Climate_of_Kansas

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Kansas

Kansas
State of Kansas Admission to Union Governor Lieutenant Governor U.S. Senators Flag of Kansas Seal Nickname(s): The Sunflower State (official nickname) or The Wheat State Motto(s): Ad astra per aspera U.S. House delegation January 29, 1861 (34th) Mark Parkinson (D) Troy Findley (D) Sam Brownback (R) Pat Roberts (R) Jerry Moran (R) Lynn Jenkins (R) Dennis Moore (D) Todd Tiahrt (R) (list) Central: UTC-6/-5 Mountain: UTC-7/-6 KS US-KS www.kansas.gov

Time zones - most of state - 4 western counties Abbreviations Website

Official language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total Width Length % water Latitude Longitude

English[1] Kansan Topeka Wichita Kansas City Metropolitan Area Ranked 15th in the US 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²) 211 miles (340 km) 417 miles (645 km) 0.56 37° N to 40° N 94° 35′ W to 102° 3′ W Ranked 33rd in the US 2,802,134 (2008 est.)[2] 2,688,418 (2000) 32.9/sq mi (12.7/km²) Ranked 40th in the US Mount Sunflower[3] 4,039 ft (1,232 m) 2,000 ft (600 m) Verdigris River[3] 679 ft (207 m)

Population - Total - Density Elevation - Highest point - Mean - Lowest point

The State of Kansas ( /ˈkænzəs/ ) is a Midwestern state[4] in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American "Heartland" or "America’s Breadbasket" referring to the state’s enormous wheat-growing agribusiness. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa tribe, who inhabited the area.[5] The tribe’s name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south wind", although this was probably not the term’s original meaning.[6][7] Residents of Kansas are called "Kansans". Historically, the area was home to large numbers of nomadic Native Americans who hunted bison. It was first settled by European Americans in the 1830s, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854, abolitionist FreeStaters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine if Kansas would become a free state or a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists eventually prevailed and on January

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29, 1861,[8][9] Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the population of Kansas exploded when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into productive farmland. Today, Kansas is one of the most productive agricultural states, producing many crops, and leading the nation in wheat, sorghum[10], and sunflower production most years.

Kansas

Geography
Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west. The state is divided up into 105 counties with 628 cities. It is located equidistant from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is located in Smith County near Lebanon, Kansas. The geodetic center of North America was located in Osborne County until 1983. This spot was used until that date as the central reference point for all maps of North America produced by the U.S. government. The geographic center of Kansas is located in Barton County.

Topography
The western two thirds of the state, lying in the great central plain of the United States, has a generally flat or undulating surface. However, the eastern third has many hills and forests. The land displays a gradual slope up from east to west; its altitude above the sea ranges from 684 ft (208 m) along the Verdigris River at Coffeyville in Montgomery County, to 4,039 ft (1,231 m) at Mount Sunflower, one half mile from the Colorado border, in Wallace County. It is a popular belief that Kansas is the flattest state in the nation, reinforced by a well known 2003 study[11] stating that Kansas was indeed "flatter than a pancake."[12] This has since been debunked, with most scientists ranking Kansas somewhere between 20th and 30th flattest state, depending on measurement method.[13] The Missouri River forms nearly 75 mi (121 km) of the state’s northeastern boundary. The Kansas River (locally known as the Kaw), formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers at appropriatelynamed Junction City, joins the Missouri at Kansas City, after a course of 170 mi (270 km) across the northeastern part of the state. The Arkansas River (pronunciation

Spring River, Kansas varies), rising in Colorado, flows with a bending course for nearly 500 mi (800 km) across the western and southern parts of the state. It forms, with its tributaries (the Little Arkansas, Ninnescah, Walnut, Cow Creek, Cimarron, Verdigris, and the Neosho), the southern drainage system of the state. Other important rivers are the Saline and Solomon Rivers, tributaries of the Smoky Hill River; the Big Blue, Delaware, and Wakarusa, which flow into the Kansas River; and the Marais des Cygnes, a tributary of the Missouri River.

National parks and historic sites
Areas under the protection of the National Park Service include:[14] • Brown v. Board Of Education National Historic Site in Topeka • California National Historic Trail • Fort Larned National Historic Site in Larned • Fort Scott National Historic Site • Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail • Nicodemus National Historic Site at Nicodemus • Oregon National Historic Trail

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Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Kansas Cities City Concordia Goodland Topeka Wichita [7] • Pony Express National Historic Trail • Santa Fe National Historic Trail • Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve near Strong City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

Kansas

Dec

36/17 43/22 54/31 64/41 74/52 85/62 91/67 88/66 80/56 68/44 51/30 40/21 39/16 45/20 53/26 63/35 72/46 84/56 89/61 87/60 78/50 66/38 50/25 41/18 37/17 44/23 56/33 66/43 75/53 84/63 89/68 88/65 80/56 69/44 53/32 41/22 40/20 47/25 57/34 67/44 76/54 87/64 93/69 92/68 82/59 70/47 54/34 43/24

Dodge City 41/19 48/24 57/31 67/41 76/52 87/62 93/67 91/66 82/56 70/44 54/30 44/22

Climate

Clouds in northeastern Kansas Kansas contains three climate types, according to the Köppen climate classification: humid continental, semiarid steppe, and humid subtropical. The eastern two-thirds of the state has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer and spring. The western third of the state has a semiarid steppe climate. Summers are hot, often very hot. Winters are cold in the northwest and cool to mild in the southwest. Also, the western region is semiarid, receiving an average of only about 16 inches (40 cm) of precipitation per year. Chinook winds in the winter can warm western Kansas all the way into the 80°F (25°C) range. The far south-central and southeastern reaches of the state have a humid subtropical climate,HOT summers, mild winters, and more precipitation than the rest of the state. Precipitation ranges from about 46 inches (1200 mm) annually in the southeast of the

state, to about 16 inches (400 mm) in the southwest. Snowfall ranges from around 5 inches (130 mm) in the fringes of the south, to 35 inches (900 mm) in the far northwest. Frost-free days range from more than 200 days in the south, to 130 days in the northwest. Thus, Kansas is the 9th or 10th sunniest state in the country, depending on the source. Western Kansas is as sunny as parts of California and Arizona. In spite of the frequent sunshine throughout much of the state, the state is also vulnerable to strong thunderstorms, especially in the spring. Many of these storms become Supercell thunderstorms. These can spawn tornadoes, often of F3 strength or higher. According to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center, Kansas has reported more tornadoes (for the period 1 January 1950 through to 31 October 2006) than any state except for Texas - marginally even more than Oklahoma. It has also - along with Alabama - reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state. These are the most powerful of all tornadoes. Kansas averages over 50 tornadoes annually.[15] According to NOAA, the all time highest temperature recorded in Kansas is 121°F (49.4°C) on July 24, 1936, near Alton, and the all time low is -40°F (-40°C) on February 13, 1905, near Lebanon. Kansas’ all time record high of 121°F (49.4°C) ties with North Dakota for the fifthhighest all-time record high recorded in a state, behind California (134°F/56.7°C), Arizona (128°F/53.3°C), Nevada (125°F/51.7°C), and New Mexico (122°F/50°C).

History
For millennia, the land that is presently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who

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explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican-American War in 1848. From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing the U.S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo.

Kansas
two hundred people. Until the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Quantrill’s raid was the single bloodiest act of domestic terrorism in America. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre war criminal record (see, Jones, Gray Ghosts and Rebel Riders Holt & Co. 1956, p.76). After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans also looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown," and led by men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began establishing black colonies in the state. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West era commenced in Kansas. Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, and both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, 8 million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In part as a response to the violence perpetrated by cowboys, on February 19, 1881 Kansas became the first U.S. state to adopt a Constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages.

Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas. Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided. However, during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. 107,206 1860 364,399 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 996,096 1,428,108 1,470,495 1,690,949 1,769,257 1,880,999 1,801,028 1,905,299 2,178,611 2,246,578 2,363,679 2,477,574 %± — 239.9% 173.4% 43.4% 3.0% 15.0% 4.6% 6.3% −4.3% 5.8% 14.3% 3.1% 5.2% 4.8%

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Demographics of Kansas (csv) By race 2000 (total population) 2000 (Hispanic only) 2005 (total population) 2005 (Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (total population) Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) White 91.19% 6.63% 90.87% 7.89% 1.74% 0.19% 21.51% Black 6.41% 0.23% 6.60% 0.28% 5.04% 4.28% 25.88% AIAN* 1.78% 0.19% 1.67% 0.20% -4.13% -5.09% 3.71% Asian 2.10% 0.05% 2.45% 0.06% 19.15% 19.19% 17.69%

Kansas

NHPI* 0.12% 0.02% 0.12% 0.02% 3.43% 2.86% 5.86%

* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2000 Est. 2008[2] 2,688,418 2,802,134 8.5% 4.2% Chase County, at 38°27′N 96°32′W / 38.45°N 96.533°W / 38.45; -96.533, approximately three miles north of the community of Strong City.[19] As of 2004, the population included 149,800 foreign-born (5.5% of the state population). The largest reported ancestries in the state are: German (25.9%), Irish (11.5%), English (10.8%), American (8.8%), French (3.1%), and Swedish (2.4%).[20] People of German ancestry are especially strong in the northwest, while those of British ancestry and descendants of white Americans from other states are especially strong in the southeast. Mexicans are present in the southwest and make up nearly half the population in certain counties. Many African Americans in Kansas are descended from the Exodusters, newly freed blacks who fled the South for land in Kansas following the Civil War. See Also British American and GermanAmerican Population pyramid As of 2007, Kansas has an estimated population of 2,775,997, which is an increase of 20,180, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 87,579, or 3.3%, since the year 2000.[16] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 93,899 people (that is 246,484 births minus 152,585 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 20,742 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 44,847 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 65,589 people.[17] The population density of the state is 52.9 people per square mile.[18] The center of population of Kansas is located in

Religion
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 405,844; the United Methodist Church with 206,187; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 101,696.[21]

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Kansas

Rural flight
Urban and rural populations

#9 #10

Examone World Wide Koch Industries

3,000 3,000

Lenexa Wichita

The 2003 gross domestic product of Kansas was US$97 billion, an increase of 4.3% over the prior year, but trailing the national average increase of 4.8%. Its per-capita income was US$29,438. The December 2003 unemployment rate was 4.9%. The agricultural outputs of the state are cattle, sheep, wheat, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hogs, corn, and Kansas is one of the slowest-growing states salt. Eastern Kansas is part of the Grain Belt, in the nation. Known as a rural exodus, the an area of major grain production in the centlast few decades have been marked by a miral United States. The industrial outputs are gratory pattern out of the countryside into transportation equipment, commercial and cities. private aircraft, food processing, publishing, Out of all the cities in these Midwestern chemical products, machinery, apparel, petstates, 89% have fewer than 3000 people, roleum and mining. and hundreds of those have fewer than 1000. Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. oil production. In Kansas alone, there are more than 6,000 Production has experienced a steady, natural ghost towns, according to one Kansas decline as it becomes increasingly difficult to historian. extract oil over time. Since oil prices botAt the same time, some of the communittomed in 1999, oil production in Kansas has ies in Johnson County (metropolitan Kansas remained fairly constant, with an average City) are among the fastest growing in the monthly rate of about 2.8 million barrels country. (450,000 m3) in 2004. The recent higher prices have made carbon dioxide sequestration and other oil recovery techniques more economical. Kansas ranks 8th in U.S. natural gas proLargest Kansas Based Companies (by [22] duction. Production has steadily declined number of employees) Rank Business Employees Location since the mid-1990s with the depletion of the Hugoton Natural Gas Field—the state’s #1 Spirit 21,000 Wichita largest field which extends into Oklahoma AeroSystems and Texas. In 2004, slower declines in the #2 Fort Riley 12,500 Riley Hugoton gas fields and increased coalbed County methane production contributed to a smaller overall decline. Average monthly production #3 Van 6,000 Shawnee was over 32 billion cubic feet (0.9 km³). Enterprises Mission The Kansas economy is also heavily influ#4 University of 5,000 Kansas enced by the aerospace industry. Several Kansas MedCity large aircraft corporations have manufacturical Center ing facilities in Wichita and Kansas City, in#5 Via Christi 5,000 Wichita cluding Boeing, Beech, Cessna, Learjet, and St. Joseph Hawker-Beechcraft (formerly Raytheon). Hospital Kansas has three income brackets for in#6 Olathe Med- 4,000 Olathe come tax calculation, ranging from 3.5% to ical Center 6.45%. The state sales tax in Kansas is 5.3%. Various cities and counties in Kansas have an #7 Via Christi 3,300 Wichita additional local sales tax. Except during the St. Francis 2001 recession (March–November 2001) Hospital when monthly sales tax collections were flat, #8 Kansas State 3,030 Manhattan collections have trended higher as the ecoUniversity nomy has grown and two rate increases have

Economy

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been enacted. Total sales tax collections for 2003 amounted to $1.63 billion, compared to $805.3 million in 1990. Revenue shortfalls resulting from lower than expected tax collections and slower growth in personal income following a 1998 permanent tax reduction has contributed to the substantial growth in the state’s debt level as bonded debt increased from $1.16 billion in 1998 to $3.83 billion in 2006. Some increase in debt was expected as the state continues with its 10-year Comprehensive Transportation Program enacted in 1999. As of June 2004, Moody’s Investors Service ranked the state 14th for net tax-supported debt per capita. As a percentage of personal income, it was at 3.8%—above the median value of 2.5% for all rated states and having risen from a value of less than 1% in 1992. The state has a statutory requirement to maintain cash reserves of at least 7.5% of expenses at the end of each fiscal year. Major company headquarters in Kansas include the Sprint Nextel Corporation (with world headquarters in Overland Park), Embarq (with national headquarters in Overland Park), YRC Corp Overland Park, Garmin in Olathe, Payless Shoes (National headquarters and major distribution facilities in Topeka), and Koch Industries (with national headquarters in Wichita).

Kansas
is a major east/west route connecting to St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri, in the east and Denver, Colorado, in the west. Cities along this route (from east to west) include Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka, Junction City, Salina, Hays, and Colby. I-35 is a major north/south route connecting to Des Moines, Iowa, in the north and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in the south. Cities along this route (from north to south) include Kansas City (and suburbs), Ottawa, Emporia, El Dorado, Newton, and Wichita. Spur routes serve as connections between the two major routes. I-135, a north/south route, connects I-70 at Salina to I-35 at Wichita. I-335, a northeast/southwest route, connects I-70 at Topeka to I-35 at Emporia. I-335 and portions of I-35 and I-70 make up the Kansas Turnpike. Bypasses include I-470 around Topeka and I-235 around Wichita. I-435 is a beltway around the Kansas City Metropolitan Area while I-635 bypasses through Kansas City, Kansas. US Route 69 runs north and south, from Minnesota to Texas. The highway passes through the eastern section of Kansas, from the Kansas City area, through Louisburg, Fort Scott, Frontenac, Pittsburg, and Baxter Springs before entering Oklahoma. Kansas also has the second largest state highway system in the country after California. This is because of the high number of counties and county seats (105) and the intertwining of them all. In January 2004, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) announced the new Kansas 511 traveler information service.[23] By dialing 511, callers will get access to information about road conditions, construction, closures, detours and weather conditions for the state highway system. Weather and road condition information is updated every 15 minutes. The elaborate and efficient transportation system in Kansas has attracted praise from experts nationwide, including the former Mayor of New York City, Ed Koch, who frequents Kansas roadways. The state’s only major commercial airport is Wichita Mid-Continent Airport, located along US-54 on the western edge of the city. Most air travelers in eastern Kansas fly out of Kansas City International Airport, located in Platte County, Missouri. For those in the far western part of the state, Denver International Airport is a popular option. Manhattan Regional Airport in Manhattan will commence

Transportation

Map of the Kansas road system. Kansas is served by two Interstate highways with one beltway, two spur routes, and three bypasses, with over a total of 874 miles (1,407 km) in all. The first section of Interstate in the nation was opened on I-70 just west of Topeka on November 14, 1956. I-70

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commercial flights to Dallas in August 2009, making it the second commercial airport of the state[24].Connecting flights are available from smaller airports in Dodge City, Garden City, Great Bend, Hays, and Salina. Forbes Field in Topeka, Kansas sustained commercial flights on Allegiant Air for many years until that service was terminated in 2008.

Kansas
regulate the securities industry (1911). Kansas also permitted women’s suffrage in 1912, almost a decade before the federal constitution was amended to require it. Suffrage in all states would not be guaranteed until ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. The council-manager government was adopted by many larger Kansas cities in the years following World War I while many American cities were being run by political machines or organized crime, notably the Pendergast Machine in neighboring Kansas City, Missouri. Kansas was also at the center of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, a 1954 Supreme Court decision that banned racially segregated schools throughout the U.S. Kansas was one of the few states where Franklin D. Roosevelt had limited political support, winning Kansas only twice. The state backed Republicans Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey in 1940 and 1944, respectively. Kansas also supported Dewey in 1948 despite the presence of incumbent president Harry S. Truman, who hailed from Independence, Missouri, approximately 15 miles east of the Kansas-Missouri state line. Since the early 1960s, Kansas has grown more socially conservative. The 1990s brought new restrictions on abortion, the defeat of prominent Democrats, including Dan Glickman, and the Kansas State Board of Education’s 1999 decision to eliminate evolution from the state teaching standards, a decision that was later reversed.[25] In 2005, voters accepted a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. The next year, the state passed a law setting a minimum age for marriage at 15 years. [26] In 2008, Governor Sebelius vetoed permits for the construction of new coal-fired energy plants in Kansas, saying: "We know that greenhouse gases contribute to climate change. As an agricultural state, Kansas is particularly vulnerable. Therefore, reducing pollutants benefits our state not only in the short term – but also for generations of Kansans to come." [27]

Law and government
State and local politics
See also: List of Governors of Kansas and Political party strength in Kansas The top executives of the state are Democratic Governor Mark Parkinson (as of April 28, 2009) and Lieutenant Governor (This position has not been filled as of yet). Both officials are elected on the same ticket to a maximum of two consecutive 4-year terms. Parkinson replaced Kathleen Sebelius who was appointed Secretary of Health and Human Services by President Barack Obama. Parkinson will be eligible for election in his own right in 2010. The state’s Attorney General is Democrat Stephen Six, a former Douglas County District Court Judge who was appointed to the post. The legislative branch of the state government is the Kansas Legislature. The bicameral body consists of the Kansas House of Representatives, with 125 members serving two year terms, and the Kansas Senate, with 40 members serving four year terms. State symbols • • • • • • • • • • • • Barred Tiger Salamander Buffalo Channel Catfish Western Meadowlark Sunflower European honey bee Ad astra per aspera, or "To the stars through difficulties" Ornate Box Turtle Harney silt loam "Home on the Range" Cottonwood Symbols of Commerce (river, steamboat) and agriculture (farmer plowing) Adopted 1861

Federal politics
See also: U.S. Congressional Delegations from Kansas The state’s current delegation to the Congress of the United States includes Republican Senators Sam Brownback of Topeka and Pat Roberts of Dodge City and

Kansas has a reputation as a progressive state with many firsts in legislative initiatives—it was the first state to institute a system of workers’ compensation (1910) and to

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Kansas
(64% Obama, 34% McCain), Wyandotte (70% Obama, 29% McCain), and Crawford County (49% Obama, 48% McCain) were the only counties in support of President Barack Obama.[28]

State law
The legal drinking age in Kansas is 21. In lieu of the state retail sales tax, a 10% Liquor Drink Tax is collected for liquor consumed on the licensed premises and an 8% Liquor Enforcement Tax is collected on retail purchases. Although the sale of cereal malt beverage (also known as 3.2 beer) was legalized in 1937, the first post-Prohibition legalization of alcoholic liquor did not occur until the state’s constitution was amended in 1948. The following year the Legislature enacted the Liquor Control Act which created a system of regulating, licensing, and taxing, and the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) was created to enforce the act. The power to regulate cereal malt beverage remains with the cities and counties. Liquorby-the-drink did not become legal until passage of an amendment to the state’s constitution in 1986 and additional legislation the following year. As of November 2006, Kansas still has 29 dry counties and only 17 counties have passed liquor-by-the-drink with no food sales requirement.[29] Today there are more than 2600 liquor and 4000 cereal malt beverage licensees in the state.[30]

Sam Brownback Representatives Jerry Moran (R) of Hays (District 1), Lynn Jenkins (R) of Topeka (District 2), Dennis Moore (D) of Lenexa (District 3), and Todd Tiahrt (R) of Goddard (District 4). Kansas has not elected a Democrat to the U.S. Senate since 1932, when Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as President in the wake of the Great Depression. This is the longest Senate losing streak for either party in a single state. Senator Sam Brownback was a candidate for the Republican party nomination for President in 2008. Brownback has stated he will not be a candidate for reelection in 2010. Historically, Kansas has been strongly Republican. In fact, the only non-Republicans Kansas has given its electoral vote to are Populist James Weaver and Democrats Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt (twice), and Lyndon Johnson. In 2004, George W. Bush won the state’s six electoral votes by an overwhelming margin of 25 percentage points with 62% of the vote. The only two counties to support Democrat John Kerry in that election were Wyandotte, which contains Kansas City, and Douglas, home to the University of Kansas, located at Lawrence. The 2008 election brought similar results as John McCain won the state with 57% of the votes. Douglas

State agencies
The state’s investigative branch is the Kansas Bureau of Investigation. The Kansas Corporation Commission regulates public utilities, common carriers, oil and gas production, telecommunications companies, and motor carriers. The Kansas Department of Agriculture regulates the supply of meat, milk and eggs among other agricultural goods and services. The Secretary of Agriculture is Adrian Polansky, who heads the department as well as operating Polansky farms.

Important cities and towns
See also: List of cities in Kansas

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Kansas

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Cities with population of at least 10,00035 Atchison 10,154 -0.13% ‡ City Population* Growth Metro Haysville 36 10,029 2.45% Wichita rate** area *Estimated as of July 1, 2006[31] Wichita 357,698 0.29% Wichita **Estimated annual growth rate 2000–2006 Overland 166,722 1.78% Kansas‡Defined as a micropolitan area City Park Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. By state Kansas City 143,801 -0.34% Kansas City statute, cities are divided into three classes Topeka 122,113 -0.13% Topeka determined by the population obtained "by as any census of enumeration." A city of the Olathe 114,662 3.69% Kansas City third class has a population of less than Lawrence 88,605 1.68% Lawrence 5,000, but cities reaching a population of Shawnee 59,252 3.64% Kansas City than 2,000 may be certified as a city of more the second class. The second class is limited Manhattan 50,737 1.83% ‡ to cities with a population of less than Salina 50,000 0.13% ‡ 25,000, and upon reaching a population of Lenexa 44,520 1.71% Kansas City than 15,000, they may be certified as a more city of the first class. First and second class Hutchinson 41,085 -0.29% ‡ cities are independent of any township and Leavenworth 34,993 -0.23% Kansas City are not included within the township’s Leawood 30,702 1.75% Kansas City territory. 27,175 26,188 26,101 21,414 21,101 20,384 19,726 19,120 18,093 15,597 15,537 13,594 12,792 12,718 11,741 -0.80% -0.40% 0.54% ‡ ‡ ‡

14 Garden City 15 Emporia 16 Dodge City 17 Prairie Village 18 Derby 19 Liberal 20 Hays 21 Pittsburg 22 Newton 24 Gardner 25 Great Bend 26 McPherson 27 Ottawa 28 El Dorado 29 Winfield

Northeast Kansas

23 Junction City 16,106

30 Arkansas City 31 Parsons 32 Merriam 33 Lansing 34 Coffeyville

11,416

11,237 10,773 10,705 10,387

The northeastern portion of the state, extending from the Eastern border to Junction City and from the Nebraska border to south of -0.49% Kansas City Johnson County, has a rich history and is home to more than 1.5 million people in the 2.62% Wichita Kansas City, Lawrence,and Topeka metropol0.58% ‡ itan areas. In the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the cities of Johnson County have some -0.23% ‡ of the fastest growing populations and -0.12% ‡ highest median incomes in the state and the 0.34% Wichita entire country. Overland Park, a young city incorporated in 1960, has the largest popula-2.36% Manhattan‡ tion and the largest land area in the county. 10.17% Kansas City It is home to Johnson County Community Col0.20% ‡ lege, the state’s largest community college, and the corporate campus of Sprint Nextel, -0.23% ‡ the largest private employer in the metro 1.15% Kansas City area. In 2006 the city was ranked as the 6th -0.13% Wichita best place to live in America; the neighboring [32] Olathe is the city -0.65% Winfield- of Olathe was 13th. county seat and home to Johnson County ExArkansas City‡ ecutive Airport. The cities of Olathe, Shawnee, and Gardner have some of the -0.78% Arkansas state’s fastest growing populations. The cities Cityof Overland Park, Lenexa, Olathe, and GardWinfield‡ ner are also notable because they lie along -0.36% ‡ the former route of the Santa Fe Trail. Among -0.35% Kansas City cities with at least one thousand residents, Mission Hills has the highest median 1.79% Kansas City in the state. income -0.97% ‡

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Several institutions of higher education are located in Northeast Kansas including Baker University (the first university in the state) in Baldwin City, MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Ottawa University in Ottawa and Overland Park, Kansas City Kansas Community College and KU Medical Center in Kansas City, and KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park. Less than an hour’s drive to the west, Lawrence is home to the University of Kansas, the largest public university in the state, and Haskell Indian Nations University. To the north, Kansas City, Kansas, with the second largest land area in the state, contains a number of diverse ethnic neighborhoods. Its attractions include the Kansas Speedway, Kansas City T-Bones and The Legends at Village West retail and entertainment center. Further up the Missouri River, the city of Lansing is the home of the state’s first maximum-security prison. Historic Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city in Kansas. North of the city, Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active Army post west of the Mississippi River. The city of Atchison was an early commercial center in the state and is well-known as the birthplace of Amelia Earhart. To the west, nearly a quarter million people reside in the Topeka metropolitan area. Topeka is the state capital and home to Washburn University. Built at a Kansas River crossing along the old Oregon Trail, this historic city has several nationally registered historic places. Further westward along Interstate 70 and the Kansas River is Junction City with its historic limestone and brick buildings and nearby Fort Riley, well-known as the home to the U.S. Army’s 1st Infantry Division, also known as the "Big Red One." A short distance away, the city of Manhattan is home to Kansas State University, the second largest public university in the state and the nation’s oldest land-grant university, dating back to 1863. South of the campus, Aggieville dates back to 1889 and is the state’s oldest shopping district of its kind.

Kansas

Wichita, Kansas, the largest city in the state of Kansas home of Wichita State University. With a number of nationally registered historic places, museums, and other entertainment destinations, it has a desire to become a cultural mecca in the Midwest. Although Wichita’s population growth has been anemic in recent years, surrounding suburbs are among the fastest growing cities in the state. The population of Goddard has grown by more than 11% per year since 2000.[31] Other fast-growing cities include Andover, Maize, Park City, Derby, and Haysville. Up river (the Arkansas River) from Wichita is the city of Hutchinson. The city was built on one of the world’s largest salt deposits, and it has the world’s largest and longest wheat elevator. It is also the home of Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Prairie Dunes Country Club and the Kansas State Fair. North of Wichita along Interstate 135 is the city of Newton, the former western terminal of the Santa Fe Railroad and trailhead for the famed Chisholm Trail. To the southeast of Wichita are the cities of Winfield and Arkansas City with historic architecture and the Cherokee Strip Museum (in Ark City). The city of Udall was the site of the deadliest tornado in Kansas on May 25, 1955; it killed 80 people in and near the city.[33] To the southwest of Wichita is Freeport, the state’s smallest incorporated city (population 8).

Around the state
Located midway between Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita in the heart of the Bluestem Region of the Flint Hills, the city of Emporia has several nationally registered historic places and is the home of Emporia State University, well-known for its Teachers College. It was also the home of newspaper man William Allen White. Southeast Kansas Southeast Kansas has a unique history with a number of nationally registered historic places in this coal-mining region. Located in Crawford County (dubbed

Wichita
In south-central Kansas, the four-county Wichita metropolitan area is home to nearly 600,000 people. Wichita is the largest city in the state in terms of both land area and population. ’The Air Capital’ is a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry and the

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Kansas
Central and North-Central Kansas Salina is the largest city in central and north-central Kansas. South of Salina is the small city of Lindsborg with its numerous Dala horses. Much of the architecture and decor of this town has a distinctly Swedish style. To the east along Interstate 70, the historic city of Abilene was formerly a trailhead for the Chisholm Trail and was the boyhood home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. To the west is Lucas, the Grassroots Art Capital of Kansas. Northwest Kansas

Kansas Population Density Map the Fried Chicken Capital of Kansas), Pittsburg is the largest city in the region and the home of Pittsburg State University. The neighboring city of Frontenac in 1888 was the site of the worst mine disaster in the state in which an underground explosion killed 47 miners. "Big Brutus" is located a mile and a half outside the city of West Mineral. Along with the restored fort, historic Fort Scott has a national cemetery designated by President Lincoln in 1862.

Kansas City, Kansas Westward along the Interstate, the city of Russell, traditionally the beginning of sparsely-populated northwest Kansas, is the home of former U.S. Senator Bob Dole and the boyhood home of U.S. Senator Arlen Specter. The city of Hays is home to Fort Hays State University and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, and is the largest city in the northwest with a population of around 20,000. Two other landmarks are located in smaller towns in Ellis County: the "Cathedral of the Plains" is located 10 miles (16 km) east of Hays in Victoria, and the boyhood home of Walter Chrysler is 15 miles (24 km) west of Hays in Ellis. West of Hays, population drops dramatically, even in areas along I-70, and only two towns containing populations of more than 3,000: Colby and Goodland, which are located 35 milies apart along I-70. The city of Wichita, the largest in both area and population, has been mentioned in a handful of films and television programmes such as 90210, a CW teen drama from which a family emigrate to Bevery Hills (hence the title). Southwest Kansas Southwest Kansas, and Dodge City in particular, is famously known for the cattle drive days of the late

Little town on KS56, in 1974

A little farm

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Club Kansas City Wizards Kansas City TBones Wichita Wingnuts Topeka Roadrunners Wichita Thunder Kansas Koyotes Wichita Wild Sport Soccer Baseball Baseball Ice hockey Ice hockey Indoor Football Indoor Football League Major League Soccer Northern League

Kansas

American Association of Independent Professional Baseball North American Hockey League Central Hockey League American Professional Football League Indoor Football League

19th century. The city of Dodge was built along the old Santa Fe Trail route. The city of Liberal is located along the southern Santa Fe Trail route. The first wind farm in the state was built east of Montezuma. Garden City has the Lee Richardson Zoo.

Education
Education in Kansas is governed primarily by the Kansas State Board of Education (web). Twice the Board has approved changes in the state science curriculum standards that encouraged the teaching of intelligent design. Both times, the standards were reversed after changes in the composition of the board in the next election.

Persons in western Kansas may sometimes support the major league teams in Denver. Many people who live close to the Oklahoma state line support the Dallas Cowboys. All Chiefs games are televised throughout Kansas by television stations in Topeka and Wichita, and Broncos and Cowboys games which do not conflict with Chiefs telecasts are also broadcast across the state. Two major auto racing facilities are located in Kansas. The Kansas Speedway located in Kansas City hosts races of the NASCAR, IRL, and ARCA circuits. Also, the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) holds drag racing events at Heartland Park Topeka.

College
While there are no franchises of the four major professional sports within the state, many Kansans are fans of the state’s major college sports teams, especially the Wildcats of Kansas State University, known as "KSU" or "KState" by many and the Jayhawks of the University of Kansas, commonly referred to as "KU." Wichita State University, which also fields teams (called the Shockers) in Division I of the NCAA, is best known for its baseball program, winning the College World Series in 1989. Both KU and K-State have tradition-rich programs in men’s college basketball. The Jayhawks are a perennial national power, ranking third in all-time victories among NCAA programs, behind Kentucky and North Carolina. In April 2008, the Jayhawks won their fifth national crown (third NCAA tournament title). K-State also had a long stretch

Sports
Professional
Even though the Wizards are the only major professional sports league team within Kansas, many Kansans also support the sports teams of Kansas City, Missouri, including the Kansas City Royals (MLB), the Kansas City Chiefs (NFL) and the Kansas City Brigade (AFL). The Chiefs and the Royals play at the Truman Sports Complex, located about 10 miles (16 km) from the Kansas-Missouri state line. The Kansas City Brigade play in the newly opened Sprint Center. (The Wizards were based in Missouri at the time of their founding, and may move back across the state line into a new stadium in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2010.)

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of success on the hardwood, lasting from the 1940s to the 1980s. Kansas State returned to the NCAA tournament in 2008 for the first time in 12 years. KU is tied for 4th all-time with 13 Final Four appearances, while KState is tied for 17th with 4 appearances in the Final Four. Wichita State has made 1 Final Four appearance. However, success on the football field has been infrequent for either team. When the two teams met in 1987, KU’s record was 1-7 and K-State’s was 0-8. Fittingly, the Governor’s Cup that year, dubbed the "Toilet Bowl" by the media, ended in a 17-17 tie when the Jayhawks blocked a last-second KState field goal attempt. There have been recent breakthroughs for both schools. KU won the Orange Bowl for the first time in three tries in January 2008, capping a 12-1 season, the best in school history. K-State was historically one of the worst college football programs in the country, until Bill Snyder arrived to coach the Wildcats in 1989. He turned K-State into a national force for most of the 1990s and early 2000s, until he retired after the 2005 season. Bill Snyder will return to the sideline for the 2009 season. The team won the Fiesta Bowl in 1997 and took the Big 12 Conference championship in 2003. Notable success has also been achieved by the state’s smaller schools in football. Pittsburg State University, a NCAA Division II participant, has claimed three national titles in football, two in the NAIA and most recently the 1991 NCAA Division II national title. Pittsburg State became the winningest NCAA Division II football program in 1995. PSU passed Hillsdale College at the top of the all-time victories list in the 1995 season on its march to the national runner-up finish. The Gorillas, in 96 seasons of intercollegiate competition, have accumulated 579 victories – posting a 579-301-48 overall mark. Washburn University, in Topeka, won the NAIA Men’s Basketball Championship in 1987. The Fort Hays State University men won the 1996 NCAA Division II title with a 34-0 record, and the Washburn women won the 2005 NCAA Division II crown. St. Benedict’s College (now Benedictine College), in Atchison, won the 1954 and 1967 Men’s NAIA Basketball Championships. In 1992-93, KU became the second college program to participate in a football bowl game, the NCAA men’s basketball tournament, and the College World Series in the

Kansas
same academic year. And in the 2007-08 academic year, KU’s football and basketball programs set an NCAA Division I record for most combined victories with 49 total victories (12 in football and 37 in basketball).

Notable residents
Amelia Earhart (aviation pioneer), Carrie Nation (temperance activist), former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, former Vice President Charles Curtis, and former presidential candidates Bob Dole and Alf Landon called Kansas their home. NASA astronauts Ronald Evans, Joe Engle, and Steve Hawley also lived in Kansas. Kansas was home to industrial and intellectual pioneers Walter Chrysler of automotive fame, Clyde Cessna and Lloyd Stearman (aviation pioneers), Jack Kilby (microchip inventor, The Nobel Prize Winner in Physics 2000), George Washington Carver (educator and scientist), Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (The Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine 1971), and Vernon L. Smith (The Nobel Prize Winner in Economics 2002). Also from Kansas are General Richard Myers (Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2001-05) and Robert Gates (United States Secretary of Defense December 2006 - Present). In addition, Kansas is the home of "Top Cop" Vern Miller who raided an Amtrak train on July 20, 1972 and confiscated all the liquor on board. He charged Amtrak with selling liquor-by-thedrink, illegal in Kansas at that time and the case was eventually declared al certiore, validating both the lower court’s conviction and the flamboyant Miller’s stance that "If you don’t like a law, get it changed...don’t break it." -- Wichita Eagle July 20, 1972 Kansas was also home to Danny Carey (musician), Del Close (comdedian/actor), Inger Stevens (actress),Vivian Vance (actress), Samuel Ramey (opera singer), Louise Brooks (actress), Annette Bening (actress), Bill Kurtis (Journalist), Jack Cafferty (Journalist), John Brown (abolitionist), Langston Hughes (poet), Gordon Parks (photographer, movie director, musician, author), Fatty Arbuckle (actor), William Inge (writer), Dennis Hopper (actor), Kelli McCarty (actress and Miss USA 91), Buster Keaton (actor), Coleman Hawkins (Jazz musician), Martina McBride (Country Singer), Joe Walsh (Musician), Chely Wright (Country Musician), Melissa Etheridge (musician), Kirstie Alley

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(actress), Paul Rudd (actor), Sarah Lancaster (actress), Charlie Parker (Jazz musician), Mike Jerrick (network journalist), Steve Doocy (network journalist, author), Campbell Brown (network journalist), Jeff Probst (Survivor host), Melissa McDermott (Journalist), Phil McGraw (psychologist), and William Allen White (editor). And members of the progressive rock band Kansas: Dave Hope (bass), Phil Ehart (drums, percussion), and Kerry Livgren (guitars, keyboards, synthesizers) formed the group named Kansas in 1970 in their hometown of Topeka, along with vocalist Lynn Meredith from Manhattan, Kansas. Famous athletes from Kansas include Clint Bowyer, Braden Looper, Johnny Damon, Kyle Farnsworth, Wes Santee, Joe Carter, Wilt Chamberlain, George Brett, Barry Sanders, Gale Sayers, Darren Sproles, John H. Outland, Steve Fritz, Billy Mills, Jim Ryun, Walter Johnson, Jackie Stiles, Scott Fulhage, Caroline Bruce, John Riggins, Maurice Greene, Kendra Wecker, and Lynette Woodard. Kansas was also home to coaches James Naismith, Larry Brown, Phog Allen, Dean Smith, Adolph Rupp, Ralph Miller, Gene Keady, Lon Kruger, John Calipari, Roy Williams, Glen Mason, Tex Winter, Dana Altman, Mark Turgeon, Bill Self, Bill Snyder, and Eddie Sutton. Famous fictional residents include Marshal Matt Dillon from the TV show Gunsmoke, Mary Ann Summers of Gilligan’s Island, Dennis Mitchell (Dennis the Menace), Dean and Sam Winchester from the TV show Supernatural, Clark Kent/Superman, Liz Sherman, Lt. Col. Cameron Mitchell of Stargate SG-1, Walter and India Bridge from Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, Jonas Nightengale from Leap of Faith, Bailey from The Suite Life on Deck, Sonny from Sonny With a Chance and Dorothy Gale from The Wizard of Oz.

Kansas

Konza Prairie, in the Flint Hills • The boyhood home of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Eisenhower Library, and his grave are located in Abilene. • The home of nationally known newspaperman William Allen White is located in Emporia, KS • Abilene is the ending point of the Chisholm Trail where the cattle driven from Texas were loaded onto rail cars. • The house of Carrie Nation, now a museum, is located in Medicine Lodge. • Constitution Hall in Lecompton is the location where the Kansas Territorial Government convened and drafted a proslavery constitution. [34] • The Wizard of Oz Museum in Wamego features Dorothy’s House, a re-creation of the farm house featured in the film The Wizard of Oz. • The Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, located in Hutchinson, is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution. The museum features the largest collection of artifacts from the Russian Space Program outside of Moscow. It is also home to Apollo 13, an SR-71 Blackbird, Liberty 7, and many space artifacts. • The award-winning Kansas Museum of History[35] is the state museum, and is located in the capital city of Topeka. • The world’s largest ball of twine (disputed), created August 15, 1953, in Cawker City. • The Big Well, billed as the World’s Largest Hand-Dug Well, is located in Greensburg, Kansas. • Keeper of the Plains • Joyland Amusement Park (Wichita) • The Hot and Cold Water Towers of Pratt, Kansas

Landmarks
See also: List of Registered Historic Places in Kansas • Front Street and Boot HIll Museum are located in Dodge City. • Santa Fe trail ruts can still be seen 9 miles west of Dodge City. • The John Brown museum is located in Osawatomie.

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Kansas
Bureau, Population Division. Released 2007-12-22. Six year change is from 2000-07-01 to 2007-07-01. [17] State Population Estimates. Kansas population has increased at a decreasing rate; reducing the number of congressmen from 5 to 4 in 1992 (Congressional Redistricting Act, eff. 1992). Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (NSTEST2006-04). U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Released 2006-12-22. [18] [Title=The New York Times 2008 Almanac|Author=edited by John W. Wright|Date=2007|Page=178] [19] "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/ www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved on 2008-12-05. [20] Kansas - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990 [21] http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/ reports/state/20_2000.asp [22] America’s Career InfoNet [23] Kansas Department of Transportation (2004-01-22). KDOT Launches New Traveler Information Service. Press release. http://www.ksdot.org/archive/ offtransinfo/News04/511_Release.htm. Retrieved on 2006-07-14. [24] Testa, Anthony Manhattan Regional Airport adds connection to Dallas-Fort Worth International The Kansas State Collegian, Published April 6, 2009, Retrieved on 2009-04-29 [25] Los Angeles Times. Vote by Kansas School Board Favors Evolution’s Doubters [26] [6] [27] Kansas Governor Rejects Two Coal-Fired Power Plants [28] 2008 Election Results - Kansas [29] "Liquor Licensee and Supplier Information". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. http://www.ksrevenue.org/ abcsupplierinfo.htm. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. [30] "History of Alcoholic Beverages in Kansas". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. 2000. http://www.ksrevenue.org/

See also
•

References
[1] "Bill makes English official language". Associated Press. 2007-05-12. http://www.kansas.com/news/legislature/ story/68114.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. House Bill No. 2140 was signed into law on May 11, the law begins July 1. [2] ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/ popest/states/tables/NSTEST2008-01.csv. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. [3] ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/ pubs/booklets/elvadist/ elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on November 6 2006. [4] http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ us_regdiv.pdf [5] John Koontz, p.c. [6] Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw". In Native Languages of the Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, pg. 492 [7] Connelley, William E. 1918. Indians. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, ch. 10, vol. 1 [8] Today in History: January 29 [9] http://www.governor.ks.gov/Facts/ kansasseal.htm [10] [1] [11] Kansas Is Flatter Than a Pancake[2] [12] Study finds Kansas Flatter Than Pancake[3] [13] Fracas over Kansas pancake flap[4] [14] "Kansas". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/ks. Retrieved on 2008-07-15. [15] [5] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 25, 2006. [16] State Population Estimates. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, and States and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (NST-EST2007-01). U.S. Census

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Preceded by Oregon Succeeded by List of U.S. states by date of West Virginia statehood Admitted on January 29, 1861 (34th)

Kansas

abchistory.htm. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. [31] ^ "Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. http://www.census.gov/popest/ estimates.php. Annual estimates of the population through 2006-07-01. Released 2007-06-28. [32] "Best places to live 2006". MONEY Magazine. http://money.cnn.com/ magazines/moneymag/bplive/2006/ top100/. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. [33] "The Blackwell Tornado of 25 May 1955". NWS Norman, Oklahoma. June 13, 2006. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/ wxevents/19550525/. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. [34] Historic Lecompton - Constitution Hall State Historic Site. Retrieved on 13 April 2007. [35] Kansas Historical Society

External links
State of Kansas Kansas at the Open Directory Project Kansas Travel and Tourism Division Kansas State Historical Society Kansas State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Kansas state agencies • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Kansas • Persian Community in Kansas • Kansas Department of Transportation maps • Cutler’s History of Kansas • Kansas Maps from the Perry-Castañeda Library map collection at the University of Texas Coordinates: 38°30′N 98°00′W / 38.5°N 98°W / 38.5; -98 • • • • •

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