John_Dickinson_-delegate- by zzzmarcus

VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 8

									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Dickinson (delegate)

John Dickinson (delegate)
John Dickinson

President of Pennsylvania In office November 7, 1782 – October 18, 1785 Preceded by Succeeded by William Moore Benjamin Franklin

Continental Congressman or representative from Pennsylvania and Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, President of Pennsylvania and served from 1782 to 1785 as an ex officio member and president of the board of trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Among the wealthiest men in the British American colonies, he is known as the Penman of the Revolution, for his Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, where he eloquently argued the cause of American liberty.

Family history
Dickinson was born November 8th 1732[1] at "Croisadore," his family’s tobacco plantation in Talbot County, near Trappe, Maryland. He was the great grandson of Walter Dickinson who emigrated from England to Virginia in 1654 and, having joined the Society of Friends, came with several co-religionists to Talbot County on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1659. There, with 400 acres (1.6 km2) on the banks of the Choptank River he began a plantation, "Croisadore," meaning "cross of gold." He also bought 800 acres (3.2 km2) on St. Jones Neck in what became Kent County, Delaware. Croisadore passed through Walter’s son, William, to his grandson, Samuel, the father of John Dickinson. Each generation increased the landholdings, so that Samuel inherited 2500 acres (10 km²) on five farms in three Maryland counties and over his lifetime increased that to 9000 acres (36 km²). He also bought the Kent County property from his cousin and expanded it into a massive domain of some 3000 acres (12 km²) stretching along the St. Jones River from Dover to the Delaware Bay. There he began another plantation and called it “Poplar Hall.” These plantations were large, profitable agricultural enterprises worked by slave labor, producing tobacco in Talbot County and wheat and corn in the more sandy soil of Kent County. As a result the family was enormously wealthy. Samuel Dickinson first married Judith Troth and they had nine children. As was often the case, four died as children, but

President of Delaware In office November 13, 1781 – November 7, 1782 Preceded by Succeeded by Caesar Rodney John Cook

Continental Congressman from Delaware In office January 18, 1779 – February 10, 1781 Continental Congressman from Pennsylvania In office August 2, 1774 – November 7, 1776 Born November 2, 1732(1732-11-02) Talbot County, Maryland February 14, 1808 (aged 75) Wilmington, Delaware Democratic-Republican Mary (Polly) Norris Kent County, Delaware Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Wilmington, Delaware Quaker (associated)

Died Political party Spouse Residence

Religion

John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer and a politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. He was a militia officer during the American Revolution, a

1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
tragically Judith herself died in 1729, and the three eldest sons died while in England seeking their education. Widowed, with two young children, Henry and Betsy, Samuel married Mary Cadwalader in 1731. She was the daughter of the prominent Quaker, John Cadwalader of Philadelphia. Their sons, John and Philemon, were born in the next few years. For three generations the Dickinson family had been devout members of the Third Haven Friends Meeting in Talbot County and the Cadwaladers were equally devout members of the Meeting in Philadelphia. But in 1739, John Dickinson’s half-sister, Betsy, was married in an Anglican Church to Charles Goldsborough in what was called a "disorderly marriage" by the Meeting. This event hurt Samuel Dickinson in such a way that he never participated in the Meeting again. It may have also been one of the reasons for Samuel’s decision to move the family to Poplar Hall in 1740. Leaving Croisadore to elder son, Henry Dickinson, they made the trek to their new home, where Samuel had already taken a leading role in the community as Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Kent County. The move also placed Mary nearer her Philadelphia relations, and young John was to grow up under the growing attraction of that great metropolis. By contemporary standards Poplar Hall was itself a busy place, situated on a now straightened bend of the St. Jones River. There was plenty of activity delivering the necessities, and shipping the agricultural products produced. Much of this product was wheat, an especially soft, fine wheat, that along with other wheat from the region, was milled into the famous “superfine” flour. But the people were largely servants and slaves, employed by, or doing business with the Dickinsons. Neighbors were a long way away over the marshy hinterland, and even those that were there were not close friends, separated psychologically by differences in wealth and religion. The land itself was a vast, damp, mosquito ridden domain, acquired because it was cheaper to buy than to improve, and therefore quickly worn out and abandoned. It had a subtle, quiet beauty, fully appreciated by John Dickinson and his father, but less so by others in the family, and not at all by his wife in the years to come.

John Dickinson (delegate)

Early life and education
Dickinson was educated at home, largely by doting parents, but also by recent immigrants employed for that purpose. Included among them was the Presbyterian minister Francis Alison, who later began the well known New London Academy in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Most important was William Killen, who became a life-long friend, and himself had a distinguished career as Delaware’s first Chief Justice and Chancellor. Dickinson was precocious and energetic, and in spite of his love of "Poplar Hall" and his family, was himself irresistibly drawn to the larger stage up river in Philadelphia. Recognizing all this, his father sent him, at the age of 18, to begin studying the law under John Moland in Philadelphia. There he made friends with fellow students George Read and Samuel Wharton, among others, and enjoyed the new experience of urban life. By 1753 it was apparent that the place he really needed to study was London, and in spite of having already lost three sons while making similar trips, Samuel Dickinson agreed to send John for what ended up as three years of study at the Middle Temple. He spent those years studying the works of Edward Coke and Francis Bacon among others, at the Inns of Court, and by early 1757 was admitted to the Bar. After returning to "Poplar Hall" for a lengthy visit, he was back in Philadelphia by the fall, having begun his career as barrister and solicitor.

Personal affairs
In 1770 Dickinson married Mary Norris, also known as Polly, the daughter of another wealthy Philadelphia Quaker, and Speaker of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, Isaac Norris. They had two daughters, Sally and Maria. Dickinson never formally joined the Quaker Meeting, because, as he explained, he believed in the "lawfulness of defensive war." However, now married to another devout Quaker, he was always strongly influenced by the beliefs of the Society of Friends. He was already among the wealthiest of men, and this marriage only increased that. In Philadelphia, he preferred to live at the family estate of his wife, called "Fairhill," near Germantown. Meanwhile he built an elegant mansion on Chestnut Street but never lived there as it was confiscated and turned

2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
into a hospital during his 1776-77 absence in Delaware. It then became the residence of the French ambassador, and still later the home of his brother, Philemon Dickinson. Fairhill was burned by the British during the Battle of Germantown. While in Philadelphia as State President, he lived at the confiscated mansion of Joseph Galloway at Sixth and Market Streets, now established as the State Presidential mansion. As an adult Dickinson lived at his family home, Poplar Hall, on the Jones Neck, in Kent County, for extended periods only in 1776-77 and 1781-82. In August 1781 it was sacked by Loyalists, and after being restored, was badly burned in 1804. This home is now owned by the State of Delaware, is undergoing restoration and is open to the public. After his service as President of Pennsylvania, he returned to live in Wilmington, Delaware in 1785 and built a mansion at the northwest corner of 8th and Market Streets.

John Dickinson (delegate)
issuing a declaration. He abstained or absented himself from the votes that declared independence (July 2) and approved the wording of the formal Declaration (July 4). Dickinson understood the implications of his refusal to vote, stating, "My conduct this day, I expect will give the finishing blow to my once too great and, my integrity considered, now too diminished popularity." Dickinson refused to sign the Declaration, and since a proposal had been brought forth and carried that stated, "for our mutual security and protection," no man could remain in Congress without signing, Dickinson voluntarily left and joined the Pennsylvania militia. Following the Declaration of Independence, Dickinson was given the rank of brigadier general in the Pennsylvania militia, known as the Associators. He led some 10,000 soldiers to Elizabeth, New Jersey to protect that area against British attack from Staten Island. Because of his unpopular opinion on independence, two junior officers were promoted above him. He resigned his commission in December 1776 and went to stay at Poplar Hall in Kent County. While there he learned that his home on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia had been confiscated and converted into a hospital. Despite these setbacks, Dickinson insisted on always espousing his true feelings, no matter the consequence.

Continental Congress
As events unfolded Dickinson was one of Pennsylvania’s delegates to the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and 1776. In support of the cause, he continued to contribute declarations in the name of the Congress. Among the most famous is one written with Thomas Jefferson, a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, with Dickinson’s famous conclusion that Americans were resolved to die free men rather than live slaves. Another was the Olive Branch Petition, a last ditch appeal to King George III to resolve the dispute. But through it all, agreeing with New Castle County’s George Read and many others in Philadelphia and the Lower Counties, Dickinson’s object was reconciliation, not independence and revolution. He was a proud devotee of the British Constitution, and felt the dispute was with Parliament only. He was also a product of his Quaker heritage, which insisted that disputes be settled without violence. When the Continental Congress began the debate on the Declaration of Independence on July 1, 1776, Dickinson reiterated his opposition to declaring independence at that time. Dickinson believed that Congress should complete the Articles of Confederation and secure a foreign alliance before

Congressman and President of Delaware
For more than two years Dickinson stayed at Poplar Hall in a long depression. The Delaware General Assembly tried to appoint him as their delegate to the Continental Congress in 1777, but he refused. In August 1777 he served as a private with the Kent County Militia at Middletown, Delaware under General Caesar Rodney to help delay General William Howe’s march to Philadelphia. In October 1777, Dickinson’s friend Thomas McKean appointed him Brigadier General of the Delaware Militia, but again Dickinson declined the appointment. Shortly afterwards he learned that the British had burned down his Fairhill property during the Battle of Germantown. These years were not without accomplishment, however. In 1777, Dickinson, Delaware’s wealthiest farmer and largest

3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Dickinson (delegate)
Delaware General Assembly elected him the President of Delaware. The General Assembly’s vote was nearly unanimous, the only dissenting vote having been cast by Dickinson himself. Dickinson took office on November 13, 1781 and served until November 7, 1782. Beginning his term with a "Proclamation against Vice and Immorality," he sought ways to bring an end to the disorder of the days of the Revolution. It was a popular position and enhanced his reputation both in Delaware and Pennsylvania. Dickinson then successfully challenged the Delaware General Assembly to address lagging militia enlistments and to properly fund the state’s assessment to the Confederation government. And recognizing the delicate negotiations then underway to end the American Revolution, Dickinson secured the Assembly’s continued endorsement of the French alliance, with no agreement on a separate peace treaty with Great Britain. He also introduced the first census. However, as before, the lure of Pennsylvania politics was too great. On October 10, 1782, Dickinson was elected to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. On November 7, 1782 a joint ballot by the Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly elected him as president of the Council and thereby President of Pennsylvania. But he did not actually resign as State President of Delaware. Even though Pennsylvania and Delaware had shared the same governor until very recently, attitudes had changed, and many in Delaware were upset at seemingly being cast aside so readily, particularly after the Philadelphia newspapers began criticizing the state for allowing the practice of multiple and non resident office holding. Dickinson’s constitutional successor, John Cook, was considered too weak in his support of the Revolution, and it was not until January 12, 1783, when Cook called for a new election to chose a replacement, that Dickinson formally resigned.

John Dickinson slaveholder, decided to free his slaves. While Kent County was not a large slave-holding area, like farther south in Virginia, and even though Dickinson had only 37 slaves, this was an action of some considerable courage. Undoubtedly the strongly abolitionist Quaker influences around them had their effect, and the action was all the easier because his farm had moved away from tobacco to the less labor intensive crops like wheat and barley. Furthermore manumission was a multi-year process and many of the workers remained obligated to service for a considerable additional time. Finally, on January 18, 1779, Dickinson was appointed to be a delegate for Delaware to the Continental Congress. During this term he signed the Articles of Confederation, having in 1776 authored their first draft while serving in the Continental Congress as a delegate from Pennsylvania. In August 1781, while still a delegate in Philadelphia he learned that Poplar Hall had been severely damaged by a Loyalist raid. Dickinson returned to the property to investigate the damage and once again stayed for several months. While there, in October 1781, Dickinson was elected to represent Kent County in the State Senate, and shortly afterwards the

Delaware General Assembly
(sessions while President)

Year Assembly 1781/ 6th 82

Senate Speaker Majority nonpartisan Thomas Collins

House Spe Majority nonpartisan

Sim Koll

4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1782/ 7th 83 nonpartisan Thomas Collins

John Dickinson (delegate)

non- boundary dispute with Virginia in southwestNicholas ern Van partisan Pennsylvania, but was never able to satisfactorily disentangle disputed titles in the Dyke Wyoming Valley resulting from prior claims of Connecticut to those lands. An exhausted Dickinson left office October 18, 1785. On that day a special election was held in which Benjamin Franklin was unanimously elected When the American Revolution began, to serve the ten days left in Dickinson’s term. Dickinson fairly represented the center of Perhaps the most significant decision of Pennsylvania politics. The old Proprietary his term was the result of his patient, peaceand Popular parties divided equally in thirds ful management of the Pennsylvania Mutiny over the issue of independence, as Loyalists, of 1783. This was a violent protest of Moderate Whigs who later became FederalPennsylvania veterans who marched on the ists, and Radicals or Constitutionalists. The Continental Congress demanding their pay old Pennsylvania General Assembly was dombefore being discharged from the army. inated by the Loyalists and Moderates and, Somewhat sympathizing with their case, like Dickinson, did little to support the burDickinson refused Congress’s request to geoning Revolution or independence, except bring full military action against them, causprotest. The Radicals took matters into their ing Congress to vote to remove themselves to own hands, using irregular means to write Princeton, New Jersey. And when the new the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, which Congress agreed to return in 1790, it was to by law excluded from the franchise anyone be for only 10 years, until a permanent capitwho would not swear loyalty to the document al was found elsewhere. or the Christian Holy Trinity. In this way all While serving this term he donated Loyalists, Moderate Whigs, and Quakers 500 acres (2 km²) to Dickinson College in were kept out of government. This perempCarlisle, Pennsylvania, an educational institutory action seemed appropriate to many durtion founded in 1783 by his friend Benjamin ing the crises of 1777 and 1778, but less so Rush. in the later years of the Revolution, and the Moderate Whigs gradually became the Pennsylvania General Assembly majority. (sessions while President) Dickinson’s election to the Supreme ExecYear Assembly Majority Speaker utive Council was the beginning of a counter1782/ 7th Republican Frederick revolution against the Constitutionalists. He 83 A. C. was elected President of Pennsylvania, on Muhlenberg November 7, 1782, garnering 41 votes to James Potter’s 32. As president he presided 1783/ 8th Republican George over the intentionally weak executive author84 Gray ity of the state, and was its chief officer, but 1784/ 9th Constitutional John B. always required the agreement of a majority 85 Bayard to act. He was re-elected twice and served the constitutional maximum of three years; his election on November 6, 1783 was unanimous, and on November 6, 1784 he defeated John Neville, who also lost the election for Vice-President the same day. Working with After his service in Pennsylvania, Dickinson only the smallest of majorities in the General returned to Delaware, and lived in WilmingAssembly in his first two years and with the ton. He was quickly appointed to represent Constitutionalists in the majority in his last Delaware at the Annapolis Convention, where year, all issues were contentious. At first he he served as its President. In 1787, Delaware endured withering attacks from his opponsent him as one of its delegates to the Constients for his alleged failure to fully support tutional Convention of 1787, along with Gunthe new government in large and small ways. ning Bedford, Jr., Richard Bassett, George He responded ably and survived the attacks. Read, and Jacob Broom, There, he supported He managed to settle quickly the old

The President Of Pennsylvania

United States Constitution

5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Dickinson (delegate)
Dickinson shares with Thomas McKean the distinction of serving as Chief Executive of both Delaware and Pennsylvania after the Declaration of Independence. Dickinson College and Dickinson School of Law, separate institutions both located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, were named after Dickinson. Along with his Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, Dickinson also authored "The Liberty Song". Dickinson is a prominent character in the musical drama 1776, billed fourth after the parts of Adams, Franklin, and Jefferson. He was originally portrayed on stage by Paul Hecht, and in the 1972 film adaptation by Donald Madden. Michael Cumpsty portrayed him in the 1997 revival. His portrayal in this musical differs from reality: instead of abstaining from voting and debating, he acts as John Adams’ primary antagonist in the debates over independence, to the point where the two men come to blows. In Part II of the 2008 HBO series John Adams (TV miniseries), based on the book by David McCullough, the part of Dickinson is played by Zeljko Ivanek.

The Signing of the Constitution of the United States. the effort to create a strong central government, but only after the Great Compromise assured that each state, regardless of size, would have an equal vote in the future United States Senate. Following the Convention he promoted the resulting Constitution in a series of nine essays, written under the pen name, Fabius. In 1791, Delaware convened a convention to revise its existing Constitution, which had been hastily drafted in 1776. Dickinson was elected president of this convention, and although he resigned the chair after most of the work was complete, he remained highly influential in the content of the final document. Major changes included the establishment of a separate Chancery Court and the expansion of the franchise to include all taxpayers, except blacks and women. Dickinson remained neutral in an attempt to include a prohibition of slavery in the document, believing the General Assembly was the proper place to decide that issue. The new Constitution was approved June 12, 1792. Once more Dickinson was returned to the State Senate for the 1793 session, but served for just one year before resigning due to his declining health. In his final years he worked to further the abolition movement, donated a considerable amount of his wealth to the "relief of the unhappy," and in 1801 published two volumes of his collected works on politics.

Almanac
Delaware elections were held October 1, and members of the Delaware General Assembly took office on October 20 or the following weekday. Assemblymen had a one-year term. The Legislative Council was created in 1776, and Legislative Councilmen had a three-year term. The Delaware General Assembly chose the State President for a three-year term. Pennsylvania elections were held in October as well. Assemblymen had a one-year term. The Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council was created in 1776, and counsellors were popularly elected for three-year terms. A joint ballot of the Pennsylvania General Assembly and the Council chose the President from among the twelve Counsellors for a one-year term. Both Assemblies chose the Continental Congressmen for a one-year term as well as the delegates to the U.S. Constitution Convention.

Death and Legacy
Dickinson died February 14, 1808, at Wilmington, Delaware, where he is buried at the Friends Burial Ground.[2]

Public Offic Office State Type Location

Assemblyman Lower Counties

Legislature New Castle

1

6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Assemblyman Lower Counties Legislature New Castle 1760 Notes

John Dickinson (delegate)
October October 20, 1760 20, 1761 [1] Various sources indicate a birth date of Philadelphia 1762 October October November 8, November 12 or November 1762 1763 13, but his most recent biographer, Philadelphia 1763offers October October Flower, November 2 without 1763 1764 dispute. [2] New York Ehrlich, Eugene and Gorton Carruth. The October October Stamp Act Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the 7, 1765 19, 1765 Congress United States. New York: Oxford Philadelphia August 2, October Continental University Press, 1982: 217. ISBN 26, 1774 Congress 0195031865 1774 Philadelphia March 16, October Continental 1775 21, 1775 Congress

Assemblyman Pennsylvania Legislature Assemblyman Pennsylvania Legislature Delegate Delegate Delegate Delegate Pennsylvania Legislature Pennsylvania Legislature Pennsylvania Legislature

Writings

Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia October November Continental • Calvert, Jane E. (July 2007), "Liberty 21, 1775 7, 1776 Congress Without Tumult: Understanding the Delegate Delaware Legislature Philadelphia Politics of John January Dickinson", December Continental The 18, 1779 22, 1779 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Congress Biography (Philadelphia: Historical Delegate Delaware Legislature Philadelphia December February Continental Society of Pennsylvania) CXXXI (3): 22, 1779 10, 1781 Congress 233–262. Councilman Delaware Legislature Dover October November • Conrad, Henry C. (1908). History of the 20, 1781 13, 1781 State of Delaware. Lancaster, State Delaware Executive Dover November Company. Pennsylvania: Wickersham November Executive President 13, 1781 7, 1782 Council • Flower, Milton E. (1983). John DickinsonConservative Revolutionary. State Pennsylvania Executive Philadelphia State November October Charlottesville, 4, 1782 University Press President President Virginia: 18, 1785 of Virginia. Delegate Delaware Convention Philadelphia May 14, September U.S. • Hoffecker, Carol E. (2004). Democracy in 1787 17, 1787 Constitution Delaware. Wilmington, Delaware: Cedar Delegate Delaware Convention Dover November June 12, State Tree Books. ISBN 1-892142-23-6. 29, 1791 History of 1792 Constitution • Martin, Roger A. (1984). Delaware Through its Governors. 6, State Senator Delaware Legislature Dover 1792 January 6, January Wilmington, Delaware: McClafferty Press. 1793 1794 • Martin, Roger A. (1995). Memoirs of the Senate. Newark, Delaware: Roger A. Martin. • service John A. (2004). Philadelawareans. Delaware General Assembly Munroe, Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Dates Assembly Chamber Majority Governor Committees District Press. ISBN 0-87413-872-8. 1781/ 6th State nonCaesar Munroe, John A. (1954). Federalist Kent at• 82 House partisan Rodney Delaware 1775-1815. New Brunswick, large New Jersey: Rutgers University. 1793 17th State Republican Joshua New • Racino, John W. (1980). Biographical Senate Clayton Castle Directory of American and Revolutionary at-large Governors 1607-1789. Westport, CT: Meckler Books. ISBN 0-930466-00-4. • Rodney, Richard S. (1975). Collected Essays on Early Delaware. Wilmington, • Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Delaware: Society of Colonial Wars in the Taking Up Arms State of Delaware. • Scharf, John Thomas (1888). History of Delaware 1609-1888. 2 vols. Philadelphia: L. J. Richards & Co.

References

7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Ward, Christopher L. (1941). Delaware Continentals, 1776-1783. Wilmington, DE: Historical Society of Delaware. ISBN 0-924117-21-4.

John Dickinson (delegate)

Images
• Hall of Governors Portrait Gallery, Portrait courtesy of Historical and Cultural Affairs, Dover. • Images of American Political History

External links
• John Dickinson (delegate) at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress • John Dickinson at the Political Graveyard • John Dickinson (delegate) at Find A Grave • John Dickinson at Delaware’s Governors • John Dickinson atFrom Revolution to Reconstruction • John Dickinson at Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution • John Dickinson - Delmarva Heritage Series • John Dickinson - University of Pennsylvania Archives

Places with more information
• Delaware Historical Society website; 505 North Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19801; (302) 655-7161 • University of Delaware Library website, 181 South College Avenue, Newark, Delaware 19717; (302) 831-2965 • Historical Society of Pennsylvania website, 1300 Locust Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (215) 732-6200 • John Dickinson Plantation website, 340 Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Delaware (302) 739-3277 • Wilmington Quaker Meeting House (burial site), 401 North West Street, Wilmington, Delaware (302) 652-4491

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dickinson_(delegate)" Categories: 1732 births, 1808 deaths, American Quakers, Continental Congressmen from Delaware, Continental Congressmen from Pennsylvania, Delaware Democratic-Republicans, Delaware lawyers, Delaware State Senators, Governors of Delaware, Governors of Pennsylvania, Members of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, Militia generals in the American Revolution, Pennsylvania lawyers, Pennsylvania militiamen in the American Revolution, People from Kent County, Delaware, People from Wilmington, Delaware, Signers of the United States Constitution, Dickinson College, People from Maryland, People from Pennsylvania, People of Pennsylvania in the American Revolution, Pennsylvania colonial people, People from Talbot County, Maryland This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 20:24 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

8


								
To top