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Classification and Intro to Animals

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					Classification & Introduction to Animals
Chapter 18 & Chapter 34

The science of naming and grouping organisms based on their similarities and evolutionary history is called ________________ taxonomy

According to Aristotle, all living things could be divided into these 2 groups:
Plants and animals

Which scientist developed the system of naming organisms with a genus and species name?
Carolus Linnaeus His 2 name naming system is called __________ nomenclature ____________ Binomial

If you remove cells from an early __________________ embryo the deuterostome remaining cells can still make the whole organism.
Deuterostome Protostome

Silly phrase that will help you to remember the 7 hierarchy levels in Linnaeus’s classification system.
Kids prefer cheese over fried green spinach. Kings play chess on fat green stools.

The scientific name for red maple is Acer rubrum. The part of its name that is the SPECIES IDENTIFIER is ________ rubrum

Name the 3 germ layers that form in early embryos.
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

The top surface or back of an animal is the _____________ side. dorsal
Dorsal ventral anterior posterior

Another name for the space inside an animal’s body that contains the body organs is the ___________________ coelom

Which of the 6 Kingdoms will ZOOLOGY class be focusing on this year? ANIMALIA

A _____________ is a diagram Phylogenetic tree used by the 6 kingdom system that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms.
The correct way to write the scientific name for lion is ________
Panthera leo panthera leo Panthera Leo Panthera leo

Panthera leo or Panthera leo
1st name capitalized, 2nd name lower case, both italicized or underlined

This diagram that uses “shared derived characters” to group organisms based on evolutionary characteristics is called a cladogram ___________

In some organisms the blastopore _______________ in the embryo becomes the ANTERIOR END of the digestive system (mouth) in others it becomes the POSTERIOR END of the digestive system (anus).

NAME THE TYPE OF CLEAVAGE
http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif

radial

What do we call organisms with this type of cleavage? DEUTEROSTOMES Protostomes Deuterostomes

Name the 6 Kingdoms used to classify organisms today
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

The correct scientific name for humans is _______ ________ Homo sapiens
(OR Homo sapiens)

Echinoderms (like starfish) are thought to be more closely related to vertebrates than to other invertebrates (like mollusks) because _________________________
* they have a spinal cord like vertebrates * their blastopore becomes their anus like vertebrates * they both belong to the Protist Kingdom * Echinoderms and vertebrates all have pseudocoeloms

The blastopore becomes the anus in BOTH vertebrates and echinoderms. It becomes the mouth in all other invertebrates.

Name three kinds of evidence modern taxonomists might look at when classifying an organism

Morphology Fossil record Embryology patterns Chromosomes (karyotype) Macromolecule sequences (DNA or amino acids in proteins)

PROTOSTOME?

DEUTEROSTOME?
DEUTEROSTOMES

Indeterminate radial cleavage ______________________

PROTOSTOMES Determinate spiral cleavage _______________________ PROTOSTOMES Blastopore becomes mouth _____________________
Blastopore becomes anus DEUTEROSTOMES ______________________

PROTOSTOMES Can’t make identical twins _______________________ DEUTEROSTOMES Can make identical twins _______________________
DEUTEROSTOMES Includes all vertebrates plus echinoderms __________________________

PROTOSTOMES Includes all invertebrates except echinoderms ________________________

In Linnaeus’s hierarchy PHYLUM is division used for animals and __________ is used when classifying plants.

The evolutionary history of an phylogeny organism is called ____________

List the 7 levels of Linnaeus’s classification hierarchy starting with the most general Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

What is the advantage of having a true eucoelom?
Animal can move body muscles without interfering with its digestion

Removing cells from an ____________ embryo will result in protostome an organism with parts missing and the organism will die.
deterostome protostome

These groups are: A. Levels in Linnaeus’s hierarchy B. Modern Kingdoms used to classify organisms C. Domains in the 3 Domain system D. Cladistic groups

Modern KINGDOMS used to classify organisms

In most invertebrates like (mollusks, worms, & arthropods) the mouth blastopore becomes the ________ anus mouth
invertebrate An ______________ is an animal without a backbone.

Which is the ONLY group of INVERTEBRATES in which the blastopore becomes the anus?

Echinoderms (EX: starfish)
The scientific name for lion is Panthera leo. The part of its name that tells its GENUS is ______________ Panthera

This Kingdom contains bacteria that live in hostile places like volcano vents and acidic water which scientists think are very “ancient”.
archaebacteria
Eubacteria Archaebacteria Fungi Protists

Name one of the animal groups you learned about that are vertebrates.
Mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians,

Organisms are classified using the 3-DOMAIN System based on______________ Kind of ribosomes they have Body parts that come from the same embryological structures (like a bat wing and a human arm are called _____________ structures. homologous
Analogous homologous

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

Some organisms have a body cavity with mesoderm around the outside body wall BUT NOT around the gut. They are called pseudocoelomates __________________
acoelomates pseudocoelomates coelomates

Label the 2 diagrams that show evolutionary relationships

http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm

Phylogenetic tree ____________________

cladogram ____________________

SINGLE CELLED EUKARYOTES like Euglena and Amoeba belong to the kingdom ________________. Protista
Planta Eubacteria Animalia Protista Archaebacteria Fungi

Name the 3 kinds of symmetry you learned about

Asymmetry, radial symmetry, & bilateral symmetry

In this picture the cougar’s anterior _____________ end is facing you.
dorsal ventral anterior posterior

Mushrooms, mold, and yeast belong FUNGI to the Kingdom ________________.

The bottom (underneath) side of an animal is called the ventral ______________ side.
Dorsal ventral anterior posterior

http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/symmetry2.htm

Slicing this mouse down the middle results in halves that are mirror images. This kind of symmetry is called bilateral _____________

The early Greek philosopher and scientist who first grouped organisms into categories was Aristotle ______________

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

Type of body in which the space around the internal organs is lined on 2 sides with mesoderm.

Eucoelom OR “true coelom”

Mesoderm on outside body wall AND around gut

An organism in which the blastopore becomes the mouth

protostome Structures with a SIMILAR function that have a DIFFERENT embryological origin (like a bird wing and a butterfly wing) are called ___________ structures. analogous
analogous homologous

In ALL VERTEBRATES and one invertebrate group (ECHINODERMS) the blastopore becomes the __________________ anus

bilateral Humans have _________ symmetry.
No bilateral radial

A diagram that is used to show the evolutionary relationships thought to exist between organisms is based on a variety of evidence is called a _______________________ phylogenetic tree

http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm

An organism that has a true COELOM is called a ______________. eucoelomate

OR coelomate The correct way to pronounce the word “COELOM” is
Koe-lum See-lum Sell-um

SEE-lum

Type of symmetry seen in jellyfish in which dividing the animal in several directions can produce equal halves.
Asymmetry radial bilateral

radial
Images from: http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/symmetry2.htm

Using the 3 Domain system, animals would be classified in the Domain Eukarya ___________________ Body structures that may have a similar FUNCTION and have the same embryological origins (like a bird wing and a human arm) are called ___________ homologous structures.
homologous analogous

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

Animals (like some worms) with a type of body in which there is NO body cavity.

acoelomates
This depression that forms in the side of a blastula when cells move inward is called a ______________. blastopore
Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

Rigid covering on the outside of an animals body that acts as a skeleton

exoskeleton Nitrogen waste from cells can exist in several chemical forms. Name one.
AMMONIA, UREA, URIC ACID

Which classification system uses this diagram to show evolutionary relationships?

6 Kingdom system

http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geol3604/l8.htm

Name another way modern scientists use to classify organisms besides the 6-Kingdom system.

Cladistics

3-Domain system

The blastopore area in an animal embryo becomes part of THIS body system. digestive
Reproductive respiratory digestive nervous

No matter which way you slice this animal, you never get 2 equal halves. asymmetry. It has __________
Asymmetry bilateral symmetry radial symmetry

True OR False TRUE Organisms that share homologous structures probably have a common ancestor.

Name one way DEUTEROSTOMES are different from PROTOSTOMES PROTOSTOMES
1. Blastopore becomes mouth 2. Determinate embryonic cells 3. Spiral cleavage 4. Invertebrates except echinoderms

DEUTEROSTOMES
1. Blastopore becomes anus 2. Indeterminate embryonic cells 3. Radial cleavage 4. Vertebrates & echinoderms

This type of diagram using “Shared derived characters” to show evolutionary relationships is called a cladogram _______________________

http://facstaff.uww.edu/wentzl/cladogram_1.gif

Body coverings like feathers, fur, and skin are included in this body system.

Integumentary
The concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of an organism is called _______________________ cephalization

Name one of the functions of a coelom Provides space for internal organs Can act as a hydrostatic skeleton Can provide space for nutrients to circulate

Body system that removes nitrogen waste produced by the body cells
Excretory

Which classification system uses this diagram to show evolutionary relationships?

CLADISTITCS uses this one… it is called a cladogram

closed In a(n) ____________ circulatory system blood circulates thoroughout the body inside blood vessels

A free swimming immature form of an organism is called a LARVA ____________

The young of animals that show ___________ development start out direct looking like the adults only smaller.

Type of circulatory system in which blood in not enclosed in vessels but circulates freely in the body space ___________
open

The young of animals that show indirect ___________ development start out as an immature larva and undergo metamorphosis to become adults .

http://www.enchantedlearning.com

Type of reproduction in which 1 parent copies itself without exchanging genetic material with a partner.

asexual Skeleton that is located inside the body.
endoskeleton

Which of the forms of nitrogen waste found in organisms is MOST TOXIC?

AMMONIA

direct Humans show __________ development.
direct indirect

In which language are official scientific names written ?

LATIN
internal Humans show ________ fertilization.
external

internal

homologous Animals that share ________________ structures probably have a recent common ancestor.
analogous homologous

True OR False Digestive waste and nitrogen waste are the same thing.
FALSE; they are made in different places and removed by different body systems!

2 groups used by Aristotle and Linnaeus to group organisms

Plants & animals
Which is a pseudocoelom? A B C
C

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

Which of the following is a phylogenetic tree?

This is a cladogram!

This one!

This is a Karyotype!

Classification system that groups organisms based on the kind of ribosomes they have ______________________ 3 Domain system Classification system that groups organisms and shows evolutionary relationships based on “shared derived characters” ______________________ Cladistics
Classification system that groups organisms and shows evolutionary relationships based on multiple kinds of evidence such as fossils, morphology, embryology, chromosomes, and macromolecules __________________ 6 Kingdom system

Match the organisms with their KINGDOMS

ANIMALIA Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophs _________________
(frogs, starfish, worms, lions, humans)

Multicellular heterotrophs that ____________________ FUNGI absorb nutrients instead of eating (yeast, mushrooms, mold, mildew)

“ancient bacteria” that live in very harsh environments

ARCHAEBACTERIA
______________________

EUBACTERIA True bacteria (unicellular prokaryotes) ______________________
Green plants (multicellular autotrophs) ______________________ PLANTAE Single celled Eukaryotes (Euglena, Amoeba) __________________

PROTISTA

NAME THE TYPE OF CLEAVAGE
SPIRAL
http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif

What do we call organisms with this type of cleavage? PROTOSTOMES Protostomes Deuterostomes

Label the directions DORSAL A.__________________

ANTERIOR D_______________

POSTERIOR __________________B

VENTRAL ___________________ C

Body system that provides skeletal support and protection ______________________ Body system that makes hormones endocrine which control other body systems ________________ Body system that deals with integumentary what covers the animal __________________

NAME THE TYPE OF COELOM

Eucoelom

Acoelom

Pseudocoelom

Images from:

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

Which of the following is a cladogram?

This is a cladogram!

This is a phylogenetic tree

This is a Karyotype!

PRACTICE VOCAB:
Joining of an egg & sperm inside the female’s body ____________________ Internal fertilization Kind of development in which offspring are born/hatch looking Direct development like their parents only smaller ____________________
Kind of circulatory system in which blood is contained inside vessels

closed __________________

An organism’s evolutionary history __________________

phylogeny

PRACTICE VOCAB:
Organism with a backbone ____________________ vertebrate Organism with determinate spiral cleavage whose blastopore becomes its mouth ____________________ protostome A eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organism with specialized cells that animal contain DNA which can move __________________ and reproduce
Organism made of cells with nuclei and membrane bound organelles __________________ eukaryote

PRACTICE VOCAB:
Joining of an egg & sperm outside the female’s body ____________________ External fertilization
Kind of development in which offspring hatch as larva and must Indirect development ____________________ undergo metamorphosis to become adults Kind of circulatory system in which open blood is NOT contained in vessels __________________ and flows loose inside the coelom

Branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their characteristics and phylogeny

taxonomy ______________________

PRACTICE VOCAB:

invertebrate Organism without a backbone ____________________
Organism with indeterminate radial cleavage whose blastopore becomes its anus ____________________ deuterostome

Organism that must get nutrients by consuming other organisms __________________ heterotroph
Organism made of cells WITHOUT nuclei OR membrane bound organelles __________________ prokaryote

PRACTICE VOCAB:
A hollow ball of cells formed when a zygote undergoes repeated mitosis ________________________

blastula

In animals, the arrangement of body parts around a central axis

Radial symmetry ______________________

An ancestry diagram that shows evolutionary relationships between organisms based on cladogram “shared derived characters” __________________

PRACTICE VOCAB:
A skeleton found on the outside of an animal’s body __________________ exoskeleton
Cleavage pattern in which cells Determinate twist as they divide and decide spiral cleavage early what they will become ____________________ Any eukaryotic heterotrophic multicellular organism made of specialized cells that contain DNA animal which can move and reproduce _________________

Classification system that groups organisms based on the kind of ribosomes they have ______________________ 3 Domain system Classification system that groups organisms and shows evolutionary relationships based on “shared derived characters” ______________________ Cladistics
Classification system that groups organisms and shows evolutionary relationships based on multiple kinds of evidence such as fossils, morphology, embryology, chromosomes, and macromolecules __________________ 6 Kingdom system

Type of coelom in which there is NO space and mesoderm Acoelom fills the area between ectoderm ____________________ and endoderm
Type of coelom in which mesoderm is found lining the outside body wall and surrounding the gut __________________ eucoelom

Type of coelom in which mesoderm lines the outside body wall but is pseudocoelom NOT found around the gut ____________________

PRACTICE VOCAB:
Body cavity (space) formed within the mesoderm that surrounds the internal organs ____________________

coelom

Specific layer of cells in an embryo from which specific organ systems develop

____________________

Germ layer

integument Outside body covering in an animal __________________
Embryonic layer of cells that gives to muscles and to interior body linings __________________

mesoderm

PRACTICE VOCAB:
The concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organs in the anterior end of an animal ____________________

cephalization

In animals the body plan where the Bilateral left and right sides are mirror images symmetry of each other ____________________

The system of naming organisms that Binomial uses a 2 part scientific name nomenclature (genus & species indentifier) __________________ Depression formed when the cells of a blastula move inward __________________

blastopore

A system of phylogenetic classification using shared derived characters and the _____________________ recency of ancestry to group organisms

cladistics

The study of the internal and external structure and form of an organism ____________________ morphology A family tree that shows the evolutionary Phylogenetic relationships thought to exist among _____________________ organisms tree

Waste produced in body cells by the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids ________________ Nitrogen waste and handled by the excretory system

Body system for removing nitrogen waste

excretory ____________________

Body system for transporting nutrients and oxygen around circulatory in body ____________________ Body system that exchanges respiratory gases with the environment __________________
Body system that maintains the balance of water/ions (osmoregulation)

excretory __________________

Body system for receiving info nervous about the environment and responding ________________ Body system for obtaining nutrients Body system that produces offspring

____________________ digestive

reproductive __________________

Body system that moves the whole organism or is found in the walls muscular of body organs to move substances __________________

Body system that provides skeletal support and protection ______________________ Body system that makes hormones endocrine which control other body systems ________________ Body system that deals with integumentary what covers the animal __________________
Type of cleavage pattern in which dells stack on top of each other and Indeterminate decide later on what they will become ______________ radial cleavage

Label the directions DORSAL A.__________________

POSTERIOR D_______________

ANTERIOR __________________B

VENTRAL ___________________ C
Animation from: http://bestanimations.com

NAME THE TYPE OF COELOM

Pseudocoelom

Eucoelom

Acoelom

Images from:

http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

THE END


				
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