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									Analysis Document




Task 4
Analysis of Telework Scalability


                        March 21, 2006
Table Of Contents

 Introduction
 Methodology
 Key Telework Components / Solutions
 Scalability and Gap Analysis
 Findings & Conclusions




                                        1
This report presents the infrastructure and other resources needed
for a large telework expansion and the ability of government
agencies to support this expansion
  This report on Analysis of Scalability is the
   fourth in a series of reports that are part of the
   Telework Technology Cost Study

  The overall study has three primary objectives
     – Describe the current federal telework
       technology environment
     – Estimate the costs of expanding telework
       supporting technologies so the infrastructure
       can support 25% to 50% of the federal
       workforce teleworking
     – Provide recommendations on how best to
       expand the telework related infrastructure to
       support more teleworkers

   Based on interviews, surveys, and focus groups of federal IT staff, this report assesses federal
    organizations’ ability to scale network infrastructures to support 25% to 50% of the workforce
    teleworking

   This report will describe potential barriers that must be overcome, the network resources required for
    Federal organizations to more easily scale telework participation across the workforce, and the
    organizational benefits that can be achieved by such infrastructure enhancement


                                                                                                             2
Information was collected from several sources in sixteen
organizations that were chosen to be representative of the entire
Federal Government

 The Booz Allen team conducted interviews, focus groups, and surveys of Chief Information Officer
  staff, Telework Program Coordinators, Teleworkers, and Managers of Teleworkers (respectively)

 Ten Departments participated in the study:
  – Department of Agriculture                                Department of Interior
  – Department of Commerce                                   Department of Justice
  – Department of Education                                  Department of Transportation
  – Department of Health and Human Services                  Department of the Treasury
  – Department of Housing and Urban Development              Department of Veterans Affairs

 Five Independent Agencies and one Departmental Component also participated in the study:
  – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission                  National Science Foundation
  – General Services Administration                          Securities And Exchange Commission
  – National Aeronautics and Space Administration            U. S. Coast Guard (Department of
                                                              Homeland Security)




                                                                                                   3
Table Of Contents

 Introduction
 Methodology
 Key Telework Components / Solutions
 Scalability and Gap Analysis
 Findings & Conclusions




                                        4
A structured approach was used to analyze the federal
government’s ability to expand the infrastructures supporting
telework

                                 Data Sources                                                        Analysis & Results
           Surveys of
                                   Focus Groups with                                              Identify Key
        Teleworkers and                                        Interviews with                                             Scalability and Gap
                                    Agency Telework                                             Components for
          Managers of                                         Agency CIO Staff                                                  Analysis
                                      Coordinators                                            Telework Expansion
          Teleworkers

• Administered surveys to     • Conducted focus groups • Conducted interviews          • Reviewed agency             • Defined the technical
  teleworkers and               with Telework Program      with CIOs and other IT        information from the          components for “basic”
  managers of teleworkers       Coordinators and other     staff members in 20           three data sources to         and “ideal” telework
  in 14 out of the 16           telework management        organizations                 identify key components       support, based on
  agencies participating in     staff in 15 out of the 16  (headquarters offices         for telework expansion        industry standards and
  the study                     agencies participating in  and/or components of the                                    best practices
                                                                                       • Identified common
                                the study                  16 agencies participating
• Received valid                                                                         themes and potential        • Based on current
                                                           in the study)
  responses from 6,784        • Collected information                                    barriers affecting the        infrastructures in place,
  teleworkers and 1,540         about telework program • Collected information           ability to scale telework     executed gap analysis to
  managers of teleworkers       history and current state, about the current status      infrastructure                identify the additional
                                technology issues, policy  of the telework                                             components required to
• Collected information                                                                • Grouped the 20
                                issues, and plans for      infrastructure and plans                                    meet the basic and ideal
  about telework                                                                         organizations into five
                                expansion                  for enhancement                                             solutions in each scenario
  technology availability,                                                               common scenarios,
  usage, and performance                                                                 based on commonalities      • Reviewed findings to
                                                                                         in their current telework     develop overall
                                                                                         infrastructures               conclusions about federal
                                                                                                                       government’s ability to
                                                                                                                       successfully expand
                                                                                                                       teleworking

                                                                                                                                                    5
The study’s approach and methodology provides an estimate of
the federal government’s telework technology scalability

  The multi-method approach to this study was designed to collect information from three data
   sources, which are complementary and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the issues
   – When information is missing from one data source, information from the other data sources
     is available to compensate
   – Many of the CIO interviews provided information about specific components, rather than the
     overall department
   – However, the organization-wide data from surveys and focus groups round out this
     information and enable the development of broad findings that are representative of the
     government

  The Booz Allen team followed a structured process to analyze scalability for telework
   expansion
   – Reviewed information about current agency infrastructures, derived primarily from
     interviews, surveys, and focus groups conducted for the study
   – Assessed agency’s current ability to scale telework expansion by identifying potential
     technology barriers
   – Based on data gathering from the federal government and from industry best practices this
     study has identified basic telework technologies required to telework and additional
     technologies that would provide teleworkers an ideal telework environment

                                                                                                  6
The evaluation assessed federal organizations’ ability to expand
teleworking infrastructure to support more of their workforce

  In order to assess the ability of an agency to expand teleworking, the current infrastructure
   was analyzed in three areas: home office, services, and enterprise

  Potential barriers were identified that directly impact telework expansion

  Basic and ideal telework solutions were defined to baseline and identify key components /
   services required at the home office and enterprise to support telework expansion

  Agencies were grouped into five different scenarios based on technology support currently
   provided to teleworkers

  A gap analysis was performed to identify the missing components and technologies required
   within each scenario to meet the requirements for the basic and ideal telework solution

  The output of the gap analysis was used to provide recommendations for each scenario on
   how to expand technology to support more teleworkers

  Finally, conclusions are provided about government agency capabilities to meet the basic and
   ideal solutions, and thus, enhance their abilities to scale infrastructure to support expanded
   telework programs

                                                                                                    7
The key technologies that support telework fall into three areas:
Home Office, Services, and Enterprise

        Home Office               Services                     Enterprise
    PC / Software Support   Data Communications         Secure Network Access
     Peripheral Support     Voice Communications   Application / Administrative Access
      Network Interface      Help Desk Support          Collaboration Resources
      Mobile Telephone        Technical Training
     Security Resources         PDA Access
     Collaboration Tools
        PDA Devices




                                                                                         8
Table Of Contents

 Introduction
 Methodology
 Key Telework Components / Solutions
 Scalability and Gap Analysis
 Findings & Conclusions




                                        9
To expand telework, some basic technologies are needed by most
teleworkers to work effectively in their home or alternate work location
  A home computer is key to perform typical
   office activities and to access enterprise
   applications

  Access to enterprise applications and
   administrative functions is key to perform job
   duties

  Voice communications are key for
   teleworkers to maintain effective working
   relationships with coworkers, managers, and       Due to increasing file sizes and enhanced
   customers                                          applications, broadband access is also key
                                                      to effective job performance
   – Teleconferencing services allow the
     teleworker to participate in voice
                                                     Help desk and troubleshooting support is
     conferences with colleagues or other
     organizations                                    important to get the teleworkers’ failing
                                                      equipment and software operational again
   – Mobile communications equipment                  as quickly as possible
     accelerate communications within the
     office by providing immediate access to
     the teleworker regardless of location           Peripheral equipment similar to what is
                                                      available in the office help the teleworker
                                                      perform their duties as if they were in the
                                                      office
                                                                                                    10
A federal government provided computer is key for most
teleworkers to perform their job duties at home and to protect
sensitive federal data
  To perform job duties most federal workers, particularly knowledge workers, need a computer
   with appropriate software to perform their job

  While a computer at the office and one at home would save teleworkers from having to carry
   their computer back and forth between home and office, there are two key issues associated
   with this:
   – Computers for staff are among the largest expenses associated with telework, so a two
     computer solution would substantially increase the cost of telework
   – It is difficult with two computers to keep both computers populated with all the latest files that
     the staff member is working on

  The best solution for most organizations is to provide a laptop and an appropriate carrying
   case to protect the computer and the staff member carrying the computer from injury

  Use of non-government computers creates security and diagnostic concerns:
   – Security issues due to lack of organizational control or authority over the computer,
     including: no control over the software configurations, no access control over federal data,
     and no procedural control over all potential users of the computer
   – Difficult for help desks to diagnose problems on non-standard computer configurations
   – Slow deployment of updates due to non-standard configurations
                                                                                                      11
Access to enterprise applications and administrative functions is
important for effective telework performance
  While staff with computers can perform local applications such as word
   processing or data analysis of information stored on the home office
   computer, access to enterprise applications is also required
                                                                             Office
  Increased access to enterprise applications broadens the range of         Servers
   work activities that can be performed by teleworkers, which becomes
   more critical as staff increase the number of days they telework
  The study found that key legacy applications were often not accessible
   to teleworkers
                                                                             Internet
   – Security mechanisms prevent access outside the enterprise
   – Applications do not operate properly over the Internet because of
     performance problems or the data communications protocol used to
     access the application is not compatible with the Internet
   – Application is partially or fully paper based or requires an original
     signature
                                                                             Teleworker
                                                                               Home
                                                                             Computer




                                                                                          12
Ways to make key applications accessible to teleworkers include
redesign of the application, using existing government applications,
or implementing commercial off-the-shelf applications

  While converting key applications can be expensive, the modernized applications benefit the
   entire organization
   – Standard user interfaces such as a web browser interface reduces staff training time
   – Applications designed to be independent of location are more adaptable to changes in the
     organization and more easily support staff wherever they are located
   – Applications designed to be independent of location support contingency situations
  Implementing a thin client solution for applications reduces bandwidth requirements to support
   teleworkers and provides additional protection for organization data
   – With thin client, the remote computer only receives the screens from the application but the
     data stays with the central server. Once the session, is completed the remote client does
     not retain any data
   – Easier to maintain remote computer because fewer software refreshes are required
  Instead of converting legacy applications to make them remotely accessible, organizations can
   take advantage of remotely accessible application services provided by other federal
   organizations to minimize costs and risks (OMB’s Centers of Excellence Program)
  Finding commercial applications that can be customized to fit the needs of the organization
   can reduce maintenance costs and provide a way to modernize existing key applications with
   lower risks
                                                                                                    13
Reliable voice communication services are key for teleworkers to
be successful and to stay connected to their colleagues,
managers, and other organizations
  Voice communication is still one of the most important
   forms of communication
   – Greater ability to convey complex information more
     efficiently
   – Greater ability to clear up any misunderstandings in
     real time
   – Greater ability to convey emotion and other critical
     contextual cues between people

  The ability to communicate via telephone is beneficial to
   teleworkers and their colleagues
   – The ability to reach teleworkers by telephone helps
     overcome some of the stigma of being out of the office
   – A second telephone line or mobile telephone is needed
     for voice communications if the teleworker uses the
     only telephone line available to connect to the Internet
   – Teleworkers need either calling cards or another
     facility to make long-distance telephone calls


                                                                   14
Teleconferencing services and mobile communications are
valuable alternatives for teleworkers to quickly collaborate with
colleagues across the organization
  Teleconferencing services can be provided by internal
   organizations or by third parties and teleworkers can take
   advantage of facilities available to the entire organization

  The ability of the teleworker to be able to setup their own
   teleconferences quickly and efficiently is important for
   collaboration with other team members

  Mobile communications are critical for ensuring constant
   contact if the teleworker spends most of the workday
   away from the office or away from the alternate work site

  Mobile communications help overcome the stigma of
   teleworkers being out of sight because they provide quick
   reliable access to the teleworker

  By providing a teleworker with mobile communication
   devices, the teleworker’s home line is freed up for voice
   and data communications


                                                                    15
Access to broadband is important for teleworkers due to the
increasing size of data files and the development of new applications
that take advantage of telecommunications infrastructure
  Broadband access is much faster and more           Comparison of Cable/DSL to Dial-Up Data Transfer *

   efficient than dial-up and is becoming                 53 kbps dial-up line        768 kbps cable/DSL

   increasingly available to residential users         Size of File
                                                                       Transfer
                                                                      Time (Min)   Size of File
                                                                                                  Transfer Time
                                                                                                      (Min)

                                                        100 kbytes       0.3       100 kbytes          0.1
  Emails with attachments are frequently larger        500 kbytes       1.3       500 kbytes          0.1
   than a Megabyte, particularly if they contain         1 Mbyte         2.7        1 Mbyte            0.2
   graphical content, resulting in lengthy              5 Mbytes         13.2       5 Mbytes           1.0
   download times for teleworkers with dial-up          10 Mbytes        26.4      10 Mbytes           1.9
   access                                             * Data transfer under ideal conditions, protocol overhead
                                                      and other impairments can more than double transfer times

  Broadband circuits have the capacity to
   support new telecommunication capabilities
   such as VoIP, video streaming, and
   collaboration, which are inaccessible over
   dial-up access due to limited bandwidth

  Study found most organizations do not
   reimburse staff for broadband access. If the
   government would contract directly with
   carriers for broadband service it would provide
   more efficient billing and providing teleworkers
   business class service
                                                                                                                  16
It is important that the help desk and others that support the IT
infrastructure are trained to handle the unique technical needs of
the teleworkers

  To keep teleworkers operating efficiently, it is
   important that support staff have appropriate training
   for issues unique to teleworkers

  Clear policies need to be outlined about what are the
   teleworker’s responsibilities for maintaining their
   equipment and software and what are the
   organization’s responsibilities

  The organization needs to decide if teleworkers are
   required to bring in failing equipment or if the
   organization should develop procedures for quickly
   getting replacement equipment shipped to the
   teleworker at their home or alternate work location

  While the study found most staff are receiving
   training that is beneficial for telework, the study found
   that organizations were not providing technical
   training specific to teleworkers’ needs


                                                                     17
The more days a week staff telework, the more they need the same
types of office equipment they have in their office, such as printers
and copiers

  Certain job responsibilities require the use of peripheral
   devices, such as printers, copiers, or faxes to
   effectively perform job duties

  Combined printer/facsimile/copier devices are available
   simplifying maintenance and reducing the amount of
   desk space required in the home office

  Appropriate supplies such as paper and toner
   cartridges for the peripherals also need to be provided
   to the teleworker




                                                                        18
To expand telework, ideally, collaboration tools should be provided
to improve communication throughout the organization

  Collaboration tools can accelerate communication within an
   organization
   – Instant messaging makes it easier to contact staff and get
     decisions made quickly
   – Sharing of calendars makes it easier to schedule meetings
   – File sharing tools facilitate collaboration on documents

  Teams that are geographically separated particularly benefit
   from collaboration tools whether team members are
   teleworkers or not

  Enterprise class collaboration applications should be used
   – Provide improved security and privacy of an organization’s
     communications
   – Provides tool to monitor usage to perform capacity planning
   – Help enforce the organization’s electronic policies and
     procedures such as records management and appropriate
     use rules


                                                                      19
The Agency Telework Ready Status, Task 3, found that most
organizations do not provide the suite of resources that
teleworkers need




The remainder of this section presents more detail about each technical component   20
Basic and ideal solutions have been defined to determine the
scalability of agency telework infrastructures

  The basic and ideal telework solutions are based on commercial and federal best practices
   that define components and services required at the home office and enterprise levels

  Both solutions provide consistent application access for the teleworker through an always-on,
   secure, and centrally managed connection to the network that essentially makes the
   teleworker’s home office an extension of the enterprise

  The basic solution includes key components and services that allow teleworkers to efficiently
   perform their job duties
   – Government covers all hardware and services costs except for broadband access
   – Sufficient voice and data resources are provided for effective communication with the
     enterprise and external clients

  The ideal solution not only includes the basic components, but provides enhanced services
   and tools to help increase network performance and the kinds of work teleworkers can
   accomplish
   – Government covers all hardware and services costs; no cost to teleworker
   – Fully redundant systems (no single points of failure) and connectivity architectures provide
     operational resilience and disaster recovery benefits
   – Use of collaboration tools and technologies can be a more efficient means of communication
     while also lowering costs for traditional voice technologies                              21
 The home office infrastructure should closely resemble the work
 office environment
 Technical                                                                                        Basic    Ideal
                                                Description
Components                                                                                       Solution solution
PC / Software Laptop PC & Docking Station - Provides basic computer capabilities to                Yes      Yes
  Support     teleworkers, including mobility and access to enterprise software; Assumes
              use of same PC for office and home
              PC Software - Operating system, application, and security software required          Yes      Yes
              for teleworker PC (e.g., Windows XP, MS Office Suite, Anti-virus, Spyware)
 Peripheral Printer / Copier / Fax - Provides common office functionality away from                Yes      Yes
  Support     office to perform job functions (assumes “All-in-One” device)
  Network       Broadband Router - Provides connectivity interface for broadband Internet          Yes      Yes
  Interface     access, which is required for accessing enterprise network
   Mobile       Mobile Telephone - Provides mobile voice communication allowing co-               Yes*      Yes*
 Telephone      workers and customers to easily contact the teleworker (OPTION 1)
  Security    Firewall Solution - Enterprise hardware/software solution provides secure            Yes      Yes
 Resources    connectivity services, application policy enforcement, and attack protection
              Authentication Device - Devices that provide extra secure layer of user              Yes      Yes
              authentication beyond user id / password (e.g. secure hardware tokens)
              Advanced Authentication Device - Devices that provide user authentication                     Yes
              and encryption locally for secure access (e.g., fingerprint readers, biometrics)
Collaboration Web Cam - Integration of video streaming with enterprise collaboration tools                  Yes
    Tools     allows for virtual meetings with co-workers and customers
PDA Devices PDA Devices - Messaging devices (e.g., Blackberry, Treo) allowing mobile                   Yes*
              voice and data communication with co-workers and customers (OPTION 2)
                                                            *Only one of the 2 options needs to be provided for
  Home Office       Services     Enterprise
                                                            remote telephone communications equipment         22
  Good telecommunications facilities and telework support, improve
  teleworkers’ performance and their ability to telework
   Technical                                                                                                Basic    Ideal
                                                        Description
  Components                                                                                               Solution solution
    Data       Enterprise Connectivity – Network connectivity to support teleworker                           Yes         Yes
Communications expansion from enterprise to Internet (e.g., DS3, OC-3)
                   (Ideal solution assumes enterprise has redundant network connectivity for backup
                   connectivity and disaster recovery (including wireless, satellite, etc.)
                   Home Office Connectivity – Broadband access connectivity from teleworker                   Yes         Yes
                   home office to Internet for enterprise access (e.g., DSL, cable)
                   (Ideal solution assumes that teleworker access costs are covered by government)
    Voice      Voice Conferencing - Audio bridge services available to teleworkers for multi-                 Yes         Yes
Communications party voice calls with co-workers and customers
                     Mobile Telephone Access - Usage costs for mobile voice services                         Yes*        Yes*
                    3 OPTIONS




                     covered by Government
                     Calling Card - Cost allowance provided to teleworkers for long distance                 Yes*        Yes*
                     voice charges
                     Telephone Line - Additional land line to enable separate voice                          Yes*        Yes*
                     communication from home office
  Help Desk    Help Desk Support - Use of existing resources to provide hardware /                            Yes         Yes
   Support     application support and troubleshooting services to enterprise and teleworkers
                   (Ideal assumes enhanced help desk support for teleworkers to maintain SLAs/KPIs)
   Technical       Technical Training - Information such as telework technology policies, IT                  Yes         Yes
    Training       troubleshooting techniques, and technical capabilities of home office provided
                   to teleworkers and managers of teleworkers
  PDA Access       PDA Access - Mobile voice / messaging services provided by government                                  Yes

                                                                          *Only one of the 3 options needs to be provided for
     Home Office                Services   Enterprise
                                                                          telephone communications access                     23
 Access to enterprise applications and administrative functions are
 critical to a full scale telework program
 Technical                                                                                              Basic    Ideal
                                                     Description
Components                                                                                             Solution solution
   Secure        VPN / Firewall Solution – Infrastructure (hardware / software) provides secure          Yes      Yes
   Network       remote access for teleworker connectivity to enterprise network (includes
   Access        enterprise network interface and software for teleworker clients)
                 (Ideal solution assumes clientless, browser-based solutions (e.g., SSL VPN) that
                 reduce administrative efforts and expand range of accessing devices)
 Application / Remote Email Access – Centrally managed solution provides secure remote                   Yes      Yes
Administrative access to enterprise email system (e.g., Outlook Web Access, Lotus iNotes)
   Access      Terminal Emulation System – Centrally managed solution (e.g., Citrix) that                Yes      Yes
               provides teleworker secure remote access to non-web enterprise applications
               and data without the need for separately installed client applications (only thin
               client software required)
                 (Ideal solution assumes redundant enterprise system for backup / disaster recovery)
                 Web Interface - Multi-tier architecture that provides capability to remotely            Yes      Yes
                 access enterprise web applications and limited administrative functions (e.g.,
                 time cards, expense reports)
                 (Ideal solution assumes fully redundant system allowing remote access to additional
                 admin functions such as travel planning, training, support services, etc.)

Collaboration Collaboration Resources - Centrally managed and secured resources such as                           Yes
 Resources instant managing, document sharing, and virtual meeting tools are available to
              teleworkers
              Voice over IP – Centrally managed and integrated IP telephony solution                              Yes
              utilizing existing network connectivity resources (reduces costs of traditional
              voice communications devices / services)
   Home Office        Services         Enterprise
                                                                                                                     24
 Table Of Contents
 Introduction
 Methodology
 Key Telework Components / Solutions
 Scalability and Gap Analysis
 Findings & Conclusions




                                        25
The organizations that participated in the study were grouped into
5 scenarios based on how much additional infrastructure was
required to provide the basic and ideal telework IT environment

  Scenario A organizations provide basic telework infrastructure including home office support,
   services, and enterprise access, but additional IT infrastructure is required to bring them up to
   the ideal environment

  Scenario B organizations provide some basic telework infrastructure including some home
   office support and services and full enterprise access. However additional IT infrastructure is
   required to provide all basic and ideal telework technologies to teleworkers

  Scenario C organizations provide some basic telework infrastructure including some home
   office support, services, and enterprise access. However additional IT infrastructure is
   required to provide all basic and ideal telework technologies to teleworkers

  Scenario D organizations provide a few basic telework infrastructure components and services
   for the home office but limited if any enterprise access. Substantial IT infrastructure
   improvements are required to provide basic and ideal telework technologies to teleworkers

  Scenario E organizations provide few if any basic telework infrastructure, so significant IT
   infrastructure improvements will be required to provide basic and ideal telework technologies
   to teleworkers


                                                                                                       26
   For each scenario the gaps have been identified and the
   components needed to enhance the telework infrastructure to
   provide the Basic and Ideal Telework Environment

The dot indicates                                                                                                                                                           For each of the
where each                                                                                                                                                                  scenarios, a gap
scenario falls                                                                                                                                                              analysis was
based on the                                                                                                                                                                conducted to:
defined Basic                                           Current                        Components Required To                   Components Required To Meet
                                                    Infrastructure                       Meet Basic Solution                          Ideal Solution*                       Establish the
and Ideal
                                                                                                   Home Office
                                                                                                                                                                            infrastructure
telework                         Ideal
                                                                                                                                                                            currently in place
solutions.                               • PC / Software Support (reutilized PCs)
                                Basic                                                                                                                                       (including Home
                                         • Network Interface (Broadband Router) • PC / Software Support (new PCs)
                                                                                                                               • Advanced Authentication Devices            Office, Services,
                                         • Mobile Phone (exec staff only)           • Peripheral Support (Printer / Copier /
                                                                                                                               • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)              and Enterprise
                                         • Security Resources                       Fax) (full)
                                                                                                                               • PDA Devices (all telework staff)           components)
                                             - Firewall Solution                    • Mobile Phone (all telework staff)
                                             - Authentication Devices                                                                                                       Determine the
                                                                                                      Services
                                                                                                                                                                            additional
                                         • Data Communications
                                                                                                                                                                            infrastructure
                                             - Home Office Connectivity                                                                                                     components
                                               (staff provided)                                                              • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity            required to meet the
Each scenario                                                                       • Voice Communications                                                                  defined Basic
                       Scenario C • Voice Communications                                                                     • Data Communications
includes varying     (3 of 20 Agencies) - Voice Conferencing
                                                                                        - Mobile Phone Access (all telework
                                                                                                                                 - Home Office Connectivity (Gov pays)      solution to support
levels of                                                                               staff)
                                        - Mobile Phone Access (exec staff)                                                   • Help Desk Support (enhanced)                 teleworking
infrastructure,                                                                     • Technical Training (telework-specific)
                    • Infrastructure in - Calling Card (all telework staff)                                                  • PDA Access (all telework staff)
resources,                                                                                                                                                                  Determine the
                     place to support    • Help Desk Support
access, and          existing telework                                                                                                                                      additional
                                         • Technical Training (general)
support to
                     program                                                                                                                                                infrastructure
                    • Limited resources                                                              Enterprise
expand or scale                                                                                                                                                             components
                      and enterprise                                                                                           • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
                      access available
                                        • Secure Network Access                     • Access to Key Applications /                                                          required to meet the
current                                     - VPN / Firewall Solution               Administrative                             • Application / Administrative Access
teleworking         • Agency covers no                                                                                                                                      defined Ideal
                                                                                                                                   - Redundant Terminal Services /
                      costs            • Application / Administrative Access          Functions                                                                             solution to support
capabilities                                                                                                                         Application Access Infrastructure
                                            - Remote Email Access                      - Web Interfaces (limited)
                                                                                                                                   - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)   teleworking
                                            - Terminal Emulation System
                                                                                                                               • Collaboration Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                               27
  As shown in Scenario A, very few organizations are currently able to
  support a full-scale telework program
                                    Current                   Components Required To Meet Components Required To Meet
                                Infrastructure                      Basic Solution              Ideal Solution*
                                                                             Home Office
             Ideal • PC / Software Support
                     • Peripheral Support (Prt/Copier/Fax)                                             • Advanced Authentication Devices
             Basic
                     • Network Interface (Broadband Router)                                            • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)
                                                              Basic Solution is already exceeded; no
                     • Mobile Phone                                                                    • PDA Devices (all telework staff)
                                                              additional components necessary
                     • Security Resources
                         - Firewall/Authentication Devices
                     • PDA Devices (exec staff only)
                                                                               Services
                     • Data Communications
                                                                                                       • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity
                         - Home Office Connectivity
                                                                                                       • Help Desk Support (enhanced)
                           (Government provided)
                                                                                                       • PDA Access (all telework staff)
  Scenario A         •Voice Communications                    Basic Solution is already exceeded; no
(2 of 20 Agencies)       - Voice Conferencing                 additional components necessary
                         - Mobile Phone Access
                     • Help Desk Support
• Infrastructure,    • Technical Training
  resources,
  access, and        • PDA Access (exec staff only)
  support in place                                                            Enterprise
  to support full-
                     • Secure Network Access                                                           • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
  scale telework
  program                - VPN / Firewall Solution                                                     • Application / Administrative Access
                                                              Basic Solution is already exceeded; no
• Agency covers all • Application / Administrative Access     additional components necessary              - Redundant Terminal Services /
  associated costs      - Remote Email Access                                                              Application Access Infrastructure
                        - Terminal Emulation System                                                        - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)
                        - Web Interfaces (limited)                                                     • Collaboration Resources

* Includes components indicated in Basic Solution Gap Analysis                                                                                28
Scenario B organizations have existing enterprise infrastructures
capable of supporting key telework functions
                                   Current                      Components Required To Meet                    Components Required To Meet
                               Infrastructure                         Basic Solution                                 Ideal Solution*
                                                                                 Home Office
             Ideal
                     • PC / Software Support (reutilized PCs)                                                 • Advanced Authentication Devices
             Basic • Peripheral Support (Prt/Copier/Fax)        • PC / Software Support (new PCs)
                                                                                                              • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)
                                                                • Peripheral Support (Printer / Copier / Fax)
                       (limited)                                                                              • PDA Devices (all telework staff)
                                                                (full)
                     • Network Interface (Broadband Router)
                                                                • Mobile Phone (all telework staff)
                     • Mobile Phone (exec staff only)
                     • Security Resources
                          - Firewall Solution
                          - Authentication Devices

                                                                                    Services

                    •Data Communications
                        - Home Office Connectivity
   Scenario B             (staff provided)                      • Voice Communications                       • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity
 (8 of 20 Agencies) • Voice Communications                          - Mobile Phone Access (all telework      • Data Communications
                        - Voice Conferencing                        staff)                                       - Home Office Connectivity (Gov pays)
                        - Mobile Phone Access (exec staff)      • Technical Training (telework-specific)     • Help Desk Support (enhanced)
• Infrastructure in     - Calling Card (all telework staff)                                                  • PDA Access (all telework staff
  place to support
                    • Help Desk Support
  large scale
                    • Technical Training (general)
 telework program
• Sufficient
  resources,                                                                       Enterprise
  enterprise        • Secure Network Access                                                                  • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
  access, and           - VPN / Firewall Solution                                                            • Application / Administrative Access
  support available • Application / Administrative Access       Basic Solution is already exceeded; no           - Redundant Terminal Services /
• Agency covers         - Remote Email Access                   additional components necessary                  Application Access Infrastructure
  some associated       - Terminal Emulation System                                                              - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)
  costs                 - Web Interfaces (limited)                                                           • Collaboration Resources

* Includes components indicated in Basic Solution Gap Analysis                                                                                       29
  As indicated by Scenario C, the lack of mobile communications
  and PC / peripheral support can impact telework expansion
                                     Current                        Components Required To                   Components Required To Meet
                                 Infrastructure                       Meet Basic Solution                          Ideal Solution*
             Ideal                                                               Home Office
                      • PC / Software Support (reutilized PCs)
             Basic
                      • Network Interface (Broadband Router)     • PC / Software Support (new PCs)
                                                                                                            • Advanced Authentication Devices
                      • Mobile Phone (exec staff only)           • Peripheral Support (Printer / Copier /
                                                                                                            • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)
                      • Security Resources                       Fax) (full)
                                                                                                            • PDA Devices (all telework staff)
                          - Firewall Solution                    • Mobile Phone (all telework staff)
                          - Authentication Devices
                                                                                   Services
                      • Data Communications
                          - Home Office Connectivity
                            (staff provided)                                                                • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity
                                                                 • Voice Communications
  Scenario C          • Voice Communications                                                                • Data Communications
                                                                     - Mobile Phone Access (all telework
(3 of 20 Agencies)        - Voice Conferencing                                                                  - Home Office Connectivity (Gov pays)
                                                                     staff)
                          - Mobile Phone Access (exec staff)                                                • Help Desk Support (enhanced)
                                                                 • Technical Training (telework-specific)
• Infrastructure in       - Calling Card (all telework staff)                                               • PDA Access (all telework staff)
  place to support    • Help Desk Support
  existing telework
  program             • Technical Training (general)
• Limited resources                                                               Enterprise
  and enterprise                                                                                            • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
                    • Secure Network Access                      • Access to Key Applications /
  access available                                                                                          • Application / Administrative Access
                         - VPN / Firewall Solution               Administrative
• Agency covers no                                                                                              - Redundant Terminal Services /
  costs            • Application / Administrative Access          Functions
                                                                                                                  Application Access Infrastructure
                         - Remote Email Access                      - Web Interfaces (limited)
                                                                                                                - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)
                         - Terminal Emulation System
                                                                                                            • Collaboration Resources

* Includes components indicated in Basic Solution Gap Analysis                                                                                           30
  Scenario D organizations should focus on providing basic
  capabilities before considering telework expansion
                                   Current                    Components Required To Meet                   Components Required To Meet
                               Infrastructure                       Basic Solution                                Ideal Solution*
             Ideal                                                               Home Office
                      • PC / Software Support (reutilized     • PC / Software Support (new PCs)             • Advanced Authentication Devices
             Basic PCs)                                       • Peripheral Support (Printer / Copier / Fax) • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)
                      • Network Interface (Broadband          (full)                                        • PDA Devices (all telework staff)
                      Router)                                 • Mobile Phone (all telework staff)
                      • Security Resources                    • Security Resources
                          - Authentication Devices                 - Firewall Solution



                                                                                  Services
                      • Data Communications                   • Voice Communications                      • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity
                          - Home Office Connectivity (staff       - Mobile Phone Access (all telework     • Data Communications
                          pays)                                   staff)                                      - Home Office Connectivity (Gov pays)
  Scenario D          • Voice Communications                  • Technical Training (telework-specific)    • Help Desk Support (enhanced)
(5 of 20 Agencies)        - Voice Conferencing                                                            • PDA Access (all telework staff)
                          - Calling Card (all staff)
                      • Help Desk Support
                      • Technical Training (general)
• Infrastructure in
  place to support
  minimal telework                                                                  Enterprise
  program             • Secure Network Access                 • Application / Administrative Access       • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
• Limited or no         - VPN / Firewall Solution                 - Terminal Emulation System             • Application / Administrative Access
  resources and     • Application / Administrative Access         - Web Interfaces (limited)                  - Redundant Terminal Services /
  enterprise access     - Remote Email Access                                                                 Application Access Infrastructure
  available                                                                                                   - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)
• Agency covers no                                                                                        • Collaboration Resources
  costs


* Includes components indicated in Basic Solution Gap Analysis                                                                                         31
  As seen in Scenario E, some agencies have no infrastructure or
  resources currently in place to support teleworking
                                     Current                   Components Required To Meet                     Components Required To Meet
                                 Infrastructure                      Basic Solution                                  Ideal Solution*

              Ideal                                                              Home Office
                                                                               Home Office
              Basic                                            • PC / Software Support (new PCs)
                       • Network Interface (Broadband          • Peripheral Support (Prt/Copier/Fax) (full)   • Advanced Authentication Devices
                       Router)                                 • Mobile Phone (all telework staff)            • Collaboration Tools (Web Cam)
                                                               • Security Resources                           • PDA Devices (all telework staff)
                                                                   - Firewall Solution
                                                                   - Authentication Devices

                                                                                    Services

                       • Data Communications
                           - Home Office Connectivity (staff                                                  • Redundant Enterprise Connectivity
                           pays)                               • Voice Communications
  Scenario E                                                                                                  • Data Communications
                       • Voice Communications                      - Mobile Phone Access (all telework
 (2 of 20 Agencies)                                                                                               - Home Office Connectivity (Gov pays)
                                                                   staff)
                           - Voice Conferencing                                                               • Help Desk Support (enhanced)
                                                               • Technical Training (telework-specific)
                           - Calling Card (all staff)                                                         • PDA Access (all telework staff)
• Minimal              • Help Desk Support
  Infrastructure, in
  place to support                                                                 Enterprise
  teleworking          • Secure Network Access                                                                • Enhanced VPN (clientless)
                                                               • Application / Administrative Access
• Critical resources     - VPN / Firewall Solution                                                            • Application / Administrative Access
  and support not                                                  - Terminal Emulation System
                     • Application / Administrative Access                                                        - Redundant Terminal Services /
  available                                                        - Web Interfaces (limited)
                           - Remote Email Access                                                                  Application Access Infrastructure
• Agency covers no
  costs
                                                                                                                  - Web Interfaces (all admin functions)
                                                                                                              • Collaboration Resources

* Includes components indicated in Basic Solution Gap Analysis                                                                                             32
    Network infrastructures and the ability to scale resources and
    support for expanded telework programs vary across the federal
    government




                                                                                                                                                                                 LEVEL OF ADDITIONAL HOME OFFICE,
All necessary Home Office, Services,
and Enterprise components are




                                                                                                                                                                                    SERVICES, AND ENTERPRISE
provided to support teleworking,
                                                                Ideal                   Ideal                    Ideal                      Ideal                      Ideal




                                                                                                                                                                                      COMPONENTS REQUIRED
including some enhanced capabilities

                                                               Basic                   Basic                     Basic                      Basic                     Basic
Critical Home Office, Services, and
Enterprise components available to
support teleworking



Minimal Services and Enterprise
components available to support
teleworking ; No Home Office
resources or support available
                                                  Scenario A               Scenario B                Scenario C                 Scenario D                Scenario E


                                          Scenario A -                  Scenario B -                  Scenario C -                  Scenario D -                  Scenario E -
   Scalability Rating*
                                             HIGH                        MEDIUM                        MEDIUM                          LOW                           LOW
                                      Enhanced Help Desk            New / Standard PC            New / Standard PC            New / Standard PC           Standard PCs
                                                                     Peripheral Support           Peripheral Support           Peripheral Support          Peripheral Support
   Major components                                                  Mobile Phones                Mobile Phones                Mobile Phones               Mobile Phones
   required to expand                                                Technical Training           Web Application              Secure Access               Secure Access
   telework program                                                                                 Access                       Remote / Web                Remote / Web
                                                                                                   Technical Training            Application Access           Application Access
                                                                                                                                 Technical Training          Technical Training

  *A measure of costs and difficulties associated with implementation, e.g., a rating of “High” indicates low cost/difficulty to implement, “Low” indicates high cost/difficulty to implement
                                                                                                                                                                                            33
Table Of Contents

 Introduction
 Methodology
 Key Telework Components / Solutions
 Scalability and Gap Analysis
 Findings & Conclusions




                                        34
To expand telework to a significant number of the organization’s
staff (25-50%), the organization needs to be able to provide basic
telework infrastructure to its teleworkers
 While a few federal organizations provide all the basic telework technologies needed to its
  teleworkers, many organizations provide only some of the technologies. Teleworkers either provide
  the rest of the technologies themselves or do without them, thereby making expansion of telework
  programs difficult beyond the most enthusiastic supporters of telework

 Teleworkers need secure remote access to their job-related applications and to administrative
  functions to be most effective at their alternate work location. The study found organizations have
  made different levels of progress towards providing access to applications outside the enterprise

 A PC loaded with the appropriate software, data communications support, security mechanisms,
  and peripherals is one of the most important items for helping teleworkers be effective in their
  alternate work location, but many teleworkers are still using old equipment or personal equipment

 Voice communication services are still key for teleworkers to be part of the team. These services
  can be provided by extra telephone lines, mobile communications devices, or through VoIP
  facilities. Most organizations provide some voice services to some of their staff

 A help desk trained in telework issues is important to keep teleworkers operating efficiently. Almost
  all organizations have a help desk but many do not have adequate training in telework issues

 Broadband communication services are important because of the amount of data most teleworkers
 need to process. Most teleworkers are not currently provided broadband by their organization

                                                                                                        35
To reduce barriers to telework, in addition to basic telework
technologies services, additional technologies are needed

  Enterprise level collaboration services accelerate communications between team members
   particularly between members that are not located at the same location, but because
   enterprise level collaboration services are relatively new, few organizations have fully
   implemented them

  Mobile communication devices provide quick access to teleworkers, thereby making
   teleworkers readily and reliably available to their managers and their team members,
   overcoming some of the stigma of them being out of the office

  Much of the data handled by federal workers is sensitive, so by enhancing security both at the
   enterprise level and at the teleworker’s alternate site, security barriers to telework can be
   mitigated




                                                                                                    36
There are several factors that impact the ability of organizations to
expand their telework technology programs; these factors are
different for different agencies/offices within an organization
  The organization’s size and number of remote offices

  The level of support from executive management

  The complexity and expense of making key legacy applications accessible to teleworkers with
   the appropriate performance and security

  The ability of telework technology enhancement to meet other organization priorities and
   missions outside of telework

  The complexity and expense of modifying existing contracts to provide the appropriate
   technical and repair support to teleworkers

  The expense of providing appropriate telecommunications services to teleworkers

  The ability of telework technology to allow staff to perform their job duties at alternate
   locations, e.g., doctors/nurses, janitors, prison guards




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