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Galveston, Texas

Galveston, Texas
City of Galveston Website www.cityofgalveston.org

Seal

Nickname(s): The Oleander City

Location in the state of Texas

Coordinates: 29°16′52″N 94°49′33″W / 29.28111°N 94.82583°W / 29.28111; -94.82583Coordinates: 29°16′52″N 94°49′33″W / 29.28111°N 94.82583°W / 29.28111; -94.82583 Country State Counties Incorporated Government - Type - Mayor Area - Total - Land - Water Elevation Population (2005) - Total - Density - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP codes Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID United States Texas Galveston 1839 Council-manager Lyda Ann Thomas 208.3 sq mi (539.6 km2) 46.1 sq mi (119.5 km2) 162.2 sq mi (420.1 km2) 7 ft (2 m) 57,466 1,240.3/sq mi (478.9/km2) Galvestonian CST (UTC-6) CDT (UTC-5) 77550-77555 409 48-28068[1] 1377745[2]

Galveston (pronounced /ˈɡælvɨstən/) is a city in and seat of Galveston County located on Galveston Island on the Gulf Coast in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. As of the 2005 U.S. Census estimate, the city had a total population of 57,466. Galveston is accessible by the Galveston Causeway linking Galveston Island to the mainland on the north end of the city, a toll bridge on the western end of the island, and by ferry boat service on the east end of the city. Galveston is the second-largest city in Galveston County in population after League City.[3] Galveston is known for the hurricane that struck it in 1900. The natural disaster that followed still counts as the most deadly in American history. A 10-mile (16-km) long, 17-foot (5.18 m) high seawall protects the city from floods and hurricane storm surge. The city’s tourist attractions include the Galveston Schlitterbahn waterpark, Moody Gardens botanical park, the Ocean Star Offshore Drilling Rig & Museum, the Lone Star Flight Museum, a downtown neighborhood of historic buildings known as The Strand, many historical museums and mansions, and miles of beach front. The Strand plays host to a yearly Mardi Gras festival, Galveston Island Jazz & Blues Festival and a Victorian-themed Christmas festival called Dickens on the Strand (honoring the works of novelist Charles Dickens, especially A Christmas Carol) in early December. Galveston was also home to the Balinese Room, an historic nightclub, formerly a notorious illegal gambling hall, which was located on a 600-foot (200 m) pier extending into the Gulf of Mexico.[4]

History
Exploration and settlement
Galveston island was originally inhabited by members of the Karankawa and Akokisa tribes, who used the name "Auia" for the island. The Spanish explorer Cabeza de Vaca

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and his crew were shipwrecked on the island (or nearby) in November 1528,[5] calling it "Isla de Malhado" ("Isle of Doom"),[6] and there began his famous trek to Mexico. During his charting of the Gulf Coast in 1785, the Spanish explorer José de Evia named the island Gálvez-town or Gálveztown in honor of Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez.[6][7] The first permanent European settlements on the island were constructed around 1816 by the pirate LouisMichel Aury as a base of operations to support Mexico’s rebellion against Spain. In 1817 Aury returned from an unsuccessful raid against Spain to find Galveston occupied by the pirate Jean Lafitte, who took up residence there after having been driven from his stronghold in Barataria Bay off the coast of New Orleans, Louisiana. Lafitte organized Galveston into a pirate "kingdom" he called "Campeachy" (or "Campeche"), anointing himself the island’s "head of government." Lafitte remained in Galveston until 1821 when he and his raiders were given an ultimatum by the United States Navy: leave or be destroyed. Lafitte burned his settlement to the ground and sailed under cover of night for parts unknown. There are still rumors that Lafitte’s treasure is buried somewhere between Galveston Island, Bolivar Peninsula and High Island. Following its successful revolution from Spain, the Congress of Mexico issued a proclamation on October 17, 1825, establishing the Port of Galveston, and in 1830 erected a customs house. During the Texas Revolution, Galveston served as the main port for the Texas navy. Galveston also served as the capital of the Republic of Texas when in 1836 interim president David G. Burnet relocated his government there. In 1836, Michel B. Menard, a native of Canada, along with several associates purchased 4,605 acres (18.64 km²) of land for $50,000 from the Austin Colony to found the town that would become the modern city of Galveston. Menard and his associates began selling plots on April 20, 1838. In 1839, the City of Galveston adopted a charter and was incorporated by the Congress of the Republic of Texas. The Battle of Galveston was fought in Galveston Bay and on the island on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War when Confederate forces under Major General John B. Magruder attacked and expelled

Galveston, Texas
occupying Union troops from the city, which remained in Confederate hands for the duration of the war. In May 1865, the Lark successfully evaded the Union blockade off of Galveston Harbor and headed for Havana, becoming the final Confederate ship to slip through the blockade from any Southern port.[8] Juneteenth, which is the oldest nationally celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the United States, owes its origins to the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation upon the return of Union forces to Galveston in 1865. In the late 1890s, the Fort Crockett defenses and coastal artillery batteries were constructed in Galveston and along the Bolivar Roads. [9]

Growth

The Beach Hotel catered to vacationers until a fire in 1898. At the end of the 19th century, the city of Galveston was a booming metropolis with a population of 37,000. Its position on the natural harbor of Galveston Bay along the Gulf of Mexico made it the center of trade in Texas, and one of the largest cotton ports in the nation, in competition with New Orleans. Between 1838 and 1842, 18 newspapers were started to serve the island’s rapidly growing population (The Galveston County Daily News is the sole survivor). A causeway linking the island with the mainland was finished in 1860, which paved the way for railroad expansion. During this era, Galveston was also home to a number of state firsts, including: the first post office (1836), the first naval base (1836), the first Texas chapter of a Masonic order (1840); the first cotton compress (1842), the first parochial school (Ursuline Academy)

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(1847), the first insurance company (1854), the first gas lights (1856), first Jewish Reform Congregation (Congregation B’nai Israel) (1868), the first opera house (1870), the first orphanage (1876), the first telephone (1878), the first electric lights (1883), the first medical college (now the University of Texas Medical Branch) (1891), and the first school for nurses (1890). Galveston was also home to the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in Texas. In 1839 Rome created the prefecture apostolic of Texas, which was later elevated to a vicariate apostolic on July 10, 1841. Then, on May 4, 1847 Pope Pius IX approved the creation of the Diocese of Galveston and named St. Mary’s Church the Cathedral for the entire state of Texas.[10][11][12]

Galveston, Texas
Weather Bureau building). Isaac Cline was the bureau’s chief meteorologist. An account of the events surrounding the hurricane based on his personal records is given in Isaac’s Storm by Erik Larson. The city was devastated, and an estimated 6,000 to 8,000 people on the island were killed. After the storm cleared, the city decided to shore up its defenses against future storms: a permanent concrete seawall was built along a large portion of the beach front (1902–1904) and the entire grade of the city was raised some 17 feet (5 m) behind the wall to a few feet near the Bay (1904–1910). Just after the hurricane, the city originated the City Commission form of city government (which became known as the "Galveston Plan"), although the city has since adopted the Council-Manager form of government.

Storm of 1900

Postcard view of Beach Boulevard, early 1940s A marker along The Strand indicating a building that survived the 1900 hurricane. Many of the island’s most impressive mansions in Galveston’s historical East End near downtown survived. In 1900, the island was struck by a devastating hurricane. Even post-Hurricane Katrina, this event holds the record as the United States’ deadliest natural disaster. In the early morning of September 8, high surf despite prevailing winds out of the north heralded the oncoming storm. By noon lowlying areas near the Gulf and the Bay side of the city were taking on water and the winds increased. Near 4 p.m. a storm surge approximately 15 feet (5 m) high slammed into the coast. According to many personal accounts, the storm subsided before midnight. Wind speeds reached up to 125 mph (an estimate, since the anemometer was blown off the U.S.

Post-1900s
Despite attempts to draw new investment to the city after the hurricane, Galveston never fully returned to its previous levels of national importance or prosperity. Development was also hindered by the construction of the Houston Ship Channel, which brought the Port of Houston into direct competition with the natural harbor of the Port of Galveston for sea traffic. To further her recovery, and rebuild her population, Galveston actively solicited immigration. Through the efforts of Rabbi Henry Cohen and Congregation B’nai Israel, Galveston became the focus of a immigration plan called the Galveston Movement that, between 1907 and 1914, diverted roughly 10,000 Eastern European, Jewish immigrants from the crowded cities of the Northeastern United States.[13]

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Galveston, Texas
decades, helping to fund numerous civic and health-oriented programs. [16] By 1959, the city of Houston had long outpaced Galveston in population and economic growth. Recognizing this, the Most Reverend Wendelin J. Nold, fifth bishop of the Galveston Diocese, was permitted by the Vatican to erect a Cathedral of convenience in Houston, naming Sacred Heart Church as cocathedral. The diocese was then re-designated the Diocese of Galveston-Houston. Galveston and St. Mary’s Cathedral still remained the home of the diocese, but now the bishop could more easily access the rapidly growing Catholic population in Houston.[17][18] The 1960s saw the expansion of higher education in Galveston. Already home to the University of Texas Medical Branch, the city got a boost in 1962 with the creation of the Texas Maritime Academy, predecessor of Texas A&M University at Galveston; and by 1967 a community college, Galveston College, had been formed to help provide affordable education to the community.[19] On April 23, 1991 Galveston, and other areas of Galveston County, received an enhanced 9-1-1 system which routes calls to proper dispatchers and allows dispatchers to automatically view the address of the caller. Previously Galveston had basic 9-1-1 service.[20] In the 2000s, property values rose after expensive projects were completed [21] and demand for second homes increased.[22] This led some middle class families to move from Galveston to other areas such as League City, Texas City, and La Marque. The city population remained relatively the same from 2000 to 2005 according to the U.S. Census Bureau.[3] In 2007 The Associated Press compiled a list of the most vulnerable places to hurricanes in the U.S. and Galveston was one of five areas named. Among the reasons cited were low elevation and the single evacuation route off the island which is blocked by the fourth largest city in the United States, Houston.[23]

Stewart Title building in Downtown Galveston Though the storm stalled economic development and the city of Houston grew into the region’s principal metropolis, Galveston has regained some of its former glory. Recognizing the need for Galveston to diversify from the traditional port-related industries, in 1905 William Lewis Moody, Jr, a member of one of Galveston’s leading families, founded the American National Insurance Company. Two years later, Mr. Moody would further invest in Galveston by establishing the City National Bank, which would later become the Moody National Bank.[14][15] The 1930s and 1940s brought much change to the Island City. During the World War II, the Galveston Municipal Airport, predecessor to Scholes International Airport, was redesignated a U.S. Army Air Corps base and named "Galveston Army Air Field". The United States Army Corps of Engineers, using funds made available by Congress through the Civil Aeronautics Authority, constructed three 6,000-foot (1,800 m)-long, hard-surface runways at the airport to accommodate army aircraft. In January 1943, Galveston Army Air Field was officially activated with the 46th Bombardment Group serving an anti-submarine role in the Gulf of Mexico. Later it was replaced by the 10th anti-submarine squadron, flying RM-37 Lockheed Venturas. In 1942, William L. Moody Jr., along with his wife Libbie Shearn Rice Moody, established the Moody Foundation, with the purpose of benefiting present and future generations of Texans." The foundation, one of the largest in the United States, would play a prominent role in Galveston during later

Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Island in the early morning of September 13, 2008 as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 miles per hour.[24] Homeland Security

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secretary Michael Chertoff said the previous day that the hurricane might cause "catastrophic effects" and "threaten the lives and safety of citizens along the Texas coast and the western part of Louisiana".[25] Ike produced waves and a rising storm surge of about 14 feet, which went around the famous Galveston Seawall, flooding the city via the storm sewers, and the unprotected "bay side" of the island, before the first winds or drop of rain.[26][27] While most residents evacuated the island prior to the storm, many decided to stay.[27][28] The flooding caused by the storm surge caused many to change their minds, and an attempt was made by the Coast Guard and local officials to rescue hundreds of persons trapped on the island.[29] The storm left Galveston without electricity, gas, water pressure and basic communications.[30]

Galveston, Texas
and Galveston Bay on the north. The island’s main access point from the mainland is the Interstate Highway 45 causeway that crosses West Bay on the northeast side of the island. A deepwater channel connects Galveston’s harbor with the Gulf and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 208.4 square miles (540 km2), of which, 46.2 square miles (120 km2) of it is land and 162.2 square miles (420 km2) of it (77.85%) is water.

Cityscape

Geography and climate
Climate chart for Galveston J F M A M J J A S O N D

4.1 2.6 2.8 2.6 3.7 4

3.5 4.2 5.8 3.5 3.6 3.5 Map of Galveston

62 64 70 75 81 87 89 89 87 80 71 64 A 2003 report written by D. Freeman of the 50 52 58 65 72 78 80 80 76 68 59 52 University of Texas Medical Branch identified average temperatures in °F several communities within Galveston. The precipitation totals in inches western portion of Galveston is referred to as source: National Weather Service Forecast Office the "West End." Communities in eastern Houston/Galveston, Texas: Galveston Climate Galveston include Lake Madeline, Offats BayData ou, Central City, Fort Crockett, Bayou Shore, Metric conversion Lasker Park, Carver Park, Kempner Park, Old J F M A M J J A S O N DCity/Central Business District, San Jacinto, East End, and Lindale.[31] Residential communities in the West End include Laguna Harbor.[32] 104 66 70 65 94 103 88 107 146 89 92 90 17 18 21 24 27 30 32 32 30 27 22 18 10 11 15 18 22 25 27 26 24 20 15 11 Galveston is a popular tourist destination average temperatures in °C • precipitation which in 2007 brought $808 million to the totals in mm local economy and attracted 5.4 million visitFurther information: Galveston Island ors. More than 9,300 city jobs are in the tourThe city of Galveston is situated on Galveston ism industry, representing 30 percent of the Island, a barrier island on the Texas Gulf work force.[33] coast near the mainland coast, about 45 The city is the hone of one the largest miles (72 km) southeast of downtown Housteaching hospitals in the state, University of ton. The island is oriented generally Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, which northeast-southwest, with the Gulf of Mexico employed 12,000 people prior to Hurricane on the east and south, West Bay on the west, Ike. Ike severely damaged the 500-bed John

Economy

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Sealy Hospital causing the University of Texas System Board of Regents cut nearly one-third of the hospital staff. Since the storm, the regents have committed to spending $713 million dollars to restore the campus, construct new medical towers, and return John Sealy Hospital to its 500+ bed prestorm capacity. Furthermore, the university is working towards reopening their Level I Trauma Center, which had been forced to close after the hurricane.[34][35] The Port of Galveston, also called Galveston Wharves, began as a trading post in 1825. Today, the port has grown to 850 acres (3.4 km2) of port facilities. The port is located on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, on the north side of Galveston Island, with some facilities on Pelican Island. The port has facilities to handle all types of cargo including containers, dry and liquid bulk, breakbulk, RO/ RO, refrigerated, and project cargoes. The port of Galveston also serves as a passenger cruise ship terminal for cruise ships operating in the Caribbean. It homports 2 Carnival Cruise Lines vessels the Carnival Conquest and the Carnival Ecstasy. It also homeports Royal Caribbean International, Voyager of the seas, which is the largest cruise ship ever to be based is Galveston. American National Insurance Company, one of the largest life insurance companies in the United States,[36][37] and Moody National Bank are headquartered in Galveston.[38]

Galveston, Texas
had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,895, and the median income for a family was $35,049. Males had a median income of $30,150 versus $26,030 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,275. About 17.8% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.1% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over.

Culture
Galveston is home to the Galveston Symphony Orchestra, an ensemble of amateur and professional musicians formed in 1979 and under the direction of Richard W. Pickar, Musical Director-Conductor.[39]. The Galveston Ballet is regional pre-professional ballet company and academy serving Galveston county.[40] The company presents one fulllength classical ballet in the spring of each year and one mixed repertory program in the fall, both presented at the Grand 1894 Opera House.

Demographics
As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 57,247 people, 23,842 households, and 13,732 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,240.4 people per square mile (478.9/km²). There were 30,017 housing units at an average density of 650.4/ sq mi (251.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 58.66% White, 25.49% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 3.21% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.73% from other races, and 2.41% from two or more races. 25.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 23,842 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.4% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2%

Tourism
Galveston’s historic downtown and beaches are tourist destinations. Notable attractions in Galveston include Moody Gardens, the Ocean Star Offshore Drilling Rig & Museum, the Galveston Railroad Museum, Schlitterbahn and the Lone Star Flight Museum. Galveston is also home to several historic ships: the tall ship Elissa (the official Tall Ship of Texas) at the Texas Seaport Museum and USS Cavalla and USS Stewart, both berthed at Seawolf Park on nearby Pelican Island. Galveston is ranked the number one cruise port on the Gulf Coast and fourth in the United States.[41] The city features an array of lodging options, including hotels, vintage bed and breakfast inns, beachfront

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condominiums, and resort rentals. The city’s official tourism website was launched in the fall of 1994. [42] Galveston’s beaches are much cleaner than in the past. With the island’s population showing greater concern for their environment, washed-up seaweed is now only moved back from the water’s edge to allow the natural buildup and preservation of the beaches. The beaches are now cleaned daily by the Galveston Park Board.

Galveston, Texas
Strand" is generally used to refer to the entire five-block business district between 20th and 25th streets in downtown Galveston, very close to the city’s wharf. Throughout the 19th century, the port city of Galveston grew rapidly and the Strand was considered the region’s primary business center. For a time, the Strand was known as the "Wall Street of the Southwest".[45]

Media
The Galveston County Daily News, the city’s main newspaper, is the oldest continuously printed newspaper in Texas since 1842.[46]

Historic districts

Government and infrastructure
Local government

Galveston contains many restored Victorian homes. The Silk Stocking National Historic District, located between Broadway and Seawall Boulevard and bounded by Ave. K, 23rd St., Ave. P, and 26th St., contains a collection of historic homes constructed from the Civil War through World War II.[43] The East End Historic District, located on both sides of Broadway and Market Streets. contains 463 buildings. Other districts include Cedar Lawn Historic District, Denver Court Historic District and Fort Travis.[44] Galveston City Hall The city’s charter specifies a council-manager government. Galveston’s city council serves as the city’s legislative branch, while the City Manager works as the chief executive officer and the municipal court system serves as the city’s judicial branch. The city council and mayor promote ordinances to establish municipal policies. The Galveston City Council consists of six elected positions, each derived from a specified voting district. Each city council member is elected to a two year term, while the mayor is elected to a two year term. The city council appoints the City Manager, the City Secretary, the City Auditor, the City Attorney, and the Municipal Judge. The city’s Tax Collector is, as of 2008 and as determined by the city council, outsourced to Galveston County. The city manager hires employees, promotes

The Strand District
The Strand District is a National Historic Landmark District of mainly Victorian era buildings that now house restaurants, antique stores, historical exhibits, museums and art galleries. The area is a major tourist attraction for the island city and also plays host to two very popular seasonal festivals. It is widely considered the island’s shopping and entertainment center. Today, "the

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development, presents and administers the budget, and implements City Council policies. As of 2008 Lyda Ann Thomas is the mayor and the City Council members are Tarris L. Woods (District 1), Linda Colbert (District 2), Elizabeth Beeton (District 3), Susan Fennewald (District 4), Danny L. Weber (District 5), and Karen Mahoney (District 6).[47] Galveston City Hall, located at 823 Rosenberg Avenue, is the nerve center of the city government. The City Hall Annex, attached to the west side of city hall, has various offices; including the fire department.[48][49]

Galveston, Texas
within District 11 of the Texas Senate; as of 2008 Mike Jackson represents the district.[59]

Fire and Police Departments
The Galveston Fire Department provides fire protection services through six fire stations and seventeen pieces of apparatus; the fire department administration and the fire marshal are, respectively, in Suite 202 and Suite 203 at 2517 Ball Street.[50] The Galveston Police Department provides the city’s police service; it is headquartered at 601 54th Street.[51]

The Galveston US Post Office, Custom House and Courthouse building in downtown Galveston Galveston is in Texas’s 14th congressional district. As of 2008, Ron Paul represents the district.[60] The Galveston Division of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas is based in Galveston and has jurisdiction over the counties of Galveston, Brazoria, Chambers and Matagorda.[61] It is housed in the United States Post Office, Customs House and Court House federal building in downtown Galveston.[62] The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Galveston, including the Galveston Main Post Office at 601 25th Street,[63] and the Bob Lyons Post Office Station at 5826 Broadway Street,[64] In addition the post office has a contract postal unit at the Medical Branch Unit on the campus of the University of Texas Medical Branch. In November 2007 West Galveston Contract Unit, a Contract Postal Unit, opened inside a local business at Bob Smith Drive near Farm to Market Road 3005 in Jamaica Beach, a city sandwiched in between sections of Galveston.[65]

County, state, and federal representation

Galveston County Courts Building The Galveston County Justice Center, the headquarters of the county, is located at 600 59th Street in Galveston.[52] Galveston is within the County Precinct 1; as of 2008 Patrick Doyle serves as the Commissioner of Precinct 1.[53] The Galveston County Sheriff’s Office operates its law enforcement headquarters at 601 54th Street,[54] while the jail is located at 5700 Avenue H.[55] The Galveston County Department of Parks and Senior Services operates the Galveston Community Center at 2201 Avenue L.[56] Galveston is located in District 23 of the Texas House of Representatives. As of 2008, Craig Eiland represents the district.[57] Most of Galveston is within District 17 of the Texas Senate; as of 2008 Joan Huffman represents the district.[58] A portion of Galveston is

Architecture
Galveston contains one of the largest and historically significant collection of nineteenthcentury buildings in the United States. The city is home to multiple historic districts with over 60 structures listed representing architectural significance in the National Register of Historic Places. [66] Galveston’s architectural preservation and revitalization efforts

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Galveston, Texas

Grand 1894 Opera House The Michel B. Menard House, built in 1838 and oldest in Galveston, is designed the Greek revival style. In 1880, the house was bought by Edwin N. Ketchum who police chief during the 1900 Storm. The Ketchum family owned the home until the 1970s. Ashton Villa was built in 1859 by James Moreau Brown. Ashton Villa was one of the grandest homes in the state at the time it was completed. The home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark. St. Joseph’s Church was built by German immigrants in 1859-60 is the oldest wooden church building in Galveston and the oldest German Catholic Church in Texas. The church was dedicated in April 1860, to St. Joseph, the patron saint of laborers. The building is wooden gothic revival structure, rectangular with a square bell tower with trefoil window. The U.S. Custom House began construction in 1860 and was completed in 1861. The Confederate Army occupied the building during the Civil War, In 1865, the Custom House was the site of the ceremony officially ending the war in Galveston.

One Moody Plaza, home to the American National Insurance Company over several decades have earned national recognition.[67][68]

Historic architecture
The Bishop’s Palace, also known as Gresham’s Castle, is an ornate Victorian house located on Broadway and 14th Street in the East End Historic District of Galveston, Texas. The American Institute of Architects has listed the home as one of the 100 most significant buildings in the United States, and the Library of Congress has classified it as one of the fourteen most representative Victorian structures in the nation. The Galvez Hotel is a historic that opened in 1911.[69] The building was named the Galvez, honoring Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez, for whom the city was named. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 4, 1979. Located in the Strand District, the Grand 1894 Opera House is a restored historic Romanesque Revival style Opera House is currently operated as a not-for-profit performing arts theater.

Modern architecture
Galveston’s tallest buildings include the American National Insurance Company Tower (One Moody Plaza), San Luis Resort South Tower, San Luis Resort North Tower, The Breakers Condominiums, The Galvestonian Resort and Condos, One Shearn Moody

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Plaza, US National Bank Building, By The Sea Condominiums, John Sealy Hospital Towers at UTMB and Medical Arts Building (aka Two Moody Plaza).

Galveston, Texas

Transportation

"Old Red", the original UTMB Galveston building. Scholes International Airport at Galveston Scholes International Airport at Galveston (IATA: GLS, ICAO: KGLS) is a two-runway airport in Galveston; the airport is primarily used for general aviation, offshore energy transportation, and some limited military operations. Commercial airline service is operated out of Houston through William P. Hobby Airport and George Bush Intercontinental Airport. University of Texas Medical Branch has two heliports: one for Ewing Hall and one for its emergency room. Island Transit, which also runs the Galveston Island Trolley, operates Galveston Island’s public transportation services. Greyhound Bus Lines serves Galveston Station, which is located at 3825 Broadway Street.[70] Interstate 45 has a southern terminus in Galveston and serves as a main artery to Galveston from mainland Galveston County and Houston. Farm to Market Road 3005 (locally called Seawall Boulevard) connects Galveston to Brazoria County via the San Luis Pass-Vacek toll bridge. And State Highway 87, known locally as Broadway Street, connects the island to the Bolivar Peninsula via the free Bolivar Ferry.

Galveston College annually in continuing education and workforce development programs. Galveston has been the home of the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) since 1891. It has schools of medicine, nursing, allied health professions, and a graduate school of biomedical sciences, as well as an institute for medical humanities. UTMB included a major teaching and indigent-care hospital which now encompasses 84 acres (340,000 m²). UTMB is the largest employer in Galveston County[71], creating over 15,000 jobs and bringing about $300 million into the local economy. Texas A&M University at Galveston is an ocean-oriented branch campus of Texas A&M University offering courses in marine biology, marine fisheries, marine engineering technology, marine sciences, marine transportation, maritime administration, maritime studies, maritime systems engineering, oceans and coastal resources, and university studies (marine environmental law and policy).

Education
Colleges and universities
Galveston is home to three post-secondary institutions serving the region. Galveston College, a junior college that opened in 1967, serves an ethnically diverse population of approximately 2,400 students each semester in credit programs and nearly 8,000 individuals

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Galveston, Texas
Central middle schools served grades 6 through 8.[78] Galveston also has State charter schools, state-funded schools not affiliated with local school districts, including Kindergarten through 5th Grade Ambassadors Preparatory Academy[79] and Pre-Kindergarten through 8th Grade Odyssey Academy.[80] In addition KIPP: the Knowledge Is Power Program plans to open KIPP Coastal Village in Galveston.[81]

Primary and secondary schools
Public schools

Private schools
O’Connell College Preparatory School Several private schools exist in Galveston. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston operates two Roman Catholic private schools, including Galveston Catholic School (K through 8th)[82] and O’Connell College Preparatory School (9-12). O’Connell Consolidated High School opened in 1968 as a consolidation of Kirwin, Dominican and Ursuline, three Galveston Catholic high schools.[83] Galveston Catholic School opened in 1986 as a consolidation of Dominican School, Our Lady of Guadalupe School, Saint Patrick’s School, and O’Connell Junior High School.[84] Saint Patrick’s opened in 1881 and received its final campus in 1926. Some parents protested plans to consolidate the schools before the consolidation became final.[85] O’Connell was renamed to O’Connell College Preparatory School in 2007.[83] Satori Elementary School, a non-religious Kindergarten through Grade 6 school, is on the island.[86] Trinity Episcopal School, a PreK-8 Episcopal Church school, is on the island.[87] Two Kindergarten through 12th grade schools, Seaside Christian Academy (affiliated with Seaside Baptist Church in Jamaica Beach) and Heritage Christian Academy, are in Galveston.[88]

Ball High School The city of Galveston is served by Galveston Independent School District. Six district public elementary schools, including Burnet, L. A. Morgan, Greta Oppe, Gladneio Parker, Henry Rosenberg, and Charles B. Scott, serve grades pre-Kindergarten through 4. All Galveston Island residents are assigned to Weis Middle School for grades 5 through 6, Central Middle School for grades 7 through 8, and Ball High School for grades 9 through 12. One magnet middle school, Austin Middle School, has grades 5 through 8. Prior to 1968, Galveston operated Ball High School for White students and Central High School for Black students. The first black students were enrolled at Ball High School in 1965 without controversy. Central School, the first Texas public school for African-Americans, opened in 1885 and became a high school in 1886. In 1968 the two high schools consolidated and the Central campus became a junior high school.[72] Travis Elementary School, which opened in 1948, closed in the 1970s.[73][74] Crockett Elementary School closed by 1978.[75] The tax base of the Galveston ISD grew by 13% in 2005 while Galveston ISD lost many districtzoned non-Hurricane Katrina evacuee students.[3] San Jacinto Elementary School closed in 2006.[76] Alamo Elementary School, which opened in 1935 and received renovations in 1980 and 1986, closed in 2007.[76][77] Prior to fall 2008, Galveston ISD had a different school configuration: Elementary schools served pre-Kindergarten through grade 5 and Austin, Weis, and

Public libraries

Rosenberg Library The city is served by the Rosenberg Library. [89] The library serves as headquarters of the

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Galveston County Library System, which opened in 1941. The Rosenberg Library’s librarian also functions as the Galveston County Librarian.[90]

Galveston, Texas
fortcrockett/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. [10] St. Mary Cathedral Basilica Website [11] Houston Chronicle: A look back / The Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston began in a wood-frame church during the Republic of Texas [12] Houston Chronicle: At 155, Galveston’s St. Mary’s still battles the storms [13] Texas State Historical Association, Handbook of Texas [14] Moody Foundation 2005 Annual Report [15] American National 2007 Annual Results [16] Handbook of Texas, Moody Foundation [17] AMERICAN CATHOLICS/Bishops celebrate 200th birthday [18] Houston Chronicle: The cradle of Texas’ Catholicism / The state’s first cathedral in need of major repair [19] History of Galveston College [20] "News briefs." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday April 23, 1991. A14. [21] Novak, Shonda. "Growth Wave Hits Galveston." Austin American-Statesman. Saturday July 22, 2006. [22] http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ headline/metro/4571804.html] ("Workers in Galveston increasingly can’t afford to live there", Houston Chronicle, February 22, 2007) [23] "Where’s the next New Orleans?." Associated Press. 2005. [24] "Ike Insured Damage Estimates Range from $6B to $18B". Insurance Journal. September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008. "Hurricane Ike made landfall at Galveston, Texas at 3:10 am EDT, Saturday, September 13, as a strong Category 2 hurricane. Maximum sustained winds at landfall were 110 mph (180 km/h), just shy of Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson intensity scale." [25] United States Department of Homeland Security (2008-09-12). Remarks by Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff and Other Federal Officials at FEMA Headquarters on Hurricane Ike. Press release. http://www.dhs.gov/ xnews/releases/pr_1221271638703.shtm. Retrieved on 2008-08-15. [26] Mike Carney, Oren Dorell (2008-09-12). "Hurricane Ike: Galveston says 25% ignored evacuation order". USA TODAY. http://blogs.usatoday.com/ondeadline/ 2008/09/hurricane-ike-g.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-12.

Sister cities
Galveston has seven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[91] • Armavir, Armenia • • • • • • Thiruvananthapuram, India Veracruz, Mexico Stavanger, Norway Niigata, Japan Cape Town, South Africa Tamsui, Taiwan

See also
• Galveston Hurricane of 1900 • Hurricane Ike • Isaac’s Storm

Notes
[1] ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [2] "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [3] ^ Schladen, Marty. "Forces drive people off island." Galveston County Daily News. July 23, 2006. [4] "History." Balinese Room. June 22, 2006. [5] Donald E. Chipman (2008-01-18). "The Handbook of Texas Online". www.tshaonline.org. article "MALHADO ISLAND". http://www.tshaonline.org/ handbook/online/articles/MM/rrm1.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. [6] ^ McComb, David G.: Galveston A History, University of Texas Press, 1986, 293 pp., ISBN 978-0-292-72053-4 [7] Bahia de Galvez-towm, de Evia, 1809-19, The Antiquarium Antique Print & Map Gallery, Houston, Texas, retrieved 14 February 2008 [8] Galveston Weekly News, April 26, 1865. [9] "Galveston Laboratory Home". Galveston.ssp.nmfs.gov. http://galveston.ssp.nmfs.gov/aboutus/

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Galveston, Texas

[27] ^ Ben Casselman (2008-09-12). "As [43] "Silk Stocking National Historic District". Waters Rise, Many Decline To Leave http://silkstockinggalveston.org/ Galveston Island". The Wall Street aboutsshd.html. Retrieved on Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/ 2009-04-15. SB122125933796630189.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. [44] http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/ Retrieved on 2008-09-13. tx/Galveston/districts.html [28] "Ike Blog: Minute-by-minute." WFAA-TV. [45] "Preserve America Community: Accessed September 13, 2008. Galveston, Texas". Preserve America. [29] "One death as Ike edges toward 2009-02-19. Category 3 power." CNN. September 12, http://www.preserveamerica.gov/ 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008. PAcommunity-GalvestonTX.html. [30] ""Houston’s post-Ike supplies coming, Retrieved on 2009-04-09. officials say." CNN. September 15, 2008. [46] "The Galveston County Daily News". Retrieved September 15, 2008. Galvestondailynews.com. [31] "Map 1. Galveston’s Neighborhoods." http://galvestondailynews.com/ Galveston County, Texas. December 12, history.lasso. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. 2003. [47] "The City Council of Galveston, Texas." [32] "Directions." Laguna Harbor. Retrieved City of Galveston. Retrieved on on November 7, 2008. November 7, 2008. [33] Juan A. Lozano (2009-03-12). "Texas [48] "Municipal Facilities and Their islanders hold out hope despite Ike, Locations." City of Galveston. Retrieved economy". The Boston Globe. on February 19, 2009. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/ [49] "Governmental Offices." Galveston articles/2009/03/12/ Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved on texas_islanders_hold_out_hope_despite_ike_economy/. November 7, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-04-09. [50] "Fire Department." City of Galveston. [34] Austin American-Stateman: Regents vote Retrieved on November 7, 2008. to revive UTMB [51] Home Page. Galveston Police [35] Galveston Daily News: Regents resolve Department. Retrieved on November 7, to rebuild UTMB on the island 2008. [36] "2008 Annual Report." American [52] "Galveston County Justice Center." National Insurance Company. Retrieved Galveston County, Texas. Accessed on May 8, 2009. November 7, 2008. [37] "Contact Us." American National [53] "Precinct 1." Galveston County, Texas. Insurance Company. Retrieved on May 8, Retrieved on November 7, 2008. 2009. [54] "Welcome to the Galveston County [38] "About Moody National Bank." Moody Sheriff’s Office Home Page." Galveston National Bank. Retrieved on May 8, County Sheriff’s Office. Retrieved on 2009. November 7, 2008. [39] "About The Galveston Symphony [55] "Galveston County Sheriff’s Office Orchestra". The Galveston Symphony Corrections Bureau - Jail Division." Orchestra. Galveston County Sheriff’s Office. http://www.galvestonsymphony.org/. Retrieved on November 7, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-04-13. [56] Facilities Overview." Galveston County [40] "Galveston Ballet Home". Department of Parks and Senior http://raymondguy.com/gb/. Retrieved on Services. Retrieved on November 7, 2009-04-13. 2008. [41] "Historic City, New Opportunities". [57] "District 23." Texas House of Galveston Chamber of Commerce. Representatives. Retrieved on November http://www.galvestonchamber.com/ 7, 2008. custom2.asp?pageid=204. Retrieved on [58] "Senate District 17" Map. Senate of 2009-04-13. Texas. Retrieved on November 7, 2008. [42] "GALVESTON.COM: About [59] "Senate District 11" Map. Senate of Galveston.com & Company". Texas. Retrieved on November 7, 2008. Galveston.com. http://galveston.com/ [60] "Congressional District 14." National aboutus. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. Atlas of the United States.

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Galveston, Texas

[61] Southern District of Texas: Galveston March 30, 2009. Retrieved on March 31, Division 2009. [62] United States District Court, Southern [82] Home Page. Galveston Catholic School. District of Texas: History of the Southern Accessed October 27, 2008. District of Texas [83] ^ Taylor, Heber. "O’Connell seeks to [63] "Post Office™ Location - GALVESTON." redefine itself." Galveston County Daily United States Postal Service. Retrieved News. September 23, 2007. on December 6, 2008. [84] Meyers, Rhiannon. "Principal says it’s [64] "Post Office™ Location - BOB LYONS." ‘best job I’ve ever had’." Galveston United States Postal Service. Retrieved County Daily News. August 30, 2007. on December 6, 2008. [85] Moran, Kevin and Allan Turner. [65] The Galveston County Daily News "Merging of schools protested." Houston [66] http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/Chronicle. March 16, 1986. Section 3, TX/Galveston/districts.html Page 8. [67] http://www.preservationnation.org/ [86] Home Page. Satori School. Accessed issues/gulf-coast-recovery/hurricane_ike/ October 27, 2008. galveston-update-march 2009.html [87] Home Page." Trinity Episcopal School. [68] http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/Accessed October 27, 2008. tx/Galveston/state.html [88] "Welcome New VizaWeb Client". [69] Carmack, Liz. Historic Hotels of Texas, Seasideacademy.org. Texas A&M University Press: College http://www.seasideacademy.org/. Station, Texas, 2007. pp 47-49. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. [70] "Galveston, Texas." Greyhound Lines. [89] "Rosenberg Library". RosenbergAccessed October 27, 2008. library.org. http://www.rosenberg[71] "Find a County". National Association of library.org/. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. Counties. http://www.naco.org/ [90] "Fall 2007 Galveston County Library Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/ System Newsletter." Rosenberg Library. cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved Retrieved on November 16, 2008. on 2008-01-31. [91] "GALVESTON’S SISTER CITIES." City of [72] Jones, Leigh. "Alumni recall Central Galveston. Retrieved September 7, 2008. High’s final year." Galveston County Daily News. August 11, 2008. [73] Galveston Daily News. Tuesday March 9, • Larson, Erik. Isaac’s Storm, New York: 1976. Vintage Books, 2000. [74] Cherry, Bill. "1949: Central High’s facilities were poor." Galveston County Daily News. November 29, 2004. [75] Stanton, Carey. "After 42 years, school’s • City of Galveston government site out for teacher." Galveston County Daily • Galveston Island Convention and Visitors News. June 16, 2002. Bureau [76] ^ Meyers, Rhiannon. "District swaps one • Galveston, Texas from the Handbook of empty school for another." Galveston Texas Online County Daily News. May 9, 2008. • Galveston Hurricane of 1900 from the [77] Meyers, Rhiannon. "Some parents beg Handbook of Texas Online that Alamo be reopened." Galveston • Galveston Chamber of Commerce County Daily News. December 9, 2007. • Galveston Island State Park [78] Meyers, Rhiannon. "Changes awaiting • The University of Texas Medical Branch at students this year." Galveston County Galveston Daily News. August 24, 2008. • Texas A&M University at Galveston [79] Home Page. Ambassador Preparatory • Galveston College Academy. Accessed October 27, 2008. • Galveston Independent School District [80] Home Page. Odyssey Academy. Accessed • The Galveston County Daily News October 27, 2008. • Galveston Shriner’s Hospital [81] Radcliffe, Jennifer. "New KIPP campuses

References

External links

have younger focus." Houston Chronicle.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• The early history of Galveston, by Dr. J. O. Dyer, published 1916, hosted by the Portal to Texas History • Galveston Railroad Museum • Galveston Symphony Orchestra • Texas Seaport Museum • History of Galveston • Bio of Isaac Monroe Cline • High resolution photos of the disaster • Dickens on the Strand • Historical Galveston Architecture • Mardi Gras Galveston Island • Galveston music scene • International Oleander Society • Galveston-Trivandrum Sister City Society • South and West Texas, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary "Principal" cities

Galveston, Texas
Houston | Sugar Land | Baytown | Galveston Alvin | Angleton | BelCities and laire | Cleveland | Clute | towns Conroe | Dayton | Deer Park | Dickinson | Freeport | Friendswood | Galena Park | Hitchcock | Hempstead | Humble | Jacinto City | Jersey Village | Katy | Lake Jackson | La Marque | La Porte | League City | Liberty | Meadows Place | Missouri City | Pasadena | Pearland | Richmond | Rosenberg | Santa Fe | Seabrook | Sealy | South Houston | Stafford | Texas City | Tomball | Webster | West University Place Unincorporated Atascocita | Channelview | Cloverleaf | areas Cypress | Klein | Spring | The Woodlands

Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown
METROPOLITAN AREA

Counties

Austin | Brazoria | Chambers | Fort Bend | Galveston | Harris | Liberty | Montgomery | San Jacinto | Waller

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galveston,_Texas" Categories: Settlements established in the 1830s, County seats in Texas, Former United States state capitals, Galveston, Texas, Cities in Texas, Port settlements in the United States, Gulf of Mexico, Galveston County, Texas, Greater Houston, Capitals of former nations, Seaside resorts in the United States This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 04:45 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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