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Latin conjugation

Latin conjugation
Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms or principal parts. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, voice or other language-specific factors. When, for example, we use a verb to function as the action done by a subject, most languages require conjugating the verb to reflect that meaning. (For more information on conjugation in general, see the article on grammatical conjugation.) In Latin, there are four main patterns of conjugation composed of groups of verbs that are conjugated following similar patterns. As in other languages, Latin verbs have an active voice and a passive voice. Furthermore, there exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs with a perfect form but present meaning). Sometimes the verbs of the third conjugation with a present stem on -ǐ are regarded as a separate pattern of conjugation, and are called the fifth conjugation. In a dictionary, Latin verbs are always listed with four principal parts which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are: 1. the first person singular of the present indicative active 2. the present active infinitive 3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active 4. the supine or, in some texts, the perfect passive participle, which is nearly always identical. Texts that commonly list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs. Some verbs lack this principal part altogether. For simple verb paradigms, see the appendix pages for first conjugation, second conjugation, third conjugation, and fourth conjugation. • three finite moods: indicative mood, subjunctive mood, imperative mood • four non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, participle, supine • six tenses: imperfect tense, present tense, future tense, pluperfect tense, perfect tense, and future perfect tense • two numbers: singular, plural • three persons: first person, second person, third person

Latin conjugations
There are four conjugations in Latin which define patterns of verb inflection. However the grouping in conjugations is based solely on the behaviour of the verb in the present system, and the stems for other forms cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of Latin verbal forms. Most Latin verbs belong to one of the four verb conjugations, though some, like esse (to be), do not.

First conjugation
The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns: • perfect tense has the suffix –vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples: • portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum (to carry, to bring) • amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum (to love, to be fond of) • perfect tense has the suffix –uī. Examples: • secō, secāre, secuī, sectum (to cut, to divide) • fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum (to rub) • vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitum (to forbid, to prohibit) • perfect tense has the suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples: • lavō, lavāre, lāvī, lautum (to wash, to bathe) • iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum (to help, to assist)

Properties of Latin verbs
Latin verbs have the following properties: • two aspects: perfective (finished) and imperfective (unfinished) • two voices: active voice and passive voice

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• perfect tense is reduplicated. Examples: • stō, stāre, stetī, statum (to stand) • dō, dare, dedī, datum (to give, to bestow; this verb is irregular)

Latin conjugation
Verbs of this conjugation end in an –ere in the present active infinitive. There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used: • perfect tense has suffix –sī or –xī. Examples: • carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptum (to pluck, to select) • trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctum (to drag, to draw) • gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum (to wear, to bear) • flectō, flectere, flexī, flexum (to bend, to twist) • perfect tense is reduplicated with suffix –ī. Examples: • currō, currere, cucurrī, cursum (to run, to race) • caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesum (to kill, to slay) • tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctum (to touch, to hit) • pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsum (to beat, to drive away) • perfect tense has suffix -vī. Examples: • petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack) • linō, linere, līvī, lītum (to smear, to befoul) • serō, serere, sēvī, satum (to sow, to plant) • terō, terere, trīvī, trītum (to rub, to wear out) • sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātum (to spread, to stretch out) • perfect tense has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples: • agō, agere, ēgī, āctum (to do, to drive) • legō, legere, lēgī, lēctum (to collect, to read) • emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptum (to buy, to purchase) • vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum (to conquer, to master) • fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsum (to pour, to utter) • perfect tense has suffix –ī only. Examples: • īcō, īcere, īcī, īctum (to strike, to smite) • vertō, vertere, vertī, versum (to turn, to alter) • vīsō, visere, vīsī, vīsum (to visit) • perfect tense has suffix –uī. Examples: • metō, metere, messuī, messum (to reap, to harvest)

Second conjugation
The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns: • perfect tense has the suffix –uī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples: • terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus (to frighten, to deter) • doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus (to teach, to instruct) • teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus (to hold, to keep) • perfect tense has the suffix –vī. Examples: • dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētus (to destroy, to efface) • cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citum (to arouse, to stir) • perfect tense has the suffix –sī or –xī. Examples: • augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus (to increase, to enlarge) • iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus (to order, to bid) • perfect tense is reduplicated with –ī. Examples: • mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsum (to bite, to nip) • spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsum (to vow, to promise) • perfect tense has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples: • videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus (to see, to notice) • foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtus (to caress, to cherish) • perfect tense has suffix –ī and no perfect passive participle. Examples: • strīdeō, strīdere, strīdī (to hiss, to creak) • ferveō, fervēre, fervī (sometimes fervuī) (to boil, to seethe)

Third conjugation
The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between e, i, and u in different environments.

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Active voice Singular Present tense, etc. First person Second person Third person –ō, –m –s –t Singular Perfect tense First person Second person Third person • vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitum (to vomit) • colō, colere, coluī, cultum (to cultivate, to till) • texō, texere, texuī, textum (to weave, to plait) • gignō, gignere, genuī, genitum (to beget, to cause) • present tense stem has suffix –u. Examples: • minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtum (to lessen, to diminish) • ruō, ruere, ruī, rutum (to collapse, to hurl down) • struō, struere, strūxī, strūctum (to build, to erect) • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix with –scō. Examples: • nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum (to investigate, to learn) • adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī (to grow up, to mature) • flōrēscō, flōrēscere, flōruī (to begin to flourish, to blossom) • haerēscō, haerēscere, haesī, haesum (to adhere, to stick) • pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstum (to feed, to nourish) Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix –iō. –ī –istī –it Plural –mus –tis –nt Plural –imus –istis –ērunt (–ēre)

Latin conjugation
Passive voice Singular –or, –r –ris (–re) –tur Plural –mur –minī –ntur

Active voice

• perfect tense has suffix –vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples: • audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus, a, um (to hear, listen (to)) • muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus, a, um (to fortify, to build) • perfect tense has suffix –uī. Examples: • aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum (to open, to uncover) • perfect tense has suffix –sī or –xī. Examples: • saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptum (to surround, to enclose) • sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum (to confirm, to ratify) • sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsum (to feel, to perceive) • perfect tense has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples: • veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum (to come, to arrive)

Personal endings
Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect tenses use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice as these are formed by a participle and part of esse. The perfect tense uses its own personal endings in the active voice.

Fourth conjugation
The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the –īre ending of the present active infinitive. Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:

Tenses of the imperfective aspect
The tenses of the imperfective aspect are present tense, imperfect tense, and future tense. Verbs in one of these forms express an

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indicative mood, active voice, present tense portāre Singular Plural First Person portō Second Person Third Person portās portat portātis portant terrēre Singular Plural terrēs terret terrētis terrent portāmus terreō petere Singular Plural petis petit petitis petunt terrēmus petō

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audīmus audītis audiunt audīs audit petimus audiō

Indicative Passive Present portāre Singular Plural First person Second person Third person portor portāris portātur terrēre Singular Plural portāmur terreor portāminī terrēris portantur terrētur petere Singular Plural terrēmur petor terrēminī peteris terrentur petitur audīre Singular Plural audīmur audīminī audiuntur petimur audior petiminī audīris petuntur audītur

action that has (or had) not been completed. Consider for concreteness the following verbs: • the first conjugation verb portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum (to carry, to bring) • the second conjugation verb terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum (to frighten, to deter) • the third conjugation verb petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack) • the fourth conjugation verb audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear, to listen (to)) In all the conjugations except for the third conjugation, the –re is removed from the second principal part (for example, portāre without the suffix –re becomes portā–) to form the present stem, which is used for all of the tenses in the imperfective aspect. In the third conjugation, the –ō ending of the present indicative is dropped in order to form the present stem (for example, the present indicative form of regere is regō, and without the -ō it is the present stem, reg–).[1] Occasionally, the terminating vowel of the stem is lengthened and/or shortened, and sometimes completely changed. This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations.

happens in the current time. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. However, in this tense the thematical vowel, most notably the ě in the third conjugation, changes the most frequently.

Indicative mood
The indicative present expresses general truths, facts, demands and desires. Most commonly, a verb like portō can be translated as "I carry," "I do carry," or "I am carrying". In all but the third conjugation, the thematical vowel of the stem is only used. In the third conjugation, the e is only used in the second person singular in the passive for a less difficult pronunciation. Otherwise, it becomes either an i or u. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part. All end in –ō. Add the passive endings to form the passive voice. The passive portor can be translated as "I am carried," or "I am being carried". Notice that in the second person singular of petere, the thematic vowel is e (peteris, not petiris).

Subjunctive present
The subjunctive present may be used to assert many things. In general, in independent sentences, it is translated hortatorily (only in the third person plural), jussively and

Present tense
The present tense (Latin tempus praesēns) is used to show an uncompleted action that

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Subjunctive Active Present portāre Singular Plural First person Second person Third person portem portēs portet terrēre Singular Plural portēmus terream portētis portent terreās terreat petere Singular Plural terreāmus petam terreātis terreant petās petat

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audiāmus audiātis audiant petāmus audiam petātis petant audiās audiat

Subjunctive Passive Present portāre Singular Plural First person Second person Third person porter portēris portētur terrēre Singular Plural portēmur terrear petere Singular Plural terreāmur petar audīre Singular Plural audiāmur audiāminī petāmur audiar petāminī audiāris

portēminī terreāris terreāminī petāris portentur terreātur terreantur petātur

petantur audiātur audiantur

Imperative Active Present portāre Second person portā terrēre portāte terrē petere terrēte pete petite audīre audī audīte Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural

optatively. Portem can be translated as "Let me carry." or "May I carry." Portēmus can be "Let us carry". Some alterations have occurred in the vowels from the indicative and subjunctive. • The first conjugation now uses an e and an ē. • The second conjugation uses ea and eā. • In the third conjugation, all thematicals have become either a or ā. • The fourth conjugation now has either ia or iā. "We eat caviar" is a helpful mnemonic for remembering this. First conjugation verbs have an "e" in their stem (we), second conjugation verbs have an "-ea" (eat), third conjugation verbs have an "a" (caviar), and fourths have an "ia" (caviar). Other acceptable mnemonics include she reads a diary, he beats a liar, everybody eats apple iambics, or let’s steal a fiat. Like the indicative, active personal endings may be replaced by passive personal endings. Porter can be translated as "Let me be

carried" or "May I be carried." Hortatorily, Portēmur can be "Let us be carried".

Imperative present
The imperative in the present conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. Portā can be translated as "(You) Carry" or simply, "Carry". The imperative present occurs only in the second person. • The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending. The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used. Portāminī can be translated as "(You) Be carried" or "Be carried". • The singular uses the present active infinitive and the plural uses the present passive indicative form of the second person plural.

Imperfect tense
The imperfect tense (Latin tempus imperfectum) indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It is recognized by the

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Imperative Passive Present portāre Singular Plural Second person portāre terrēre Singular Plural portāminī terrēre petere Singular Plural terrēminī petere

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audīminī petiminī audīre

Indicative Active Imperfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural audīre Singular Plural

portābam portābāmus terrēbam terrēbāmus petēbam petēbāmus audiēbam audiēbāmus First person Second portābās portābātis person Third portābat person portābant terrēbās terrēbātis terrēbat terrēbant petēbās petēbat petēbātis petēbant audiēbās audiēbātis audiēbat audiēbant

Indicative Passive Imperfect portāre Singular portābar First person Plural terrēre Singular Plural portābāmur terrēbar petere Singular Plural terrēbāmur petēbar audīre Singular Plural audiēbāmur petēbāmur audiēbar

Second portābāris portābāminī terrēbāris terrēbāminī petēbāris petēbāminī audiēbāris audiēbāminī person Third portābātur portābantur terrēbātur terrēbantur petēbātur petēbantur audiēbātur audiēbantur person tense signs bǎ and bā in the indicative, and re and rē in the subjunctive. • Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. The third conjugation’s thematical remains short as an e, and the fourth conjugation does not use an iē before the imperfect signs. It keeps its ī. • In the subjunctive, the imperfect employs its tense signs re and rē before personal endings. • The verb esse (to be) has two subjunctive imperfects: one using the present infinitive (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and one using the future infinitive (forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent). As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. Portārer may be translated as "I should be carried," or "I would be carried."

Indicative imperfect
In the indicative mood, the imperfect simply express an action in the past that was not completed. Portābam can be translated to mean, "I was carrying," "I kept carrying," or "I used to carry". • In the indicative, the imperfect employs its tense signs ba and bā before personal endings are added. As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. Portābar can be translated as "I was being carried," "I kept being carried," or "I used to be carried".

Subjunctive imperfect
In the subjunctive, the imperfect tense is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. Portārem can mean, "I should carry," or "I would carry".

Future tense
The future tense (Latin tempus futūrum simplex) expresses an uncompleted action in the future. It is recognized by its tense signs bō,

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Subjunctive Active Imperfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audīrēmus audīrētis audīrent peterēmus audīrem peterētis peterent audīrēs audīret

portārem portārēmus terrērem terrērēmus peterem First person Second portārēs portārētis person Third portāret person portārent terrērēs terrēret terrērētis terrērent peterēs peteret

Subjunctive Passive Imperfect portāre Singular Plural portārer First person terrēre Singular Plural portārēmur terrērer petere Singular Plural terrērēmur peterer audīre Singular Plural audīrēmur peterēmur audīrer

Second portārēris portārēminī terrērēris terrērēminī peterēris peterēminī audīrēris audīrēminī person Third portārētur portārentur terrērētur terrērentur peterētur peterentur audīrētur audīrentur person Indicative Active Future portāre Singular Plural portābō First person Second portābis person portābit Third person terrēre Singular Plural portābimus terrēbō portābitis portābunt terrēbis terrēbit petere Singular Plural terrēbimus petam terrēbitis terrēbunt petēs petet audīre Singular Plural audiēmus audiētis audient petēmus audiam petētis petent audiēs audiet

bi, bu, e and ē in the indicative and the vowel ō in the imperative mood.

Notice that the penultimate vowel in the second person singular of portāre and terrēre is e, not i (portāberis and terrēberis, instead of the expected portābiris and terrēbiris).

Indicative future
The future tense always refers to an incomplete action. In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. Standing alone, portābō can mean, "I shall carry," or "I will carry." • The first and second conjugations use bō, bi and bu as signs for the future indicative. • The third and fourth conjugations replace their thematicals with a, ě and ē. The fourth conjugation inserts an ǐ before the a, e and ē. As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. Portābor translates as, "I shall be carried."

Imperative future
The so-called future imperative was an archaic and formal form of the imperative; by the classical period, it was chiefly used in legal documents and the like. A few irregular or defective verbs (esse ’be’, meminisse ’remember’) used this form as their only imperative. Portātō can be translated as "You shall carry". • As mentioned previously, the vowel ō is used as a sign of the future imperative. The letter R is used to designate the passive voice in the future imperative. The second

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indicative Passive Future portāre Singular Plural portābor First person terrēre Singular Plural portābimur terrēbor petere Singular Plural terrēbimur petar

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audiēmur audiēminī petēmur audiar petēminī audiēris

Second portāberis portābiminī terrēberis terrēbiminī petēris person Third portābitur portābuntur terrēbitur terrēbuntur petētur person Imperative Active Future portāre Singular Plural Second person Third person portātō portātō terrēre Singular Plural portātōte terrētō portantō terrētō petere terrētōte petitō terrentō petitō

petentur audiētur audientur

audīre petitōte audītō petuntō audītō audītōte audiuntō

Singular Plural Singular Plural

Imperative Passive Future portāre Singular Plural Second person Third person portātor portātor —— terrēre Singular Plural terrētor —— petere Singular Plural petitor —— audīre Singular Plural audītor —— audiuntor

portantor terrētor

terrentor petitor

petuntor audītor

person plural is absent here. Portātor translates as "You shall be carried."

Perfective aspect tenses
The tenses of the perfective aspect, which are the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses, are used to express actions that have been completed. The verbs used for explanation are: 1st Conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum — to carry, bring 2nd Conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum — to frighten, deter 3rd Conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum — to seek, attack 4th Conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to) For all conjugations, the –ī is removed from the third principal part. For example, from portāvī, portāv is formed. This is the perfect

stem, and it is used for all of the tenses in the perfective aspect. The perfective aspect verbs also use the perfect passive participle in the passive voice. See below to see how it is formed. Along with these participles, the verb esse, which means, "to be", is used. Unlike the imperfective aspect, inflection does not deviate from conjugation to conjugation.

Perfect tense
The perfect tense (Latin tempus perfectum) refers to an action completed in the past. Tense signs are only used in this tense with the indicative. The tense signs of the subjunctive are eri and erī.

Indicative perfect
The indicative perfect expresses a finished action in the past. If the action were not finished, but still lies in the past, one would use the imperfect tense. Portāvī is translated as "I carried," "I did carry," or "I have carried."

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Indicative Active Perfect portāre Singular Plural portāvī First Person terrēre Singular Plural portāvimus terruī terruistī petere Singular Plural terruimus petīvī terruistis petīvistī

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audīvimus petīvimus audīvī petīvistis

Second portāvistī portāvistis Person Third portāvit Person

audīvistī audīvistis audīvērunt

portāvērunt terruit

terruērunt petīvit

petīvērunt audīvit

Indicative Passive Perfect portāre Singular Plural First Person Second Person Third Person portātus portātī sum sumus portātus portātī es estis portātus portātī est sunt terrēre Singular Plural territus sum territus es territus est territī sumus territī estis territī sunt petere Singular Plural petītus sum petītus es petītus est petītī sumus petītī estis petītī sunt audīre Singular Plural audītus sum audītus es audītus est audītī sumus audītī estis audītī sunt

Subjunctive Active Perfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural audīre Singular Plural

portāverim portāverīmus terruerim terruerīmus petīverim petīverīmus audīverim audīverīmus First Person Second portāverīs portāverītis Person Third portāverit Person portāverint terruerīs terruerītis terruerit terruerint petīverīs petīverītis petīverit petīverint audīverīs audīverītis audīverit audīverint

• As aforementioned, the indicative perfect in the active voice has its special personal endings. In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with the auxiliary verb esse. It uses the indicative present form of esse. Portātus sum translates as "I was carried," or "I have been carried."

of esse. Portātus sim means, "I may have been carried."

Pluperfect tense
The pluperfect tense (Latin tempus plūs quam perfectum) expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. It is recognized by the tense signs era and erā in the indicative and isse and issē in the subjunctive.

Subjunctive perfect
Like the subjunctive imperfect, the subjunctive perfect is largely used in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is usually translated as the potential subjunctive. By itself, portāverim translates as "I may have carried." • The tense signs eri and erī are used before the personal endings are added. The passive voice uses the perfect passive participle with the subjunctive present forms

Indicative pluperfect
As with English, in Latin, the indicative pluperfect is used to assert an action that was completed before another (perfect tense). Portāveram translates as "I had carried." • The tense sign erā is employed before adding the personal endings, with the long ā following the usual rules for shortening before final -m, -t, and -nt.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Subjunctive Passive Perfect portāre Singular Plural First Person Second Person Third Person portātus portātī sim sīmus portātus portātī sīs sītis portātus portātī sit sint terrēre Singular Plural territus sim territus sīs territus sit territī sīmus territī sītis territī sint petere Singular Plural petītus sim petītus sīs petītus sit petītī sīmus petītī sītis petītī sint

Latin conjugation

audīre Singular Plural audītus sim audītus sīs audītus sit audītī sīmus audītī sītis audītī sint

Indicative Active Pluperfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural audīre Singular Plural

portāveram portāverāmus terrueram terruerāmus petīveram petīverāmus audīveram audīverām First Person Second portāverās portāverātis Person Third portāverat Person portāverant terruerās terrurerātis petīverās petīverātis terruerat terruerant petīverat petīverant

audīverās audīverāt audīverat

audīveran

Indicative Passive Pluperfect portāre Singular Plural First Person Second Person Third Person portātus eram portātus erās portātus erat portātī erāmus portātī erātis portātī erant terrēre Singular Plural territus eram territus erās territus erat territī erāmus territī erātis territī erant petere Singular Plural petītus eram petītus erās petītus erat petītī erāmus petītī erātis petītī erant audīre Singular Plural audītus eram audītus erās audītus erat audītī erāmus audītī erātis audītī erant

Subjunctive Active Pluperfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural audīre Singular

Plura

portāvissem portāvissēmus terruissem terruissēmus petīvissem petīvissēmus audīvissem audīv First Person Second portāvissēs portāvissētis Person Third portāvisset Person portāvissent terruissēs terruissētis terruisset terruissent petīvissēs petīvissētis petīvisset petīvissent

audīvissēs audīv audīvisset

audīv

In the passive voice, the present passive participle is utilized with esse in the indicative imperfect. Portātus eram is translated as "I had been carried."

Subjunctive pluperfect
The subjunctive pluperfect is to the subjunctive perfect as the subjunctive imperfect is to

the subjunctive present. Simply put, it is used with the subjunctive perfect in subordinate clauses. Like the subjunctive imperfect, it is translated conditionally independently. Portāvissem is translated as "I should have carried," or "I would have carried." • The tense signs isse and issē are used before the personal endings.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Subjunctive Passive Pluperfect portāre Singular First Person Second Person Third Person portātus essem portātus essēs portātus esset petere Singular First Person Second Person Third Person petītus essem petītus essēs petītus esset Plural petītī essēmus petītī essētis petītī essent Plural portātī essēmus portātī essētis portātī essent terrēre Singular territus essem territus essēs territus esset audīre Singular audītus essem audītus essēs audītus esset

Latin conjugation

Plural territī essēmus territī essētis territī essent Plural audītī essēmus audītī essētis audītī essent

Indicative Active Future Perfect portāre Singular Plural terrēre Singular Plural petere Singular Plural terruerimus petīverō audīre Singular Plural petīverimus audīverō audīverimus audīveris audīveritis audīverit audīverint

portāverō portāverimus terruerō First Person Second portāveris portāveritis Person Third portāverit portāverint Person

terrueris terrueritis terruerit terruerint

petīveris petīveritis petīverit petīverint

Indicative Passive Future Perfect portāre Singular Plural First Person Second Person Third Person portātus portātī erō erimus portātus portātī eris eritis portātus portātī erit erunt terrēre Singular Plural territus erō territus eris territus erit territī erimus territī eritis territī erunt petere Singular Plural petītus erō petītus eris petītus erit petītī erimus petītī eritis petītī erunt audīre Singular Plural audītus erō audītus eris audītus erit audītī erimus audītī eritis audītī erunt

As always, the passive voice uses the perfect passive participle. The subjunctive imperfect of esse is used here. Portātus essem may mean "I should have been carried," or "I could have been carried," in the conditional sense.

Indicative future perfect
As said, the future perfect is used to mention an action that will have been completed in futurity before another action. It is often used with the future tense. In simple translation, portāverō means, "I will have carried," or "I shall have carried." • The tense signs erō and eri are used before the personal endings. As with all perfective aspect tenses, the perfect passive participle is used in the passive voice. However, the future perfect uses the indicative future of esse as the auxiliary verb. Portātus erō is "I will have been carried," or "I shall have been carried."

Future perfect tense
The least used of all the tenses, the future perfect tense (Latin tempus futūrum exāctum) conveys an action that will have been completed before another action. It is signified by the tense signs erō and eri. The future perfect tense is the only tense that occurs in a single mood.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Participles portāre Present Active portāns, –antis Perfect Passive Future Active portātus, –a, –um portātūrus, –a, –um terrēre terrēns, –entis territus, –a, –um territūrus, –a, –um petere petēns, –entis petītus, –a, –um petītūrus, –a, –um

Latin conjugation

audīre audiēns, –entis audītus, –a, –um audītūrus, –a, –um

Non-finite forms
The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are: 1st Conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum — to carry, bring 2nd Conjugation: terreō, terrēre. terruī, territum — to frighten, deter 3rd Conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum — to seek, attack 4th Conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)

• The is declined like a first and second declension adjective. • In all conjugations the –um is removed from the supine, and an –ūrus (masculine nominative singular) is added. • Puer portātūrus translates into "boy about to carry," or "boy who is about to carry."

The infinitives
See also: Infinitive There are six infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active and future passive. • The is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusativus cum infinitivo, for instance. • Portāre means, "to carry." • The is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an –ī is added. • Portārī translates into "to be carried." • The is formed by adding an –isse onto the perfect stem. • Portāvisse translates into "to have carried." • The uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender. • Portātus esse means, "to have been carried." • The uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse. • Portātūrus esse means, "to be going to carry." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.

The participles
See also: Participle There are three participles: present active, perfect passive and future active. • The is declined like a third declension adjective with one ending. • In the first and second conjugations, the present active infinitive is formed by taking the present stem and adding an –ns. The genitive singular form adds an –ntis, and the thematicals ā and ē are shortened. • In the third conjugation, the e of the present stem is lengthened. In the genitive, the ē is short again. • In the fourth conjugation, the ī is shortened, and an ē is placed. Of course, this ē is short in the genitive. • Puer portāns translates into "carrying boy." • The is declined like a first and second declension adjective. • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by taking the –um from the supine, and adding a –us (masculine nominative singular). • Puer portātus translates into "carried boy."

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Here, masculine endings are used.

Latin conjugation

Infinitives portāre Present Active Present Passive Perfect Active Perfect Passive Future Active Future Passive portāre portārī portāvisse portātus esse portātūrus esse portātum īrī Supine portāre Accusative Ablative portātum portātū Gerund portāre Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Locative portandī portandō portandum portandō portandō terrēre terrendī terrendō terrendum terrendō terrendō petere petendī petendō petendum petendō petendō audīre audiendī audiendō audiendum audiendō audiendō terrēre territum territū petere petītum petītū audīre audītum audītū terrēre terrēre terrērī terruisse territus esse territūrus esse territum īrī petere petere petī petīvisse petītus esse petītūrus esse petītum īrī audīre audīre audīrī audīvisse audītus esse audītūrus esse audītum īrī

• Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore. • The uses the supine with the auxiliary verb īrī. • Portātum īrī is translated as "to be going to be carried." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: Omnēs senātōres dīxērunt templum conditum īrī. "All of the senators said that a temple would be built."

• The ablative, which ends in a –ū, is used with the Ablative of Specification. • Arma haec facillima portātū erant. — These arms were the easiest to carry.

The gerund
See also: Gerund The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the –ns becomes an –ndus, and the preceding ā or ē is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form portandī can mean "of carrying", the dative form portandō can mean "to carrying", the accusative form portandum can mean "carrying", and the ablative form portandō can mean "by carrying", "in respect to carrying", etc. One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the

The supine
See also: Supine The supine is the fourth principal part. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases. • The accusative form ends in a –um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show the purpose. Thus, it is only used with verbs like cedere, venīre, etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed. • Pater vēnit portātum līberōs suōs. — The father came to carry his children.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gerundive portāre portandus, –a, –um terrēre terrendus, –a, –um petere petendus, –a, –um Fut. Perf. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imp. Subj. Perf. Subj. Plup. Subj. portātūrus fuerō portātūrus sim portātūrus essem portātūrus fuerim portātūrus fuissem

Latin conjugation

audīre audiendus, –a, –um I will have been going to carry I may be going to carry I should be going to carry I may have been going to carry I should have been going to carry

gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[2]

The gerundive
See also: Gerundive The gerundive is the passive equivalent of the gerund, and much more common in Latin. It is a first and second declension adjective, and means, “(the verb) being done”. Often, the gerundive is used with an implicit esse, to show obligation. • Puer portandus “(the) Boy who should be carried.” • Oratio laudenda est means, “The speech has to be praised.” In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to name the agens of the obligation (dativus auctoris), like in Oratio nobis laudenda est meaning “The speech has to be praised by us” or “We have to praise the speech”.

Passive
The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am to be carried," "I was to be carried", etc., or as "I have to (must) be carried," "I had to be carried," etc. Conjugation Translation Pres. Ind. Imp. Ind. Fut. Ind. Perf. Ind. Plup. Ind. Fut. Perf. Ind. Pres. Subj. Imp. Subj. Perf. Subj. Plup. Subj. Pres. Inf. portandus sum portandus eram portandus erō I am to be carried I was to be carried I will deserve to be carried

Periphrastic conjugations
There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.

portandus fuī I was to be carried portandus fueram portandus fuerō portandus sim portandus essem portandus fuerim portandus fuissem portandus esse I had deserved to be carried I will have deserved to be carried I may deserve to be carried I should deserve to be carried I may have deserved to be carried I should have deserved to be carried To deserve to be carried

Active
The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to carry," "I was going to carry", etc. Conjugation Translation Pres. Ind. Imp. Ind. Fut. Ind. Perf. Ind. Plup. Ind. portātūrus sum portātūrus eram portātūrus erō portātūrus fuī portātūrus fueram I am going to carry I was going to carry I will be going to carry I have been going to carry I had been going to carry

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Perf. Inf. portandus fuisse To have deserved to be carried

Latin conjugation
3rd Conjugation: loquor, loquī, locūtus sum — to speak, say 4th Conjugation: orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise, spring up Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves, and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loquī, and there are no forms like loquō, loquis, loquit, etc. Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus semideponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example: audeō, audēre, ausus sum — to dare, venture Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, mīrārī changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and audeō changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Peculiarities within conjugation and non-finite forms
Irregular verbs
There are a few irregular verbs in Latin that are not grouped into a particular conjugation (such as esse and posse), or deviate slightly from a conjugation (such as ferre, īre, and dare). It consists of the following list and their compounds (such as conferre). Many irregular verbs lack a fourth principal part. sum, esse, fuī, futūrum — to be, exist possum, posse[1], potuī — to be able, can eō, īre, īvī / īī, ītum — to go volō, velle, voluī — to wish, want nōlō, nōlle, nōluī — to be unwilling, refuse mālō, mālle, māluī — to prefer ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum — to bear, endure fiō, fīerī, factus sum — to become, happen edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsum – to eat, waste dō, dare, dedī, datum — to give, bestow

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs
Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect tenses of ordinary passives are formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some example coming from all conjugations are: 1st Conjugation: mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum — to admire, wonder 2nd Conjugation: polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum — to promise, offer

Third conjugation –iō verbs
There is a rather prolific subset of important verbs within the third conjugation. They have an –iō present in the first principal part (–ior for deponents), and resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms. Otherwise, they are still conjugated as normal, third conjugation verbs. Thus, these verbs are called third conjugation –iō verbs or third conjugation i-stems. Some examples are: capiō, capere, cēpī, captum — to take, seize cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum — to desire, long for faciō, facere, fēcī, factum - to do, make

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Conjugation of āiō Indicative Present Singular First Person Second Person Third Person āiō aīs aīt Plural —— —— āiunt Indicative Imperfect Singular āiēbam āiēbās āiēbat Plural āiēbāmus āiēbātis āiēbant

Latin conjugation

Subjunctive Present Singular —— āias* āiat Plural —— —— āiant*

morior, morī[2], mortuus sum (dep.) — to die, decay patior, patī, passus sum (dep.) — to suffer, undergo rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum - to plunder, take up They resemble the fourth conjugation in the following instances. Indicative present (first person singular, third person plural) — capiō, capiunt, etc. Indicative imperfect — capiēbam, capiēbāmus, etc. Indicative future — capiam, capiēmus, etc. Subjunctive present — capiam, capiāmus, etc. Imperative future (third person plural) — capiuntō, etc. Present Active Participle — capiēns, –entis Gerund — capiendī, capiendum, etc. Gerundive — capiendus, –a, –um

the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are: ōdī, ōdisse — to hate meminī, meminisse — to remember coepī, coepisse — to have begun • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, only appear in certain occurrences. Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" or "Out with it" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person. The following are conjugated irregularly:

āiō — I affirm, state
Present Active Participle: — āiēns, –entis • Some sources do not list these parts.

inquam — I say fārī — to speak
Imperative - fare Present Active Participle — fāns, fantis Present Active Infinitive — fārī Present Passive Infinitive - farier Supine — (acc.) fātum, (abl.) fātū Gerund — (gen.) fandī, (dat. and abl.) fandō, no accusative Gerundive — fandus, –a, –um The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ōdī and the imperative cedo) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare, cedere).

Defective verbs
Defective verbs are verbs that are only conjugated in only some instances. • Some verbs are only conjugated in the perfective aspect’s tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect’s tenses’ meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ōdī means, "I hate." These defective verbs’ principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Conjugation of inquam Indicative Present Singular Plural First person Second person Third person inquam inquis inquit Indicative Future Singular Plural —— Indicative Perfect inquii[4] —— —— ——

Latin conjugation

Indicative Imperfect Plural —— —— —— ——

Singular Plural Singular

inquimus[3] —— —— inquiunt inquiēs inquiet

inquisti[5] —— —— inquit

inquiebat[3] ——

Conjugation of fārī Indicative Present for First Person Second —— Person Third fātur Person —— —— Indicative Future fābor —— —— —— —— Indicative Perfect fātus sum —— —— —— —— —— Indicative Pluperfect fātus eram —— —— —— —— —— Imperative Present —— fāre —— —— —— ——

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural

fantur fābitur

Impersonal verbs
Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "It storms"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are: pluit, pluere, pluvit — to rain (it rains) ningit, ningere, ninxit[4] — to snow (it snows) oportet, oportēre, oportuit — to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to) The third person forms of esse may also be seen as impersonal when seen from the perspective of English: Nox aestīva calida fuit. — It was a hot, summer night. Est eī quī terram colunt. — It is they who till the land.

present supine active infinitive iuvāre lavāre parere ruere secāre fruī morī[5] orīrī iūtum lautum partum rutum sectum fructum ortum

future active participle iuvātūrus lavātūrus paritūrus ruitūrus secātūrus fruitūrus oritūrus

mortuum moritūrus

Alternative verb forms
Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones): • The ending –ris in the passive voice may be –re as in: portābāris → portābāre • The ending –ērunt in the perfect tense may be –ēre as in: portāvērunt → portāvēre

Irregular future active participles
As stated, the future active participle is normally formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –ūrus. However, some deviations occur.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Four Conjugations, Indicative Mood 1st 2nd 3rd agō, agere, ēgī, actum

Latin conjugation

3rd (i-stem) capiō, capere, cēpī, captum Passive capior caperis capitur

4th

laudō, laudāre, terreō, terrēre, laudāvī, laudātum terruī, territum Active Present laudō 1st Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person laudās laudat laudor laudāris laudātur terrēo terrēs terret terreor terrēris terrētur Passive Active Passive

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum Active audiō audīs audit

Active Passive Active agō agis agit agor ageris agitur capiō capis capit

Passive audior

audīris (audīre

audītur

laudāmus laudāmur terrēmus terrēmur agimus agimur capimus capimur laudātis laudant laudāminī terrētis laudantur terrent terrēminī agitis terrentur agunt agiminī capitis capiminī

audīmus audīmu audītis

audīmin

aguntur capiunt capiuntur audiunt audiunt

Syncopated verb forms
Like most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances: • Perfect stems that end in a –v may be contracted when inflected. portāvisse → portāsse portāvistī → portāstī portāverant → portārant portāvisset → portāsset • The compounds of noscere (to learn) and movēre (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted. novistī → nostī novistis → nostis commoveram → commoram commoverās → commorās

Notes
^ The archaic uncontracted form potesse occurs frequently in Lucretius. ^ Form moriri, Ovid, Metamorphoses (poem) 14.215 [6] ^ Used by Cicero frequently. ^ Used personally by Lucretius (2.627): ningunt [7]

References
[1] Jenney, Charles; Roger Scudder and Eric C. Baade (1979). First Year Latin. Allyn and Bacon. pp. 123. ISBN 0205078591. [2] Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. pp. 111. [3] Horace. "1.3.66" (in Latin). Sermonum liber primus. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/horace/ serm1.shtml. [4] Catullus. "10.27" (in Latin). Poems of Catullus. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/ catullus.shtml. [5] Cicero. "2.259" (in Latin). De Oratore. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/cicero/ oratore2.shtml#64. • J.B. Greenough, G.L. Kittredge, A.A. Howard, and Benj. L. D’Ooge, ed (1903). Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar for Schools and College. Ginn and Company.

Summary of forms
The four conjugations in the indicative mood

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ • ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0001. • Bennett, Charles Edwin; (at Project • Gutenberg). New Latin Grammar. • http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/PG/Bennett/ • bennett.htm.

Latin conjugation
List of English words from Latin verb forms Romance copula William Whitaker’s Words Latin mnemonics

See also
• Grammatical conjugation • Latin declension

External links
• Verbix automatically conjugates verbs in Latin. • Latin Verb Synopsis Drill tests a user on his ability to conjugate verbs correctly.

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