diversity of       2. Show how genetic drift affects population
 organisms in a population.              diversity.
 Evolution 8 Differentiate between 1. Define reproductive isolation and geographic
 reproductive and geographic             isolation.
 isolation and describe their effects 2. Compare and contrast reproductive isolation
 on speciation.                          and geographic isolation.
                                      3. Define speciation.
                                      4. Describe the effects on speciation.
 Evolution 9 Use fossil evidence to   1. Explain biological diversity by creating evidence
 explain biological diversity,           in a fossil record.
 episodic speciation, and mass        2. Explain episodic speciation by creating evidence
 extinction.                             in a fossil record.
                                      3. Explain mass extinction by creating evidence in a
                                         fossil record.
                                         Page 13 of 17
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                                             BIOLOGY
 Evolution 10 Develop a timeline         1. Define evolutionary divergence.
  estimating evolutionary divergence 2. Describe molecular clocks and how they can be
  amongst various groups of                   used to estimate evolutionary divergence.
  organisms using:                       3. Describe evidence of evolutionary divergence that
 - independent molecular clocks,              can come from fossil records.
 calibrated against each other and       4. Create a timeline estimating evolutionary
 - evidence from the fossil record.           divergence using evidence from molecular clocks
                                              and fossil records.
Resources:
Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                      Summative District Assessment(s)
      TBD                                           TBD

PHYSIOLOGY Goal 1: The human body’s internal environment remains relatively stable
(homeostatic) because of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems despite the
external environmental changes.
Big Idea (s):
    1. Major body systems working together provided oxygen and nutrients to cells and
    remove toxic wastes including carbon dioxide.
    2. The nervous system mediates communication between parts of the body and the
    environment.
    3. Conditions within the body are regulated by feedback loops between the nervous
    system and the endocrine system.
Essential Question (s):
    1. How do body systems work together to nourish cells and remove waste products?
    2. How do feedback loops regulate conditions in the body?
    3. How do hormones help maintain homeostasis at the cellular level and in the whole
    organism?
                                    Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                                 As evidenced by:
Physio 1         Describe the           1. Diagram and describe the process of oxygen
process of oxygen                          and carbon dioxide exchange in the cells.
 and carbon dioxide exchange            2. Explain how the respiratory and circulatory
within the cells. Describe how the         systems work together to provide cells with
complementary systems                      oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
(circulatory and respiratory) play      3. Explain how the digestive and circulatory
a role in providing the cells with         systems work together to provide cells with
oxygen and carbon dioxide.                 nutrients needed or cell growth and repair.
Explain how complementary
systems (digestive and circulatory)
work together to provide nutrients
to cells.
Physio 2         Describe how a         1. Diagram the transmission of a nerve impulse.
nerve impulse is                        2. List 5 major sense organs and different types of
transmitted. Identify sense organs         sensory receptors.

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                            Connecticut Technical High School System
                                           BIOLOGY
and sensory receptors. Compare and 3. Differentiate between the central and peripheral
contrast the central nervous system         nervous systems.
with the two divisions of the           4. Describe the main divisions of the peripheral
peripheral nervous system.                  nervous system.

Physio 3                                  1. Illustrate a feedback loop and describe its
 Describe a feedback loop.                   functioning.
Explain how nervous and                   2. Explain how the nervous and endocrine
endocrine systems work together to           systems work together to regulate conditions in
regulate conditions in the human             the human body.
body.

Physio 4        Describe the neuron       1. Describe an electrochemical impulse.
transmission                              2. Illustrate and describe how a neuron transmits an
of electrochemical impulses.                 electrochemical impulse.

Physio 5         Define the roles of      1. Create a table that includes the roles of sensory
sensory                                      neurons, inter-neurons, and motor neurons AND
neurons, inter-neurons, and motor            their relationships to sensation, thought, and
neurons in sensation, thought, and           response.
response.

Physio 6         Describe process of      1. Illustrate the process of digestion.
digestion                                 2. Identify where the following occur and their role
including secretion of stomach acid,         in digestion:
digestive enzymes (amylases,                          a. secretion of stomach acid
proteases, nucleases, lipases) and bile               b. digestive enzymes including amylases,
salts.                                                    proteases, nucleases, and lipases
                                                      c. bile salts
Physio 7         Explain how the          1. Describe the role of the kidneys in the excretory
kidneys                                      system.
contribute to homeostasis by filtering    2. Explain how kidneys contribute to homeostasis by
the blood.                                   filtering the blood.

                                  Learning Outcomes (cont.)
            Students will:                              As evidenced by:
Physio 8          Explain how the         1. Describe the role of the liver in relationship to the
liver contributes                            circulatory system.
to homeostasis by detoxification and      2. Explain how the liver contributes to homeostasis
maintaining blood glucose balance.           through detoxification and by maintaining blood
                                             glucose balance.
Physio 9         Describe the cellular    1. Describe muscle contraction on the cellular and
and                                          molecular level.
molecular processes of muscle             2. Describe the roles of actin, myosin, Ca , and ATP.
contraction including the role of
actin, myosin, Ca , and ATP.


                                           Page 15 of 17
                          Connecticut Technical High School System
                                         BIOLOGY
Physio 10 Identify osmo-              1. Identify and describe the role of osmo-
regulatory hormones and                   regulatory hormones.
hormones of the digestive and         2. Idnetify and describe the roles of hormones of
reproductive systems. Describe            the digestive and reproductive systems.
internal feedback mechanisms for      3. Illustrate the internal feedback mechanisms
homeostasis at the cellular level         that contribute to homeostasis at the cellular
and in the whole organism.                level.
                                      4. Illustrate the internal feedback mechanisms
                                          that contribute to homeostasis for an organism.
Resources:

Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD


PHYSIOLOGY Goal 2: Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.
Big Idea (s):
   1. The differences between bacteria and viruses impact how the body defends against
   them and how we treat infections.
   2. Compromised immune systems cannot fight off normally benign microorganisms.
   3. The immune system has a variety of components that combat disease.
Essential Question (s):
   1. How does the body defend against and combat bacterial and viral infections?
   2. Why is a compromised immune system unable to combat disease?
   3. What are the roles of different cells in the immune system?
                                   Learning Outcomes
            Students will:                              As evidenced by:
Physio 11 Describe the nonspecific      2. List the defense mechanisms of the integumentary
defenses against infection of the          system.
integumentary system.                   3. Describe how the skin provides the first line of
                                           defense.

Physio 12 Explain the body’s            2. Draw a diagram showing how the body responds
antibody response to infection.            to infection by building antibiodies.

Physio 13 Describe how                  2. List examples of vaccinations that are regularly
vaccinations build protection from         given to protect from infectious diseases.
infectious diseases.                    3. Describe how vaccinations build protection from
                                           disease.
Physio 14 Compare and contrast          4. Draw a diagram illustrating differences
bacteria and viruses :                     between bacteria and viruses.
- their requirements for growth         5. Compare and contrast bacteria and viruses in
  and replication,                         terms of:
- the body’s primary defenses                  a. Requirements each have for growth and
  against bacterial and viral                      replication
                                         Page 16 of 17
                           Connecticut Technical High School System
                                          BIOLOGY
  infections, and –                           b. How the body responds and defends
- effective treatments of these                   against infection by these agents
  infections.                                 c. Effective treatments of infections by
                                                  these agents
Physio 15 Describe compromised         1. Define and describe compromised immunity.
immune system (for example, a          2. Explain why compromised immune systems
person with AIDS).                         may not be able to fight off benign
Explain why compromised                    microorganisms.
immune systems may be unable to
fight off benign microorganisms.

Physio 16 Explain the role of these     1. Create a table describing each of the following
components in the immune system:           components in the immune system and their
- Phagocytes,                              role:
- B-lymphocytes, and                           d. Phagocytes
- T-lymphocytes.                               e. B-lymphocytes
                                               f. T-lymphocytes
Resources:


Extension Activity:
Teacher initiated activity(s) based on the student’s level of understanding and development of
the lesson, as needed.
      Common Formative Assessment(s)                     Summative District Assessment(s)
     TBD                                            TBD




PHYSIOLOGY STRAND
                                         Page 17 of 17

				
Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma
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