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High school

High school
High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and also Australia) to describe an institution which provides all or part of secondary education. The term High School originated in Scotland Great Britain with the worlds oldest being the Royal High School (Edinburgh) in 1505 [1][2], and spread to the New World countries as the high prestige that the Scottish educational system had at the time led several countries to employ Scottish educators to develop their state education systems. The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, the English High School founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1821. The precise stage of schooling provided by a high school differs from country to country, and may vary within the same jurisdiction. In all of New Zealand and parts of Australia and Canada, high school is synonymous with secondary school, and encompasses the entire secondary stage of education. High school can also be the point in life for many students where they mature and develop a deeper sense of understanding about themselves and the people around them. Alternatively, some students will undergo this transitional stage later on in life when they enter college or university, although this is usually a continued progression that originates in high school.

Wetherby High School, a former secondary modern school in Wetherby, West Yorkshire to adopt the term ’High School’.

England and Wales
Despite originating the term "high school", it is not used widely in England or Wales (some secondary schools call themselves high schools). Secondary schools in the state sector in the UK generally cater to children between the ages of 11 and 16[3] Until 2009, education was compulsory only up until the age of 16, though many students continued to stay on at school/college until the age of 18. However, the Education and Skills Act 2008[4] dictates that children must now remain in secondary education until the age of 17, from 2013, moving to 18 from 2015[5]. The first to be affected by the changes will be

Medina High School, one of the five statemaintained high schools on the Isle of Wight. those children turning 11 in 2009. Most secondary schools have their own sixth forms for years 12 and 13 (ages 16 to 18), but in some areas students continue their education at a dedicated sixth form college. In the private sector pupils often transfer to the final stage of education at age 13. In the UK school years run from September 1st to August 31st. The term high school is used specifically in some counties as follows: • In Leicestershire, the label "high school" applies to a small group of middle schools, which accept pupils between the ages of 10 and 14, before moving on to their final stage of secondary education.


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• In Liverpool and its surrounding area secondary schools are named high schools (eg Broadgreen High School) • Most secondary schools in Manchester are named high schools (see list of secondary schools in Manchester) • In Herefordshire, many state secondary schools name themselves high schools. • In Kent and other English counties which still retain their grammar schools, their non-selective comprehensive schools are often called high schools. • The Isle of Wight retains a three-tier schooling system. Its five state-run ’High Schools’ are so named to differentiate them from secondary schools, which have a different age range. • In Northumberland and some areas in Suffolk, Somerset and Staffordshire there still exists a three-tier education system comprising of First, Middle and High school. High Schools within Northumberland and Suffolk cater to pupils from Year 9 to Sixth Form (ages 13 to 18). There is currently a fairly highprofile campaign within Northumberland to save the three-tier system as it has been proposed to abolish it and adopt the standard Primary and Secondary school system as in the rest of England.

High school

In India, high school is a grade of education which includes Standards IX to XII. Standards XI and XII are also called Senior Secondary School or Junior College. Some states refer to Standards IX and X as High School, while XI and XII are termed as Intermediate. Other states refer to VI, VII, VIII, IX and X (grades 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) as Secondary School and XI and XII (grades 11 and 12) as Senior Secondary School. Usually, students from ages 14 to 18 study in this section. These schools may be affiliated to national boards like CBSE or ICSE or various state boards.

Bagrut certificate from an Israeli high school period, from the 9th to the 12th grade, yet most pupils in Israel attend high school. High school prepares the pupil to the Bagrut examination, which is obligatory in order to continue to higher education institution and in order to be accepted for most jobs.

The Japanese word for a high school is kōtōgakkō (????; literally high school), or kōkō (??) in short. High school in Japan covers grades 10 through 12. Although it is not mandatory, some 99% of Japanese people attend high school. The third year of high school in Japan is allotted for students to prepare for college exams known as "juken" (???. Others may wish to settle for a job instead. High schools in Japan are referred to by MEXT as "upper secondary schools." However most English-language newspapers and sources use the term "high school". Many school boards also use "high school";

In Iran, coc

In Israel, high school or Tichon (intermediary school, in Hebrew) is a four-year school


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High school
one wants to start studies at a university. People who want to continue their education to obtain the full secondary education diploma, which would allow them to join a university, must upon completing the pagrindinė mokykla either enter a gymnasium (or a lyceum) or a vidurinė mokykla. Vidurinė mokykla is the most universal type of these institutions as it offers all levels of pre-college education, starting from elementary level up to the secondary level.

In Malaysia, primary students who would like to continue into Secondary (High) School are required to undergo the UPSR (Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah)/Primary School Evaluation exams in their final primary year (standard 6 - Age:12). In Malaysia, secondary schools have two levels PMR level:• Form 1 (Tingkatan 1) (Age: 13) • Form 2 (Tingkatan 2) (Age: 14) • Form 3 (Tingkatan 3)= (Age: 15) (=) this symbol means that PMR (Penilaian Menengah Rendah)/Lower Certificate of Education has to taken by students of this Form SPM level:• Form 4 (Tingkatan 4) (Age: 16) • Form 5 (Tingkatan 5)= (Age: 17) (=) this symbol means that SPM has to be taken by students of this Form. SPM (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia)/Malaysian Certificate of Education is the last and final examination before proceeding to matriculation or Form 6 (which STPM is taken, should they choose).

Japanese high school students wearing the seifuku for instance the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education uses "senior high school".

In Lithuanian education system, aukštoji mokykla, which a is literary translation of high school, actually refers to a college or a university but not an institution that provides secondary education. Therefore, universitetas (university) and kolegija (college) are both covered by the umbrella term aukštoji mokykla’. Secondary education is provided by institutions that are approved by the government for this type of education. There are three types of these institutions: • pagrindinė mokykla (the general school) covers ages 7 to 16 (grades 1 to 10) • gimnazija, licėjus (gymnasium, lyceum) covers ages 15 to 18 (grades 9 to 12) • vidurinė mokykla (secondary school) covers ages 7 to 18 (grades 1 to 12) Pagrindinė mokykla provides only incomplete secondary education as it is not sufficient if

New Zealand
The term ’High School’ is commonly used as a term for secondary school in New Zealand. ’College’ is another term often used in the North Island and for private schools and, unlike the United States, does not always refer to University. ’High School’ in New Zealand usually begins at Year 9, or, 3rd form, which is for ages 12-14, up to Year 13, or, 7th form, which is 17-18 years, though students can leave at the age of 16 (15 with an exemption). Pupils usually stay at ’High School’ for 5 years before going into University education or the workforce. The current and most common qualification system implemented throughout New


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Zealand secondary schools is currently NCEA (National Certificate of Educational Achievement). NCEA ’standards’ or tests/assignments begin usually in 5th form (NCEA Level 1) and continue through to NCEA Level 2 at 6th form and NCEA Level 3 at 7th form. Some assignments/tests are completed as early as 4th form depending on the school and individual students. At ’High School’ students in New Zealand are taught a range of subjects relevant to both education in general and NCEA specific also. In year 9 the compulsory subjects are Mathematics, English, P.E. (Physical Education) and Science, as well as optional classes such as Wood Work, Music and a choice of languages being mostly Maori, Spanish, French or Japanese depending on the geographic location of the school and availability of teachers able to teach the respective subjects. It is common for students in New Zealand to wear uniforms. Uniform styles vary widely between schools and are generally more casual compared to the more ’formal’ uniforms worn in Australian equivalent schools. It is common for Year 13 students of public schools to be allowed to wear ’Mufti’ or everyday clothing of their choice. Although many schools require students of all year levels to wear uniform with upper years often having a different one to the rest of the school.

High school
(e.g. St. Modan’s H.S.). Unofficially, school names are abbreviated in one of two ways: generally the school is dropped from the full name (Stirling High School->Stirling High, Wallace High School->Wallace High) but where the school name consists of two words, high school may be dropped in its entirety (St. Modan’s High School->St. Modan’s). Other high schools drop the "high school" entirely, and replace it with "academy" (Prestwick Academy was formerly called "Prestwick High School").

In Singapore, schooling for those in the age range of 13 to 16 takes place in a secondary school, in accordance with the British system in England and Wales. Certain schools are known as high schools such as the Dunman High School and Singapore American School. This suggests that the school follows a U.S. curriculum and syllabus in addition to British "O"-levels or incorporate core elements of U.S. education system, such as equal emphases in both the sciences and the arts, offering a variety of subject options. Due to the intensely competitive nature of the education system, graduates of top high schools, excluding the other public schools known as "secondary schools", students would have attained all the elements required for U.S. college admission as their counterparts in the States, as early as 16. In order to be admitted into a U.K. university, however, the students need to matriculate in a "junior college" for preparation for the university entrance exams known as "A-levels" and "S-levels" (for advanced placement in first year of university, applicable for Oxbridge entrants). These studies are extremely specialized and typically last 2 intense years, some completing it in three years, and is equivalent to academic work of a standard freshman or sophomore in a U.S. college. The most difficult academic routes are the Humanities program (offered to only 100 top scholars nationally destined for Ivy League and Oxbridge universities) and the triple science program (a pre-med track). The easiest routes are those offering Mathematics and Commerce subjects, as these produce a glut of distinctions and/or are unpopular due to perception of quality.


Balwearie High School in Kirkcaldy - an example of a High School in Scotland Secondary institutions are usually called high schools or academies in Scotland. School names are often officially abbreviated to H.S.


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High school

South Africa
In South Africa, high school begins at 8th Grade. Students study for five years, at the end of which they write what is known as "matric" The system used to be based on Higher or Standard grade. As of 2008; students must attain a pass in their Home Language, Additional Language, Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation to progress on to university. Officially the Senior Certificate is to be changed to the National Senior Certificate in 2008 and the system of higher and standard grade has been dropped. An alternative examination is possible in the Independent Examinations Board (IEB) exams. They are set up by a board, representing many private schools.

The secondary education in Taiwan includes junior high school, senior high school, vocational high school, military school and complete high school. The traditional secondary education institutions were established during the Japanese colonial era (1895-1945)." Today, they include many features from the United States. After six years in elementary school, the rules typically state that children must enter junior high school, or their parents may be fined. There are three grades in junior high. Children who achieve the third grade can choose to enter senior high school, vocational high school or complete high school. If children want to continue their formal education, they must sit for an exam. Generally speaking, the grade to enter high school and complete high school is highest, while it is lower to go on to vocational high school and military school. Senior high school has three grades. Graduates from senior high school often continue on to university. Vocational high school has three grades as well. Children who complete vocational high school can then enter a technological university. Complete high school is like that of American high schools, in that it has grades seven to grade twelve. There are also international schools such as Taipei American School (TAS), National Experimental High School (NEHS) and Taipei European School (TES). These schools offer grades from Kindergarten to grade 12. English is instructed for all courses. Since the curriculum concurs with the corresponding country’s curriculum, graduates from these international schools generally do not stay in Taiwan for their undergraduate degree.

South Korea
In South Korea, students from grades 10 through 12 attend high schools. A student may choose, however, the class he or she wishes to take for liberal arts. High schools in South Korea may also have subject specialty tracks. For example, students who have a talent for science, foreign language, physical activity, art, etc.. may choose to go to an academic science or foreign language and other specialty high school (Hangul:????????, Revised:Teuksu-Mokjeok Godeung Hakgyo)These high schools are often hard to get into, especially Science and foreign language, which creates competition to go to a good high school. Unlike most developed countries, high schools in South Korea are neither free nor compulsory. However, 97 per cent of Korean students do complete high school, according to a 2005 OECD study. Most Korean students may choose to go to common high school (Hangul:??? ????; Revised:Inmungye godeung hakgyo) ; and other students may choose a vocational track high school which emphasizes agriculture, commerce, or technical trade curricula (hangul:??? ????; Revised:’Jeonmungye godeung hakgyo) High schools are called ???? (Revised: Godeung Hakgyo, McCune-Reischauer: Kodŭng Hakkyo).

The present Government of Thailand has adopted a policy of bureaucratic reform so as to have in place an efficient administrative system with a lean structure. The new system is suitable to the prevailing situation and responsive to the needs for national economic and social development. Urgent measures have therefore been taken for enactment of the legislations for streamlining the different ministries and agencies to attune to global trends as well as the national economic and social changes. The recent bureaucratic


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reform focuses on obtaining a leaner organization and attaining higher efficiency. It allows greater participation of the people as well as the society. New budgeting techniques are availed of, serving as tools for moving forward the bureaucratic reform. The remuneration system which also includes salaries has been improved so as to attract professional civil servants of integrity who are entirely devoted to the common interest. Regarding the Ministry of Education, the 1999 National Education Act and its 2002 Amendment as well as the 2003 Act for Streamlining of Ministries and Governmental Agencies mandate the amalgamation of the 3 ministries and agency responsible for education, namely, Ministry of Education, Ministry of University Affairs, and Office of the National Education Commission into a single Ministry of Education with a new administrative structure.

High school
students from a junior high school that includes grades 7-9. Some states consider grades 7-12 to be secondary education, while others consider grades 6-12 to be secondary education. As a practical matter, while laws in most states mandate school attendance at least until graduation or age 16, many require attendance until age 17 or 18 (unless the student earns a diploma earlier, usually around age 16). Conversely, students who have failed a grade may remain in high school past the age of 18. In general, students over 19 attend remedial classes to receive a high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED) certificate. State laws vary on the cut-off age for students to receive free public education services. Many states have adult high schools for people generally 19 and over. Students can stay in high school past the age of 18 if it is deemed appropriate. They cannot stay past a certain age depending on the state. On average 71% of American students graduate from high school.[10][11][12][13] A high school diploma or GED certificate is usually required for entrance into a two or four-year college or university and to other post-secondary education programs. High schools can usually be sub-classed as general high schools, vocational high schools (VoTech schools), and college preparatory high schools (prep schools) and special high schools or alternative high schools. Most high schools are general high schools. These schools offer a wide range of educational opportunities intended for the widest range of students possible. These general population schools offer college preparatory classes for advanced students, general education classes for average students and remedial courses for those who are struggling. Students can "mix and match" course levels according to their own abilities or interests. In some school districts exceptionally high-performing students are offered enrollment at a district college preparatory high school. Traditionally "prep schools" in North America were usually private institutions, though most medium or large public (state) school districts now offer prep schools for advanced students. Public prep schools draw the top students from their district and have strict entrance requirements. All academic classes offered in these schools are classified

United States
In the United States a high school is an upper secondary school which educates children from grade nine through grade twelve[6], in other words, from the age of 14 or 15 to 17, 18, or 19. Prior to attending high school, many children in the United States attend a middle school or a junior high school (usually grades 5-8, 6-8, 6-9, 7-8, 7-9 or 8-9).[7][8] Individual states, counties, and school districts have considerable leeway in how they choose to divide their school levels. Students will generally graduate from high school in the year of their 18th birthday if they were born between January 1 and August 31, but this varies by state depending on the kindergarten cut-off date, which ranges from August 1 in Missouri to January 1 in Connecticut.[9] A few American schools still incorporate grades 7 through 12, but it is usually either grades 9-12 or grades 10-12 although some states split grades 9-10 and 11-12 into a high school and senior high school. For purposes of the Grade Point Average (GPA) and subject requirements used for college admission, grade 9 is usually considered the first year of high school regardless of whether the student is in the last year of a 7-9 junior high program, or the first year of a 9-12 high school program. While high school is generally defined as being grades 9-12, there are some senior high schools that cover only grades 10-12, and typically accept


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as honors, International Baccalaureate, or Advanced Placement. Vocational high schools offer hands-on training to students that prepares them for careers in fields such as information technology, marketing, business, engineering and the medical professions. While some graduates of vocational or career and technical education high schools will go directly into a trade, others will pursue post-secondary education. The Association for Career and Technical Education is the largest national education association dedicated to career and technical education. Special high schools are catered for students who have special educational needs, e.g. because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. Some special high schools are offered for students who have major disciplinary or mental health difficulties that make it problematic to educate them in traditional high school settings. Some special high schools are assigned as security risks, where the school houses students who are not yet old enough to legally leave school and are considered a danger to other students or teachers, but have not been convicted of a crime. Some special high schools are dedicated to students with drug or mental health difficulties and have medical and psychological staff on site. A few of these schools include a nursery and a child care staff so that teen parents can finish their education without having to find child care during the school day. Special high schools have their own campus, but sometimes are located in a section or wing of a general high school. Another recent form of high school that has emerged is the online high school. Stanford University’s own Education Program for Gifted Youth recently received a generous donation and used it to create the first truly complete online high school, with an interactive and advanced program for advanced learners. High School in the United States usually begins in late August or early September of each year, and ends in late May or early June. During the excess two and a half months, the students are given summer

High school
vacation to rest from the school year. In some cases schools use a year round schedule. • 9th Grade - Freshman Year • 10th Grade - Sophomore Year • 11th Grade - Junior Year • 12th Grade - Senior Year

See also
• • • • Secondary education Secondary school List of education articles by country List of schools by country

[1] James J. Trotter, The Royal High School, Edinburgh (London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1911), p. 186. [2] J. B. Barclay, The Tounis Scule: The Royal High School of Edinburgh (Edinburgh: Royal High School Club, 1974), p. 137. [3] Dictionary definition of secondary school from the Longman Online Dictionary [4] Education and Skills Act 2008 [5] Directgov News Article on the new Act [6] MSN Encarta Dictionary definition of high school [7] Definition of junior high school accessed August 17, 2007 [8] Definition of intermediate school accessed August 17, 2007 [9] Kindergarten cut-off dates [10] Government Education Dept. article on High school dropout rates [11] Manhattan Institute article on High school dropout rates [12] Manhattan Institute article on High school dropout rates / Value of GED certificate [13] United Health Foundation article on High school dropout rates

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_school" Categories: Adolescence, Educational stages, High schools and secondary schools, School terminology, School types, Youth


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High school

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