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Introducing Agile to a PMP

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If you want to introduce /adapt agile technologies to a PMP or PMI professional, these slides can help you a big extent...

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An introduction for PMPs

Agile beginnings

1990 circa: Many late schedules and death marches to delivery

2001: Agile Alliance created

1995 circa: Many new SW development methods piloted XP, Scrum, FDD, etc

The Agile Manifesto (2001)
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:

Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum, Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin Fowler, James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas www.agileAlliance.org

Principles of Agile
Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.

Principles of Agile
7. 8. 9.
Working software is the primary measure of progress. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. essential.

10. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from selforganizing teams.

12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more
effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly

Why should we change to Agile?
 Improve productivity
 with focused teams

 Meet quality requirements
 by getting to “done done” at the end of each iteration

 Increase customer satisfaction
 by engaging endusers/beta sites early

 Increase project transparency
 with demo‟ing & delivering working software early and

Lots of Agile methods & practices
They are all similar!!!

 Scrum
      
Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM) Extreme Programming (XP) Test Driven Development Lean Software Development Crystal Feature-driven development (FDD) etc

Lots of Agile methods & practices
 Scrum – popular (US) project management method
 Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM) – popular
(Europe) project management method

 Extreme Programming (XP) – pair programming, and more
developer best practices + story driven before writing all the code

 Test Driven Development – design the test framework
 Lean Software Development – learnings from
manufacturing‟s lean six sigma

 Crystal – a set of maturity models

 etc

Agile Practice Penetration @Microsoft

Source: Usage and Perceptions of Agile Software Development in an Industrial Context, Begel & Nagappan, Sept 2007, n=487

Let‟s talk about Scrum

Scrum Framework

   

Small cross-functional teams 7 people +/- 2 Series of Sprints (iterations), 2-4 weeks in duration Each Sprint produces a working increment of software To start a Sprint the team selects & commits to stories from the Product Backlog in priority order  To close of a Sprint, we demo/evaluate progress  Between Sprints, the Product Owner can modify & reprioritize the Product backlog

    

Product backlog

Prioritized list of features represented as stories Can adjust between iterations as needed

Managed by Product Owner
Priorities are driven by business value ROI Some stories may be for technical infrastructure
Title User Story



Agile for PMP FAQ

As a PMP new to agile, I need a FAQ to answer my basic questions around agile and how to get started based upon a „common‟ agile issue or question (e.g. What PMBOK processes does Agile replace or modify? )
As a PMP, I need introductory material for the Scrum Master new to agile so that I understand this new role, how to best contribute in this role, and what is expected of me.


Scrum Master Definition

Sprint Backlog
 A prioritized list of stories taken from the top of the product
backlog based on the team‟s estimate of what can be completed during the next iteration

 Created at the start of an iteration/sprint  A story can be de-scoped (move back to product backlog)  New stories should not be added during the Sprint

Burndown chart
One of many “information radiators,” ie dashboard pieces

 During Scrum, progress on tasks are tracked then reported

 Manage tasks, estimates and burndown charts

Scrum Meetings
 Estimation Meeting
 Team meets with product Owner to discuss Backlog Items and assign a relative
size value to each.

 Planning Meeting
 Occurs at the start of each sprint (iteration). Two parts.  1. Product manager and team meet and agree the next product increment.  2. Team then determines the tasks for each backlog item.

 Daily Scrum Meetings aka Daily Standup
 Maximum 15 minutes. Team meets to update the task chart and report on
progress and impediments. What did you do yesterday, today, issues?

 Review
 Team meet with Product Owner at the end of the sprint to demonstrate the
working software from the sprint.

 Retrospective
 Team meets with Scrum Master to inspect and adapt on their process.
Slide Credit: © 2006, Tobias Mayer/Agile Thinking - http://agilethinking.net

Agile Iteration Cadence
Requirements Are Refined

Initial Elaboration Requirements With Tests

Dev Feature Dev Feature Priority 1 Priority 4 Auto. Tests Auto. Tests Feature 1 Feature 4 Dev Feature Dev Feature Priority 5 Priority 2 Auto. Tests Auto. Tests Feature 2 Feature 5 Dev Feature Priority 3


Detailed Iteration Planning & Design

Demo & Retro

Auto. Tests Feature 3
Iteration N-1 Iteration N




Iteration N+1 Slide Credit:

Scrum on One Page

Done Done Done
 Coded – it works on the developer‟s box  Verified – Unit tested and they work on Integration

 Validated – accepted by ProductOwner as being
what was needed


Technical Debt
        
By not enforcing high quality standards in the definition of “Done.” Cutting corners to achieve a higher velocity and meet impossible timelines leads to build up of low quality, unmaintainable code. Death spiral: As the maximum velocity of system goes down, even more corners are cut to compensate until

the velocity approaches 0.
Key people move on to make new messes elsewhere.

* Ref: http://danube.com/blog/kanemar/technical_debt_and_the_death_of_design_part_1.html

Scrum Roles
Product Owner or PO team Responsible for managing and prioritizing the Product Backlog, and for accepting the software at the end of each iteration

Scrum Master Responsible for shepherding the team, removing impediments, keeping the process moving, and socializing scrum to the greater organization Chickens Users Stakeholders/Sponsors Managers

The Team
Responsible for estimating size of backlog items, committing to increments of deliverable software – and delivering it. Tracks own progress (with Scrum Master). Is self-organizing – but accountable to the product owner for delivering as promised.

Requirements process
 Progressive elaboration
Themes Marketing/Customer Requirements Headlines Epic User Stories

User Stories Product Backlog / Features

Headlines (Epic)
As a user, I want to schedule a service appointment.
Breakdown into user stories:

 As a returning user, I want to login to the service
department website vehicle

 As a user, I want to view recommended service for my
 As a user, I want to select an appointment date and time for

 As the system, I want to send the user a confirmation email
once service is scheduled
Slide Credit:

What‟s Different about Testing in Agile?

 Just-In Time Requirements Elaboration
 No Functional Spec waterfall docs to drive test planning  Requirements and Test Cases developed in parallel or
test first strategy

 More Frequent Iterations, More Frequent Releases
   
Testing needs to happen Early and Often Frequent to continuous regression testing High need to automate nearly everything Everyone needs to Test

 Two Levels of Testing
 Iteration Vs. Release testing patterns
Slide Credit:

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