Community Diagnosis (Methods) Methods • Primary Data Collection – – – – – – – – Key informants interview Mapping Mailed Questionnaire Interview Observation Focus Group Discussion Anthropometric Survey PRA • Secondary Data Collection – Records Tools • Primary Data Collection – – – – Questionnaire Check List Interview Guideline FGD Guideline • Secondary Data Collection – Form Questionnaire A questionnaire is a group or sequence of questions designed to get information from an informant or respondent when asked by an interviewer or completed by the respondent. • Eg: • What is your name? • What is your occupaton? Questionnaire … An unstructured questionnaire is an instrument or guide used by an interviewer who asks questions about a particular topic or issue. Egs • What do you know about HIV transmission? • What is your attitude towards breast feeding ? Questionnaire … A structured questionnaire, on the other hand, is one in which the questions asked are precisely decided in advance. When used as an interviewing method, the questions are asked exactly as they are written, in the same sequence, using the same style, for all interviews. Nonetheless, the structured questionnaire can sometimes be left a bit open for the interviewer to amend to suit a specific context. • What are family planning methods are you practicing? • A) Depo B) Barrier C) IUD • How often do you visit health facilitis? • A) once a week B) once a month c) occasionaly Questionnaire … A semi-structured questionnaire is a mix of unstructured and structured questionnaires. Some of the questions and their sequence are determined in advance, while others evolve as the interview proceeds. • What are family planning methods are you practicing? • A) Depo B) Barrier C) IUD Advantages ……….. Disadvantages ………… Develop Questionnaire • • • • • Determine the contents of the questionnaire. Formulate the questions. Order the questions. Arrange the questionnaire. Translate the questionnaire (if necessary). Determine contents of the questionnaire • Outline the most important objectives of the study. • List under each objective the types of information directly relevant and necessary in meeting these objectives. • Rearrange and organize the lists into separate sub-themes or sections of the questionnaire. • Decide how the questionnaire will be administered; i.e., whether it will be filled in by respondents themselves or by an interviewer (which is more common in developing countries). Formulate the question • Each question must be clear, simple, and specific . – "Where do you normally seek treatment when your child falls ill?" – “Has your child been ill with cough within the past two weeks?” “Did you visit anyone for advice or treatment?” Formulate the question … • Each question must measure one thing at a time . – "How do you and your staff normally treat children who present with cough?" Formulate the question… • Questions should not be biased . – "When a child presents with ARI, do you prescribe an antibiotic?" – "What do you do when a child presents with ARI?" Formulate the question … • Questions must be free from ambiguity . – "Do you think ampicillin and tetracycline are effective for treating ARI?" – “Which antibiotics do you think as most effective for treatment of ARI?” Order the questions • Ensure a logical order of topics, and of questions within a topic. Ideas should flow smoothly from one question to another, moving from more general questions to more specific ones within each topic. • Begin with relatively non-controversial and interesting questions, e.g., How many years have you worked at this health post?“ • If the response to one question is likely to influence the response to another question, these questions should be separated. Order the questions … • Place sensitive questions concerning personal information such as age, education, occupation, and income at the end of the questionnaire since respondents may be unwilling to answer them if they are asked early, before a relationship of trust has been established. • Any instructions for skipping one or more questions should be clearly indicated and, if possible, written in a different font or typeface. Arrange the questionnaire • Provide necessary headings and spaces for labeling and identifying all questionnaires, ie., identifying information for respondent, date and place of interview, as well as name of interviewer. • Provide necessary instructions at the start of each section of the questionnaire. Give guidance and reminders at relevant sections to the interviewers. Arrange the questionnaire … • Provide sufficient space between questions. • Be consistent with codes or boxes for precategorized answers. • Provide enough space for writing down answers to open-ended questions. Translate the questionnaire • To ensure consistency in the use of words and meanings, questionnaires must be thoroughly translated before the field work begins. • One effective way of checking the accuracy of translations is to have a different translator do a back translation into the original language in which the questionnaire was written. The two versions can then be compared to iron out any differences. Checklist • Recording of observations may take many forms, from simple and casual to exact and sophisticated. For example, an observer may observe an event and then complete a checklist on whether or not key behaviors occurred. Or the observer may write notes on everything that happens in his or her presence. More sophisticated recording may involve audio-visual devices. Guideline • The main purpose of the FGD guideline is to provide direction for the group discussion. • To ensure that all related issues are covered in the study, it is recommended that all students involved in the group have an input or consult in its preparation. Guideline … • Structure and Sequence of Topics – General questions which are designed to open the discussion and to allow participants to reveal common perceptions and attitudes. The sequence of questions on a given topic should proceed from the general to the specific. – Specific questions designed to reveal key information and show the feelings and attitudes of participants. – Probe questions designed to reveal more in-depth information or to clarify earlier statements or responses. Guideline … • Wording of Guideline – Questions in FGDs are generally less structured in order to elicit flexible response. – The guide must be phrased in simple language. – Avoid long and complex statements and make sure that the meanings are clear.
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