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									                                               Revised May 22, 2006



         ALABAMA
CAREER/TECHNICAL EDUCATION


 Definitions and Abbreviations



                  Joseph B. Morton
          State Superintendent of Education
       Alabama State Department of Education




          Sherry A. Key, Interim Director
            Career/Technical Education

         Alabama Department of Education
                P. O. Box 302101
         Montgomery, Alabama 36130-2101
              Phone (334) 242-9111
               Fax (334) 353-8861
                 www.alsde.edu
              www.alcareertech.org
                     Common Abbreviations
                    Career/Technical Education
AAAE      Alabama Association Agricultural Educators
AACTE     Alabama Association for Career and Technical Education
AAFCS     American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences
AATFACS   Alabama Association Teachers of Family and Consumer Sciences
ABA       Alabama Business Education Association
ABC       Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate
ACE       Advanced Cooperative Education
ACCESS    Alabama Connecting Classrooms, Educators, and Students Statewide
ACTA      Alabama Career Technical Administrators
ACTE      Association for Career and Technical Education
ADA       American Dietetic Association
ADDA      American Design Drafting Association
ADECA     Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs
ADM       Average Daily Membership
AGC       Associated General Contractors
AIFD      American Institute of Floral Designers
AHSD      Alabama High School Diploma
AHSGE     Alabama High School Graduation Exam
AIDT      Alabama Industrial Development Training
ALEX      Alabama Learning Exchange
AOD       Alabama Occupational Diploma
ASE       Automotive Service Excellence
AYES      Automotive Youth Educational Systems
B/ME      Business/Marketing Education
BIA       Brick Institute of America
BIC       Business/Industry Certification
CAR       Consolidated Annual Report
CAT-1     Computer Assessment Tutorial
CO-OP     Cooperative Education
CTE       Career/Technical Education
CTIP      Career/Technical Implementation Plan
CTSO      Career/Technical Student Organization
DECA      An Association of Marketing Students
DOT       Dictionary of Occupational Titles
ECEP      Early College Enrollment Program
EEOC      Equal Employment Opportunity Council
ELL       English Language Learners (replaces ESL-English as Second Language)
ES-2      Request for Federal Funds Form
FACS      Family and Consumer Sciences
FBLA      Future Business Leaders of America
FCCLA     Family, Career and Community Leaders of America
FCSEA     Family and Consumer Sciences Education Association
FERPA     Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
FFA       Alabama FFA Association

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GAERF       Graphic Arts Educational Research Foundation
GC          Graduation Certificate
HOSA        Health Occupations Students of America
HQT         Highly Qualified Teacher
HSTW        High Schools That Work
IC3         Internet and Computing Core Certification
IDEA        Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEP         Individual Education Program
ISO 9001    International Organization for Standardization
ISS         Information Systems Services
IT          Information Technology
JAG         Jobs for America’s (Alabama’s) Graduates
JLDC        Joint Leadership Development Conference
LEA         Local Education Agency
LEAPS       Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes
LEP         Limited English Proficiency
LMI         Labor Market Information
MEA         Marketing Education Association
NAAE        National Association Agricultural Educators
NATEF       National Automotive and Technician Education Foundation
NATFACS     National Association Teachers of Family and Consumer Sciences
NATIE       National Association of Trade and Industrial Education
NBEA        National Business Education Association
NCLB        No Child Left Behind
NIH         National Institutes of Health
NIMS        National Institute for Metal Working Skills
NOCTI       National Occupational Competency Testing Institute
NTI         New Teacher Institute
OCR         Office of Civil Rights
OSHA        Occupational Safety and Health Administration
SAE         Supervised Agricultural Experiences
SBE         State Board of Education
SBEA        Southern Business Education Association
SCANS       Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS Report)
SDE         Alabama State Department of Education
SkillsUSA   An Organization for Students in Technical, Skilled, and Service Careers
SLEAPS      Support Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes
SWD         Student with Disabilities
SWS         Structured Work Study
TSA         Technology Student Association
WBE         Work-Based Experiences
WIA         Workforce Investment Act
YESS        Youth Education Success System




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                                     Definitions
                             Career/Technical Education
Academy - See Career Academy.

ACCESS – See Online Distance Learning Courses.

Accommodations - Procedures and/or activities that are incorporated by the teacher for students
with disabilities to lessen the impact of their disability on the instructional process and student
achievement. When accommodations are made for students with disabilities, the content
standards are the same. Accommodations in secondary coursework may lead to the Alabama
High School Diploma or a certificate.

Accountability - The measurement of the educational effectiveness and efficiency of a program.

Adjusted Enrollment - An adjustment on the daily schedule enrollment category whereby a
student may be counted as two when modifications are required based on a student’s
Individualized Education Program (IEP).

Administrator’s Review (BIC) - An evaluation of all program components for which the CTE
administrator is responsible in the BIC process.

Administration - See Career/Technical Administration.

Administrator - See Career/Technical Administrator.

Adult Career/Technical Education Programs - Programs conducted by secondary schools for
adults, including out-of-school youth 16 or older. Such programs provide job preparation
training, job upgrade training, and related instruction for apprenticeship programs.

Advanced Career/Technical Endorsement - Recognition of the completion of advanced-level
core curriculum and CTE coursework consistent with guidelines established by the Alabama
State Department of Education (SDE) and local boards. Three credits earned in a CTE program
or two credits earned in a CTE occupational program plus the advanced cooperative education
work-based experience must be completed.

Advisory Committee - A group composed of members from business, industry, and the
community that provides assistance in creating or enhancing a career/technical education
program to meet the needs of students, society, and the business/industry in the community
according to the Advisory Committee Handbook. The teacher uses recommendations made by
the committee to design, develop, operate, assess, and support the career/technical education
program.

Advisory Council - Skilled and knowledgeable individuals at the state or system level organized
to advise on current jobs, societal needs, relevance of career/technical education (CTE) program
offerings in meeting these needs, consultative services in the development and approval of local
applications for state and federal funding, and other services.

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Agriscience Education Program - Agriscience Education is a comprehensive program
providing students appropriate classroom and laboratory instruction in plant and animal bio-
systems, agri-engineering, agri-commerce and communications, and environmental and natural
resources. Related, organized FFA activities are an integral component of the classroom and
laboratory instruction.

AHSGE (Alabama High School Graduation Exam) - The high-stakes required assessment
used to determine the level of mastery of the core skills in reading, English/language arts,
mathematics, science, and social studies.

Alabama Administrative Code (AAC) - A compilation of the rules of all the state agencies
covered by the Alabama Administrative Procedure Act.

Alabama High School Graduation Exam - See AHSGE.

Alabama Learning Exchange (ALEX) - Website (www.alex.state.al.us) for educators
providing lesson plans, instructional materials, and state courses of study.

Alabama Occupational Diploma (AOD) - High school diploma option for students with
disabilities as defined by IDEA legislation. This diploma is an exit document for students who
have a post-school goal of employment, not further education.

Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate - See Career/Technical Alternate Baccalaureate
Certificate.

Apprenticeship - A combination of on-the-job training and related instruction in which workers
learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation. Individual and joint
employers, labor groups, and/or employer associations can sponsor apprenticeship programs.

Aptitude Test - An assessment of mental and physical abilities based on performance of
designated tasks.

Area Career/Technical Center/School – See Career/Technical Center.

Articulated Credit - Secondary credit recognized by the Department of Postsecondary
Education for coursework completed by a career/technical education student preventing
duplication of coursework, providing students with a non-duplicative sequence of progressive
courses, promoting transition to postsecondary education, which can lead to degrees or
certificates in a postsecondary tech prep education program.

Articulation -
       Coursework - A systematic method that prevents duplication within sequences of
       courses between secondary schools and postsecondary institutions.
       Equipment - A written agreement that allows orientation and training on equipment
       shared by secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, and/or business and industry.



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Asset Number - An inventory number used by the school system to code equipment for
inventory purposes.

Broad Skill Sets - See Skill Sets.

Business/Industry Awareness - Activities that provide teachers with new knowledge on
content, equipment, or skills related to the career/technical education program resulting in
lessons taught to students.

Business/Industry Certification (BIC) - The validation that career/technical education
programs comply with and maintain quality standards as agreed upon by business and industry,
education professionals, and the Department.

Business/Marketing Education Program - Business/Marketing Education introduces students
to basic knowledge in finance, marketing, management and computer technology, and
information systems. The curriculum provides occupational competencies that enable
individuals to procure employment for which they are qualified, formulate and implement a
career plan that is responsive to personal and technological changes, and provide a solid
educational foundation for students who want to successfully complete college programs in
various business disciplines. Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda (FBLA-
PBL) and DECA-the Association for Marketing Students are co-curricular components of the
Business/Marketing Education Program.

Business Survey - An inquiry of local business/industry to assess employment needs,
opportunities for career/technical programming, employee skill sets, and equipment training
requirements.

Career Academy - Career academies combine key principles of the school-to-career movement
integrating academic and career/technical instruction, providing work-based learning
opportunities for students, and preparing students for postsecondary education and employment
within a personalized learning environment of a small, focused learning community. Teachers
and students integrate academic and career/technical classes as a way to enhance real-world
relevance and maintain high academic standards. Local employer partnerships provide program
planning guidance, mentors, and work internships.

Career Assessment - An interest inventory or an aptitude test.

Career Awareness Course - See Exploratory Course.

Career Clusters - Groups of several career majors generally viewed as having a common set of
foundation knowledge, skills, and attitudes related in practice.

Career Development - The continuous, lifelong progression of work-place readiness in relation
to one’s self-concept and growth in occupational knowledge and experience.

Career Development Coordinator - This position has responsibility in three areas: Student
Career Development, Professional Development and Training, and Communication. Student
Career Development includes career assessment, career portfolio planning, and student
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credentialing. Professional Development and Training includes a Counseling Advisory
Committee, liaison with the school system’s Tech Prep consortium, and participation in both
local and statewide articulation agreements. Communication includes participation in the
enhancement of the image of CTE; the image of guidance; and providing information to parents,
students, and educators on articulation agreements. The Career Development Coordinator
should have certification in the area of school counseling.

Career Education - A K-12 philosophy denoting an integrated approach for infusing career
awareness and exploration, planning, preparation, and placement through the school curriculum.
The goal is to help students find and maintain satisfactory roles in their chosen career paths.

Career Major - A grouping of occupations having a common core of knowledge, skills, and
attitudes among required tasks. (e.g., construction)

Career Objective - A student’s statement of interest toward seeking future employment in a
given occupation based on knowledge obtained from a career assessment, personal experiences,
exploration and discovery experiences, etc. The objective may require enrollment in a secondary
career/technical education class and/or additional postsecondary learning experience.

Career Pathway - A path a student selects in order to develop his/her plan of study for high
school that leads to postsecondary study and/or career entry.

Career/Technical Administration - The management of career/technical education programs
and supporting activities.

Career/Technical Administrator - The chief/assistant administrator responsible for the
management of career/technical education programs and supporting activities. See Subject and
Personnel Codes for in-field requirements.

Career/Technical Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate (ABC) - A teaching certificate
requested for an individual who holds a BS degree from a regionally accredited institution and
meets additional Department requirements as outlined in the Career/Technical ABC Summary.

Career/Technical Center -
    A specialized public secondary school used exclusively or principally for the provision of
      career/technical education to individuals in preparation for further education and/or
      employment.
    The department of a public secondary school exclusively or principally used for
      providing career/technical education to individuals in preparation for further education
      and/or employment.

Career/Technical Course - The combination of minimum requirements that must be taught as
identified in the approved Courses of Study: Career/Technical Education.

Career/Technical Diploma Endorsement - Recognition of the completion of core curriculum
and CTE coursework consistent with guidelines established by the SDE and local boards. Two
credits earned in a CTE program plus one additional CTE or academic course related to the
student’s career objective must be completed.
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Career/Technical Education Magnet School - A school based on a unifying theme or an
organizational structure designed for career/technical education students with different learning
styles and similar interests.

Career/Technical Education Program - An educational program that blends academic,
occupational, non-occupational, and life skills leading to further education and employment.
    Occupational – Secondary programs leading to success in specific career pathways.
    Non-Occupational – Middle level programs to include: Agriscience,
       Business/Marketing, Career Technologies, and Family and Consumer Sciences Family
       Life. High school programs to include: Family and Consumer Sciences Family Life and
       Career Technologies.

Career/Technical Implementation Plan (CTIP) - A component of the Individualized
Education Program (IEP) for the career/technical education student with a disability and who
needs accommodations and/or modifications in the career/technical education program.

Career/Technical Level Certificate - A career/technical teaching certificate awarded to
individuals who meet occupational standards and Department requirements for technical
education and health science endorsements.

Career/Technical Remedial Teacher - A teacher employed to help students meet the
requirements for career/technical education courses of study, integration of academic and
career/technical education skills, and remediation in the basic applied skills.

Career/Technical Student Organization (CTSO) - An organization that functions as an
integral part of the career/technical education instructional program with state and national
affiliation that provides support for skill attainment and leadership development. CTSOs
recognized in Alabama are: DECA-An Association for Marketing Students, FBLA-Future
Business Leaders of America, FCCLA-Family, Career and Community Leaders of America,
FFA-Agriscience Education, HOSA-Health Occupations Students of America, SkillsUSA-
Technical Education, TSA-Technology Student Association.

Career Technologies Program - Career Technologies is an application-oriented discipline
designed to allow students to explore various technologies. This exploration includes concepts,
practices, and careers associated with information technologies, physical technologies, and bio-
related technologies in a problem-solving approach integrating technical, academic, and work-
place knowledge skills that are essential in developing the human potential needed to compete in
a technological society. The Technology Student Association (TSA) provides co-curricular
educational experiences that enrich students' learning about technology.

Certification (BIC) - Obtaining or maintaining compliance with BIC standards.

Certifying Agency - Agency or organization approved by the Department to assess teacher
content knowledge and/or program quality that may lead to business/industry certification.

Clinical Experiences - Planned activities (non-paid) promoting the acquisition of knowledge by
providing opportunities for the application of theory through assignments in a health care setting
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such as a hospital, long-term care facility, clinic, community health agency, or other approved
health care provider as part of a health science program.

Co-curricular - Integrating CTSO activities and student-directed learning experiences into the
instructional program.

Community Cooperative Education Program - See Cooperative Education.

Competency-Based Instruction - An instructional approach in which (a) the content is based
upon significant tasks actually performed by workers on the job; (b) achievement is measured by
satisfactory student demonstration of effective and efficient performance of actual or simulated
job tasks; (c) instructional strategies are available to students for attaining necessary skills,
knowledge, and attitudes to perform occupational tasks; and (d) the level of performance and
conditions under which students are expected to perform are explained to them in advance of
instruction.

Completer - A concentrator earning one additional credit in a CTE or academic course related to
his/her career objective. See Related Other.

Compliance Review - An annual verification of certified programs documenting continued
compliance or non-compliance of BIC standards per individual program conducted by a Local
Education Agency (LEA) designated administrator.

Comprehensive LEA Monitoring - An on-site review that monitors all LEAs for compliance
with appropriate laws and regulations.

Comprehensive School Counseling Program - Integral part of the total educational program
that helps every student acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes in academic, career, and
personal/social development that promote academic achievement and meet developmental needs.

Concentrator - A student earning two credits in a CTE program. Courses with prerequisites
must be taken sequentially.

Connecting Experiences - Required experiences in all of the Family and Consumer Sciences
Career Connections programs/majors. These experiences provide various opportunities for
students to explore the world of work.

Consumables - Non-reusable items.

Continuous Improvement - The use of career/technical education resources to increase
program quality and student achievement.

Coop Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator.

Cooperative Education - A structured component of CTE that integrates classroom instruction
and learning with productive and progressive, supervised work-based experiences in fields
related to students’ career objectives or career clusters. Cooperative education can be delivered
as a full-time or combination/preparatory program. Cooperative Education (Coop) consists of
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two strands for participation—Advanced Cooperative Education (ACE) and Structured Work
Study (SWS). Both strands partner students with teachers and employers to provide students
with progressive school- and work-based experiences that integrate theory and application.

      Full-Time Cooperative Education Program - A program that has 30-50 cooperative
       education students, is staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes 100 percent of the
       workday to coordinated studies and/or work-based experiences supervision, and has a
       stand-alone business/industry certification review.
      Combination/Preparatory Cooperative Education Program -
           o Combination - A coop program that has 20-30 cooperative education students, is
              staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes part of the workday to coordinated
              studies and/or work-based experiences supervision, and has a business/industry
              certification review that has a stand-alone program review. Teacher may be
              performing other duties, i.e., part-time administrator, part-time teacher.
           o Preparatory - A coop program that has 20-30 cooperative education students, is
              staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes part of the workday to coordinated
              studies and/or work-based experiences supervision and teaching in the CTE
              program, and has a business/industry certification review that is a part of a total
              program review.
      Strands of Cooperative Education -
           o Advanced Cooperative Education (ACE) - A coop strand that requires students to
              have achieved concentrator status in an occupational program, identified a
              specific career objective, and work a minimum of 270 hours in a field related to
              their career objective during the eleventh and/or twelfth grades. Students must
              have successfully completed the coordinated studies course prior to or concurrent
              with the work-based experience. The completion of this strand:
                   Equals completer status.
                   Meets the CTE course requirement for the Alabama High School Diploma
                      with Advanced Career/Technical Endorsement.
           o Structured Work Study (SWS) - A coop strand that requires students to have
              earned one or more CTE credits in an occupational program, identified a career
              cluster and work a minimum of 270 hours in an area related to the career cluster.
              Students must have successfully completed the coordinated studies course prior to
              or concurrent with the work-based experience. Students participate in this strand
              during the twelfth grade only.

Cooperative Education Manual - Document containing guidelines and procedures for managing
cooperative education.

Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator - An individual who holds a Class B or higher
certificate in career/technical education, has taken the coursework ―Functions of Coordination‖
or ―Principles of Coordination,‖ and coordinates a program of study and practice that provides
legal employment for students with structured work-based experiences and school-based
instruction.

Coordinated Studies - A one-credit course (required for cooperative education students and
ideally taught by the Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator) that provides the students

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with the opportunity to evaluate an occupational or career plan, develop an employment plan,
and prepare a career/employment portfolio.
    Coordinated studies may not serve as a course for concentrator status.
    Coordinated studies may serve as the third course for completer status for non-
       cooperative education students.

Coordinated Studies Seminar - One full class period per week (taught by the Cooperative
Education coordinator) required for students to continue in the cooperative education work-based
experience after earning one credit in Coordinated Studies.

Coordination - The process of aligning administrative, organizational, and instructional
activities to accomplish program objectives.

Coordination Period - Time allotted in a cooperative education teacher-coordinator’s schedule
to engage in establishing work-site partnerships, job development and/or placement, and on-site
visitations. The daily schedule should reflect the coordination period as follows:
      Four-period day - (block schedule) two class periods per day of instruction, one period
         for coordination, and one period for planning.
      Six-period day - three class periods per day of instruction, one period for planning, and
         two periods for coordination.
      Seven-period day - four class periods per day of instruction, one period for planning, and
         two periods for coordination.

Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator or Special Populations
Coordinator.

Coordinator R-1 Report - A form submitted by every cooperative education coordinator to the
SDE that includes employment information for all students enrolled in cooperative education.
Reports are submitted on October 1 and March 1 each year.

Core Course - See Curriculum Core.

Core Indicators of Performance (State and Local Education Agency Performance) -
Negotiated performance indicators for federal to state and state to local agencies that enable
Career/Technical Education to benchmark and track system performance from year-to-year.

Counseling - See Comprehensive School Counseling Program.

Courses of Study: Career/Technical Education - State Board of Education approved outlines
describing the minimal instructional content of the career/technical education programs and
related courses.

Course Syllabus - The scope and sequence of content being taught in a course. See BIC
document for required components.

Credentialing - Process of validating an individual’s knowledge and skills.

Credentials - Documentation validating an individual’s knowledge and skills.
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CTSO - See Career/Technical Student Organization.

Curriculum Core - Content standards taught to all students in a separate course, online, or
integrated throughout each program, that represent the base of essential knowledge and skills to
all career/technical education program clusters.

Curriculum Innovations Unit - The Curriculum Innovations Unit focuses on curriculum
development, guidance and counseling, high school reform, Tech Prep, technical writing, and
special projects that develop and promulgate new and innovative career/technical initiatives.

Curriculum Plans - Plans of instruction.
    Occupational program – Plans contain a minimum of three one-credit occupational
      courses in a two year time period, syllabus, lesson plans, and career/technical student
      organization activities with all components as outlined in the Methods of Administration
      Manual for Career/Technical Education.
    Non-Occupational program - Plans contain a syllabus, lesson plans, and
      career/technical student organization activities with all components as outlined in the
      Methods of Administration Manual for Career/Technical Education.

Daily Schedule - A form completed by all career/technical faculty containing the teacher’s daily
schedule, course titles, course numbers, and enrollment data. Reports are submitted
electronically (http://schools.alsde.edu) to the SDE within one month of the beginning of each
term.

Data Source - The origin of demographic, socio-economic, program, and student achievement
statistics.

Diploma Endorsement - See Career/Technical Diploma or Advanced Career/Technical
Diploma Endorsement.

Disadvantaged Student - A student (other than students with disabilities) with academic or
economic deficiencies that require special services or assistance in order to succeed in
career/technical education programs.
     Academically Disadvantaged - One who lacks reading, writing, or mathematical skills
        or performs below grade level.
     Economically disadvantaged - One whose family income is at or below the national
        poverty level or whose parent(s) is receiving public assistance, or who himself/herself is
        institutionalized or under state guardianship.

Dual Enrollment - Concurrent enrollment in both secondary and postsecondary education for
the purpose of receiving credit. See Alabama Administrative Code, Chapter 290-3-1-.02.

Early College Enrollment Program (ECEP) - A pilot dual enrollment program designed to
enable qualifying high school juniors and seniors to earn credits applicable toward high school
graduation and career degree requirements.


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Economic Development - The process of creation, retention, or reinvestment of wealth in our
communities including the attraction of new or expanding industry, tourism, retiree attraction, or
retail and commercial development.

Embedded Credit - An alternative method for receiving academic credit for one credit of math
and/or science that may be applied to the requirements for the Alabama High School Diploma.
See Highly Qualified Teacher.

Employability Skills - See Workplace Readiness Skills.

English Language Learner - A student who has limited or no ability in speaking, reading,
writing, or understanding the English language, and whose native language is not English or who
lives in a family/community setting where the dominant language is not English.

Enrollment Data - Information needed to measure performance of programs. This data consists
of student demographics, academic and skill attainment, completion, and placement (follow-up).

Extended Contract - Time that a career/technical education teacher is employed by the LEA
beyond a 187-day contract.

Family and Consumer Sciences Education Program - Family and Consumer Sciences
Education includes two programs: Family Life and Career Connections. The family life
program is a non-occupational career/technical education program. This program empowers
individuals, strengthens families, and supports communities. The content areas of Art and
Design, Clothing, Family, Foods, Housing and Resource Management provide the knowledge
base for the program. The Career Connections program is an occupational career/technical
education program that prepares students for careers in family and consumer sciences. Interior
Design, Fashion Design, Early Childhood Education, Culinary Arts and Hospitality, Nutrition
and Dietetics, Teaching, Consumer Services, and Older Adults are the career majors addressed in
the program. Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), an integral
component of the program, provides opportunities for developing leadership skills and rendering
service to the community.

Feeder School – A school that permits students to attend designated career/technical centers.

Follow-Up Report - Documentation of program completion and successful transition to
postsecondary education or advanced training, employment, and/or military service.

Full-Time Work Experience - The average of 40 hours per week.

Gender Bias - Uninformed or unintentional inclination or preference toward one sex.

Guidance Plan - A developmental educational plan used to ensure that students’ academic,
social, emotional, and career/technical needs are addressed within their school environment.
This is a four-plus-two individualized student plan that provides a seamless transition from high
school to life after high school.



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Health Science Program - Health Science is an occupational career/technical program that
introduces concepts common to a variety of clinical disciplines and includes understanding of
professional behavior. Therapeutic Innovations, Dynamics of Diagnostics, Environmental
Health, and Data Link are the career majors included in the program. Development of leadership
skills is enhanced through student participation in Health Occupations Students of America
(HOSA).

High, Objective, Uniform State Standard of Evaluation (HOUSSE) - NCLB allows states to
develop an additional way for current teachers to demonstrate subject-matter competency and
meet highly qualified teacher requirements. Proof may consist of a combination of teaching
experience, professional development, and knowledge in the subject garnered over time in the
profession.

High Schools That Work - The largest and oldest of the Southern Regional Education Board’s
seven school-reform initiatives for high school and middle grades. The framework of goals and
key practices is established to raise student achievement.

Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) - A teacher who has met the criteria as outlined in the NCLB
Act of 2001. To be deemed highly qualified, teachers must have: 1) a bachelor’s degree, 2) full
state certification or licensure, and 3) proof that they know each subject they teach. Public
elementary and secondary school teachers who teach a core academic subject must be highly
qualified by 2005-2006. Core academic subjects include English, reading or language arts,
mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and
geography. (Title IX, Part A, Section 23 of NCLB Act of 2001)
     A person that has received certification through the National Board for Professional
        Standards is also considered highly qualified.
     Career/technical teachers who have certification in their program area where they teach
        are highly qualified. Teachers teaching embedded or substitute credit must hold a Class B
        or higher certificate in the area and be highly qualified in the embedded or substitute core
        subject area.

Individualized Education Program (IEP) - A formalized plan, mandated by state and federal
legislation, detailing the educational experiences and course offerings of each special needs
student.

Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team - A group who works together to ensure that
each student with a disability(s) has equal opportunity to access the full range of the education
agency's career/technical education programs, including occupationally specific courses of study,
cooperative education, and apprenticeship programs. A representative of career/technical
education must be included as a member of the IEP Team for those children with disabilities who
have been referred for, or are currently receiving career/technical education.

Information Technology - The study and use of a range of technologies (especially computer
systems, digital electronics, and telecommunications) to process, store, transmit, and retrieve
information.

Interest Inventory - A self-assessment tool that measures interest in a broad range of
occupations, work activities, leisure activities, and school subjects.
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Interim Certificate - A certificate issued by the SDE upon the request of the LEA for an
employed teacher for the time between completion of a teacher education program and July 1,
the issue date of a professional certificate.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - ISO is a globally recognized
certification for developing standards to assist organizations to implement and operate quality
management systems focused on program improvement and customer satisfaction.

Internship - Non-paid work experience.

Jobs for Alabama’s Graduates (JAG) Program - Jobs for Alabama’s Graduates is an affiliate
of Jobs for America’s Graduates and a program for serving at-risk youth to graduation and
employment leading to career advancement opportunities. The Jobs for America’s Graduates
model focuses on curriculum clusters in: basic academic competencies, career development
skills, job attainment skills, job survival skills, leadership and self-development competencies,
and personal skills competencies. The Alabama Career Association, a highly motivational
student organization, is an integral component of the curriculum.

Joint Leadership Development Conference (JLDC) - An annual event that provides
opportunities for students and advisors from career/technical and other student organizations to
network, develop leadership and teamwork skills, and learn strategies for personal and chapter
growth.

Labor Market Information – Occupational data available from the Alabama Department of
Industrial Relations.

LEA Data - Data that reports progress of each local education agency on specific objectives as
identified in the CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual Report.

Limited English Proficiency (LEP) - See English Language Learner.

Live Work (Paid or Non-Paid) - Work presented from outside the classroom (may be from
community sources, school-based projects, etc.) to be conducted by students that relates to the
knowledge and skills taught as part of a career/technical education program.

Local Education Agency's Comprehensive Plan - An annual plan for administration and
instruction to enable the LEA to provide the maximum education opportunity for each student
and professional development for each employee.

Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes (LEAPS) - A report completed
annually by the local school system for certified personnel that contains personal information,
daily schedules, and funding data.

Local Maintenance Funds - Local financial support for maintenance provided in an amount not
less than $300 per teacher, plus not less than $3 per student based upon enrollment. Alabama
Administrative Code 290-6-1-.08(1)(6). Funding will be provided to all career/technical teachers
based on the previous year’s program enrollment.
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Local Program Application and Accountability Plan - The funding application that is a part of
the LEA’s comprehensive plan addressing the administration and management of CTE programs.
The Department distributes federal funds based on this application and pursuant to the policies,
procedures, rules, and regulations of the State Board of Education.

Magnet Schools - See Career/Technical Education Magnet Schools.

Maintenance Funds - See Local Maintenance Funds.

Maintenance of Effort - A requirement that no local board shall be permitted to spend fewer
state dollars for career/technical education than it did during the 1994-95 school year. H.666
Accountability Plan, Section 8.c, page 19, Lines 6-1

Methods of Administration Manual - Document containing policies and procedures for
managing career/technical education programs.

Methods of Administration for Office of Civil Rights - Policies and procedures to ensure the
rights of individuals according to the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights.

Modifications - Changes made to course content. When course content is modified, the student
is not pursuing the required content standards for completion of CTE programs. In order for any
student (including a student with disabilities) to earn credit that can be applied toward obtaining
an Alabama High School Diploma, the content that is prescribed in the applicable Alabama
course of study must be taught. If the prescribed content is not taught, then credit may not be
given for this course toward the regular Alabama High School Diploma. Modifications can only
be made for students seeking certificates of attendance, not for students seeking diplomas.

Needs Assessment - A survey of employing agencies to determine the manpower/labor market
needs of the community. The findings of this survey are used to develop or update instructional
methods or program offerings.

Negotiated Level of Performance - Level of performance agreed upon between the U.S.
Department of Education and Alabama State Department of Education for state performance
expectations; and between the Department and local education agencies for local performance
expectations. State performance expectations are dependent upon local performance
expectations being met.

New Administrator Academy - Professional development activities provided to new
career/technical administrators to orient them to instructional leadership, administrative tasks,
and program responsibilities.

New Teacher Institute (NTI) - Professional development activities provided to new teachers to
meet requirements for a Career/Technical Education Certificate endorsed in technical education
or health science education, or a Career/Technical Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate. These
activities orient them to CTE teachers’ tasks and responsibilities.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) - A reauthorization of the Elementary and
Secondary Act (ESEA) of 1965. Four major pillars are: stronger accountability for results, more
freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and more choices for parents.

Non-Occupational Program - See Career/Technical Education Program.
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Nontraditional Program - A program in which individuals from one gender comprise less than
25 percent of the individuals employed in areas for which the program provides training.

Nontraditional Student - A student in a program that addresses an occupational area in which
the student’s gender group is less than 25 percent of individuals employed nationally in the
occupational area.

Observational Experiences - Required experience in the parent and child dynamics, parenting,
child development, human dynamics, and life dynamics courses in the family and consumer
sciences curriculum. These experiences include various observational experiences to provide
real-life experiences for students as they study the content of the course.

Occupation - An area of employment that encompasses two or more closely related tasks having
a common set of specialties in knowledge, skills, and attitudes with limited variations in work
elements, e.g., Financial Analyst.

Occupational Information - The valid and usable data about occupations, including duties,
prerequisites, working conditions, rewards offered, advancement pattern, existing and predicted
supply and demand for workers, and sources of further information.

Occupational Objective - See Career Objective.

Occupational Program - See Career/Technical Education Program.

OCR – See Methods of Administration for Office of Civil Rights.

One-Credit Course - A unit of measure for documenting a minimum of 140 clock hours of
instruction.

One-Half Credit Course - A unit of measure for documenting a minimum of 70 clock hours of
instruction.

Online/Distance Learning Courses - Courses delivered through web-based methodologies
consistent with guidelines established by the Department and the local education agency.

Other Educational Barriers (Formerly Academically Disadvantaged) - Part of data
collection where a student meets at least one of the following: scored below the 25th percentile
on a standardized achievement or aptitude test, secondary school grades are below 2.0 on a 4.0
scale (where a grade ―A‖ equals 4.0), fails to attain minimal academic competencies, potential
dropout from secondary school.

Participant - A student who has earned one credit in CTE but has not reached concentrator
status.

Perkins - The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998, which has as its
purpose to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary and
postsecondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs.

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Phase I - The original BIC review cycle, 1998-2003.

Phase II - The second BIC review cycle, 2004-2008.

Policy - Practices requiring local board of education approval prior to implementation.

Positive Placement - Placement of program completers in employment in-field or related field,
continuing education, or military service.

Postsecondary Education - Education beyond/after high school that includes enrollment and
participation at two- and four-year institutions, apprenticeship training, life-long learning
opportunities, and work requiring sustained certifications.

Praxis I Exam - A basic skills test for Applied Mathematics, Reading for Information, and
Writing. A precondition for obtaining Alabama teacher certification.

Praxis II Exam - A subject matter or content test provided by the Educational Testing Service.
Individuals seeking a Professional Teaching Certificate endorsed in Agriscience Education,
Business/Marketing Education, Family and Consumer Sciences Education, and Technology
Education must take this exam.

Prerequisite - A course that a student must complete in order to progress to the next course.

Preventive Maintenance - Written procedures to minimize equipment downtime.

Professional Development - The process of improving staff skills and competencies needed to
produce outstanding educational results for students. High-quality professional development
(NCLB) is the process of developing teacher competencies regarding rigorous and relevant
content, strategies, and organizational supports that ensure the preparation and career-long
development of teachers and others whose competence, expectations, and actions influence the
teaching and learning environment.

Professional Development Plan - A document that sets out in detail the professional
development framework, methods of delivery, and the learning outcomes for career/technical
education teachers and administrators. The plan is developed to align with federal legislation
and the Local Program Application and Accountability Plan and support state standards while
meeting the needs of career/technical education teachers and administrators to ultimately impact
the learning experiences provided for students.

Program Application - See Local Program Application and Accountability Plan.

Program Cluster - A group of related programs in a related field.

Program Completion - The process of becoming a career/technical education completer.

Program Evaluation - The analysis of curriculum, instructional activities and materials, and
instructional staff to determine if these and other essential components of the program are
meeting student, business, and industry needs.


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Program Improvement Plan - An annual assessment and evaluation of activities conducted to
determine levels of program performance. The plan must address the strategies for improvement
of programs.

Program Majors - A group of program-related career paths within a program cluster.

Program Major/Career Major - This is a group of career/technical education program-related
career paths in a program cluster.

Program of Study - Courses within a career cluster that prepare students for employment,
postsecondary, and that:
    Integrates academic and occupational learning, and school- and work-based learning, and
       establishes linkages between secondary schools and postsecondary institutions.
    Prepares the student for employment in a broad occupational cluster.
    Provides the students, to the extent practicable, with strong experience in and
       understanding of all aspects of the industry the student is planning to enter.
    Results in the award of a high school diploma or its equivalent; such as a General
       Educational Development (GED) or alternative diploma or certificate for students with
       disabilities for whom such alternative diploma or certificate is appropriate.
    Leads to further education and training, such as entry into a registered apprenticeship
       program, or may lead to admission to a two- or four-year college or university.

Program of Work - An organized list of tasks and objectives that includes time lines, activities,
responsibilities, and evaluations.

Program Related Careers - Careers related to a specific program cluster.

Project-Based Learning - A model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom
practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities
that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and
practices.

Quorum - Fifty-one percent or more of the members of an organization.

Reciprocal - The same teachers serving on each other’s BIC team.

Reimbursement/Funding - The funds received from state and federal sources to cover costs
(primarily teacher salaries) incurred in operating a career/technical program. The program must
be organized and conducted in accordance with the provisions of the State Plan approved by the
U.S. Department of Education.

Related Other - An earned third credit in CTE, advanced academics, or other courses,
depending on a student’s career pathway.

Report Card - A compilation of grades resulting from evaluations of performance.

Research-Based - Decisions based on evidence obtained from promising practices, data
analysis, printed/electronic resources, observations, experiential experiences, etc.
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Review Team (BIC) -
    Administrator Review - The business/industry team consisting of two business/industry
      persons with basic knowledge of the system’s career/technical education program.
    Program Review - The business/industry team consisting of two business/industry
      persons with experience directly related to the career/technical education program being
      reviewed, and one or more teachers familiar with the career/technical education program
      being reviewed.

Rotation Course - A short-term course offering content in one or more CTE program areas.

Safety Assessment - The means of determining that students can perform at a proficient level
(100%) regarding safety requirements of the career/technical program.

Safety Policy - A local board approved plan of action clearly outlining student and staff
responsibilities ensuring that policies and procedures are in place regarding potentially
dangerous or hazardous situations.

School Safety Plan - A written document based upon the Department School Safety Format that
encompasses all aspects of an individual school building, including the physical and emotional
safety of all students and staff. This is a part of the LEA comprehensive plan.

Scientifically Based Research -
     Research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective
        procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities
        and programs.
     Research that -
       o Employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment.
       o Involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypothesis and
           justify the general conclusions drawn.
       o Relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and valid data
           across evaluators and observers, across multiple measurements and observations, and
           across studies by the same or different investigators.
       o Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which individuals,
           entities, programs, or activities are assigned to different conditions and with
           appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of the condition of interest, with a
           preference for random-assignment experiments, or other designs to the extent that
           those designs contain within-condition or across-condition controls.
       o Ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail and clarity to allow
           for replication or, at a minimum, offer the opportunity to build systematically on their
           findings.
       o Has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent
           experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.

Secondary Career/Technical Education - Career/technical education for students in Grades 7-
12.


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Service Areas - Agriscience Education, Business/Marketing Education, Family and Consumer
Sciences Education, Technical Education, Career Technologies, and Health Science.

Service Area Data - Data that reports progress of groups of students on specific objectives as
identified in the Alabama CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual Report.
Program areas include Agriscience Education, Business/Marketing Education, Family and
Consumer Sciences Education, Technical Education, Career Technologies, and Health Science.

Single Parent - An individual who is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse, has a minor
child or children for which the parent has either custody or joint custody, or is pregnant.

Skill Sets - A broad base of skills that allows learners to add to or transfer knowledge in the
work environment.

Small Learning Community - A group of students within the larger high school that take
classes together for at least two years and are taught by a team of teachers from different
disciplines.

Special Needs Student - See Special Populations.

Special Populations - The term special populations means: a) individuals with disabilities; b)
individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children; c) preparing for
non-traditional training and employment; d) single parents, including single pregnant women; e)
displaced homemakers, and f) individuals with other barriers to educational achievement,
including individuals with limited English proficiency.

Special Populations Coordinator - An individual employed to assist local recipients of federal
funds under P.L. 101-392 to meet the criteria specified in that law to provide adequate services
and job-skill training for special populations.

Standards and Accountability Unit - The Standards and Accountability Unit supports the
improvement of career/technical education programs through review of applications and plans,
collection and reporting of data, and monitoring of activities that document the uses of state and
federal funds.

State Data - Data that reports the progress of career/technical education as a whole on specific
objectives as identified in the Alabama CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual
Report.

State Plan for Career/Technical Education - Accountability plan written by the State
Career/Technical Section and approved by the State Board of Education and the U.S.
Department of Education addressing requirements of federal legislation to ensure continued
career/technical funding.

State Teacher Allocation - State funds provided per teacher unit for instructional purposes.




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Strategic Plan - A plan that projects the future and anticipates trends and events relevant to the
future of career/technical education and determines the key initiatives that should be undertaken
to ensure effectiveness.

Student With Disabilities - Any individual who (a) has a physical or mental impairment that
substantially limits one or more major life activities; (b) has been evaluated under Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and determined to have a disability and is in need of
special education and related services; or (c) is considered disabled under section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

Substitute Credit - Credit awarded for satisfactory completion of a designated CTE course
containing academic content from the core curriculum. Approved coursework may be used in
place of required courses or an elective in math, science, fine arts, health education, or computer
applications.

Supplanting - The use of federal funds to provide services that were previously provided with
nonfederal funds.

Supplement ABC (Form C/T ABC 2004) - A required form completed by the employing
superintendent for individuals seeking an Alternative Baccalaureate-Level Certificate and
submitted directly to the Teacher Education and Certification Office. It documents the
employment history, education experience, assigned mentor, and subject and grade level to be
taught.

Supplementary Services - Assistance given by providing personnel or resources to strengthen
or modify instruction.

System Report Card – A compilation of grades resulting from evaluations of performance.

Task/Job Analysis - The process of critically examining all components of a job.

Teacher Certification - The teacher license issued by the Teacher Education Certification
Section of the SDE on the basis of educational attainment from approved teacher-training
institutions. (See Subject and Personnel Code Manual.)

Teacher-Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator.

Technical Education Program – The Technical Education Program introduces students to basic
knowledge in the areas of Logistics, Transportation, and Distribution; Manufacturing; Science
Engineering Technology; Arts and Communication Services; Construction; Human Services; and
Information Technology Services. These six areas are comprised of 36 occupational programs.
The curriculum is designed to provide students with the specialized skills, experiences and
technical knowledge necessary for further education and training at the postsecondary or
apprenticeship level and/or entry-level employment. SkillsUSA is the co-curricular component
of the Technical Education Program.




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Tech Prep - Combines at least two years of secondary education with at least two years of
postsecondary education in a non-duplicative, sequential course of study based on the
recommended career/technical education secondary programs.

Tech Prep Student - A student who is enrolled in a secondary career/technical education
program of study that has a formal agreement for articulation to a postsecondary program and is
located in a secondary school that is a member of a Tech Prep consortium.

Training Agreement - A written agreement of the commitment between the student,
parent/guardian, employer, cooperative education teacher-coordinator, and school administrator
that stipulates the essential responsibilities and conditions of student employment in a
cooperative education work-based experience.

Training Plan - A list of processes, knowledge, and skills that the student is expected to learn in
the work-based experience. The cooperative education teacher-coordinator and the workplace
mentor develop the training plan.

Transcript (Student) - An official document of evidence issued by a secondary or
postsecondary institution listing coursework and grades.

Transcript (Teacher Certification) - An official document of evidence issued by a regionally
accredited postsecondary institution listing coursework and grades.

Wage-Earning Experience - Experience as a wage earner in a technical enterprise in business
and industry that substantiates qualifications toward earning teacher certification through CTE
Levels or the ABC.

Work-Based Experience - A minimum of 270 continuous and successful hours of paid
employment (average of 15 hours per week) in the student’s occupational objective or cluster
performed in a licensed enterprise under the supervision of a workplace mentor and a
cooperative education teacher-coordinator. Summer hours are not included in the minimum
requirement.

Workforce Development - The act of preparing students with worker competencies leading to
employment. Career/technical education launches students from the classroom to the workplace
through experiences in occupational and academic preparation, technological fluency, and work
readiness.

Workplace Mentor - An individual employed at the training site who possesses the skills and
knowledge to be mastered by a student, and who guides, instructs, and critiques the student’s
performance in consultation with the cooperative education teacher-coordinator.

Workplace Readiness Skills - Core skills needed in the workforce such as: negotiation,
leadership, presentation, communication, conflict resolution, time management, team building,
problem solving, decision making, creative thinking, occupational content, etc.

Work Ready - A student who has acquired broad skill sets in the areas of technical, academic,
technological fluency, and workplace readiness.
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