"Alternative Teaching Certificate - DOC"
Revised May 22, 2006 ALABAMA CAREER/TECHNICAL EDUCATION Definitions and Abbreviations Joseph B. Morton State Superintendent of Education Alabama State Department of Education Sherry A. Key, Interim Director Career/Technical Education Alabama Department of Education P. O. Box 302101 Montgomery, Alabama 36130-2101 Phone (334) 242-9111 Fax (334) 353-8861 www.alsde.edu www.alcareertech.org Common Abbreviations Career/Technical Education AAAE Alabama Association Agricultural Educators AACTE Alabama Association for Career and Technical Education AAFCS American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences AATFACS Alabama Association Teachers of Family and Consumer Sciences ABA Alabama Business Education Association ABC Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate ACE Advanced Cooperative Education ACCESS Alabama Connecting Classrooms, Educators, and Students Statewide ACTA Alabama Career Technical Administrators ACTE Association for Career and Technical Education ADA American Dietetic Association ADDA American Design Drafting Association ADECA Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs ADM Average Daily Membership AGC Associated General Contractors AIFD American Institute of Floral Designers AHSD Alabama High School Diploma AHSGE Alabama High School Graduation Exam AIDT Alabama Industrial Development Training ALEX Alabama Learning Exchange AOD Alabama Occupational Diploma ASE Automotive Service Excellence AYES Automotive Youth Educational Systems B/ME Business/Marketing Education BIA Brick Institute of America BIC Business/Industry Certification CAR Consolidated Annual Report CAT-1 Computer Assessment Tutorial CO-OP Cooperative Education CTE Career/Technical Education CTIP Career/Technical Implementation Plan CTSO Career/Technical Student Organization DECA An Association of Marketing Students DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles ECEP Early College Enrollment Program EEOC Equal Employment Opportunity Council ELL English Language Learners (replaces ESL-English as Second Language) ES-2 Request for Federal Funds Form FACS Family and Consumer Sciences FBLA Future Business Leaders of America FCCLA Family, Career and Community Leaders of America FCSEA Family and Consumer Sciences Education Association FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act FFA Alabama FFA Association 2 GAERF Graphic Arts Educational Research Foundation GC Graduation Certificate HOSA Health Occupations Students of America HQT Highly Qualified Teacher HSTW High Schools That Work IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IEP Individual Education Program ISO 9001 International Organization for Standardization ISS Information Systems Services IT Information Technology JAG Jobs for America’s (Alabama’s) Graduates JLDC Joint Leadership Development Conference LEA Local Education Agency LEAPS Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes LEP Limited English Proficiency LMI Labor Market Information MEA Marketing Education Association NAAE National Association Agricultural Educators NATEF National Automotive and Technician Education Foundation NATFACS National Association Teachers of Family and Consumer Sciences NATIE National Association of Trade and Industrial Education NBEA National Business Education Association NCLB No Child Left Behind NIH National Institutes of Health NIMS National Institute for Metal Working Skills NOCTI National Occupational Competency Testing Institute NTI New Teacher Institute OCR Office of Civil Rights OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration SAE Supervised Agricultural Experiences SBE State Board of Education SBEA Southern Business Education Association SCANS Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS Report) SDE Alabama State Department of Education SkillsUSA An Organization for Students in Technical, Skilled, and Service Careers SLEAPS Support Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes SWD Student with Disabilities SWS Structured Work Study TSA Technology Student Association WBE Work-Based Experiences WIA Workforce Investment Act YESS Youth Education Success System 3 Definitions Career/Technical Education Academy - See Career Academy. ACCESS – See Online Distance Learning Courses. Accommodations - Procedures and/or activities that are incorporated by the teacher for students with disabilities to lessen the impact of their disability on the instructional process and student achievement. When accommodations are made for students with disabilities, the content standards are the same. Accommodations in secondary coursework may lead to the Alabama High School Diploma or a certificate. Accountability - The measurement of the educational effectiveness and efficiency of a program. Adjusted Enrollment - An adjustment on the daily schedule enrollment category whereby a student may be counted as two when modifications are required based on a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Administrator’s Review (BIC) - An evaluation of all program components for which the CTE administrator is responsible in the BIC process. Administration - See Career/Technical Administration. Administrator - See Career/Technical Administrator. Adult Career/Technical Education Programs - Programs conducted by secondary schools for adults, including out-of-school youth 16 or older. Such programs provide job preparation training, job upgrade training, and related instruction for apprenticeship programs. Advanced Career/Technical Endorsement - Recognition of the completion of advanced-level core curriculum and CTE coursework consistent with guidelines established by the Alabama State Department of Education (SDE) and local boards. Three credits earned in a CTE program or two credits earned in a CTE occupational program plus the advanced cooperative education work-based experience must be completed. Advisory Committee - A group composed of members from business, industry, and the community that provides assistance in creating or enhancing a career/technical education program to meet the needs of students, society, and the business/industry in the community according to the Advisory Committee Handbook. The teacher uses recommendations made by the committee to design, develop, operate, assess, and support the career/technical education program. Advisory Council - Skilled and knowledgeable individuals at the state or system level organized to advise on current jobs, societal needs, relevance of career/technical education (CTE) program offerings in meeting these needs, consultative services in the development and approval of local applications for state and federal funding, and other services. 4 Agriscience Education Program - Agriscience Education is a comprehensive program providing students appropriate classroom and laboratory instruction in plant and animal bio- systems, agri-engineering, agri-commerce and communications, and environmental and natural resources. Related, organized FFA activities are an integral component of the classroom and laboratory instruction. AHSGE (Alabama High School Graduation Exam) - The high-stakes required assessment used to determine the level of mastery of the core skills in reading, English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Alabama Administrative Code (AAC) - A compilation of the rules of all the state agencies covered by the Alabama Administrative Procedure Act. Alabama High School Graduation Exam - See AHSGE. Alabama Learning Exchange (ALEX) - Website (www.alex.state.al.us) for educators providing lesson plans, instructional materials, and state courses of study. Alabama Occupational Diploma (AOD) - High school diploma option for students with disabilities as defined by IDEA legislation. This diploma is an exit document for students who have a post-school goal of employment, not further education. Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate - See Career/Technical Alternate Baccalaureate Certificate. Apprenticeship - A combination of on-the-job training and related instruction in which workers learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation. Individual and joint employers, labor groups, and/or employer associations can sponsor apprenticeship programs. Aptitude Test - An assessment of mental and physical abilities based on performance of designated tasks. Area Career/Technical Center/School – See Career/Technical Center. Articulated Credit - Secondary credit recognized by the Department of Postsecondary Education for coursework completed by a career/technical education student preventing duplication of coursework, providing students with a non-duplicative sequence of progressive courses, promoting transition to postsecondary education, which can lead to degrees or certificates in a postsecondary tech prep education program. Articulation - Coursework - A systematic method that prevents duplication within sequences of courses between secondary schools and postsecondary institutions. Equipment - A written agreement that allows orientation and training on equipment shared by secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, and/or business and industry. 5 Asset Number - An inventory number used by the school system to code equipment for inventory purposes. Broad Skill Sets - See Skill Sets. Business/Industry Awareness - Activities that provide teachers with new knowledge on content, equipment, or skills related to the career/technical education program resulting in lessons taught to students. Business/Industry Certification (BIC) - The validation that career/technical education programs comply with and maintain quality standards as agreed upon by business and industry, education professionals, and the Department. Business/Marketing Education Program - Business/Marketing Education introduces students to basic knowledge in finance, marketing, management and computer technology, and information systems. The curriculum provides occupational competencies that enable individuals to procure employment for which they are qualified, formulate and implement a career plan that is responsive to personal and technological changes, and provide a solid educational foundation for students who want to successfully complete college programs in various business disciplines. Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda (FBLA- PBL) and DECA-the Association for Marketing Students are co-curricular components of the Business/Marketing Education Program. Business Survey - An inquiry of local business/industry to assess employment needs, opportunities for career/technical programming, employee skill sets, and equipment training requirements. Career Academy - Career academies combine key principles of the school-to-career movement integrating academic and career/technical instruction, providing work-based learning opportunities for students, and preparing students for postsecondary education and employment within a personalized learning environment of a small, focused learning community. Teachers and students integrate academic and career/technical classes as a way to enhance real-world relevance and maintain high academic standards. Local employer partnerships provide program planning guidance, mentors, and work internships. Career Assessment - An interest inventory or an aptitude test. Career Awareness Course - See Exploratory Course. Career Clusters - Groups of several career majors generally viewed as having a common set of foundation knowledge, skills, and attitudes related in practice. Career Development - The continuous, lifelong progression of work-place readiness in relation to one’s self-concept and growth in occupational knowledge and experience. Career Development Coordinator - This position has responsibility in three areas: Student Career Development, Professional Development and Training, and Communication. Student Career Development includes career assessment, career portfolio planning, and student 6 credentialing. Professional Development and Training includes a Counseling Advisory Committee, liaison with the school system’s Tech Prep consortium, and participation in both local and statewide articulation agreements. Communication includes participation in the enhancement of the image of CTE; the image of guidance; and providing information to parents, students, and educators on articulation agreements. The Career Development Coordinator should have certification in the area of school counseling. Career Education - A K-12 philosophy denoting an integrated approach for infusing career awareness and exploration, planning, preparation, and placement through the school curriculum. The goal is to help students find and maintain satisfactory roles in their chosen career paths. Career Major - A grouping of occupations having a common core of knowledge, skills, and attitudes among required tasks. (e.g., construction) Career Objective - A student’s statement of interest toward seeking future employment in a given occupation based on knowledge obtained from a career assessment, personal experiences, exploration and discovery experiences, etc. The objective may require enrollment in a secondary career/technical education class and/or additional postsecondary learning experience. Career Pathway - A path a student selects in order to develop his/her plan of study for high school that leads to postsecondary study and/or career entry. Career/Technical Administration - The management of career/technical education programs and supporting activities. Career/Technical Administrator - The chief/assistant administrator responsible for the management of career/technical education programs and supporting activities. See Subject and Personnel Codes for in-field requirements. Career/Technical Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate (ABC) - A teaching certificate requested for an individual who holds a BS degree from a regionally accredited institution and meets additional Department requirements as outlined in the Career/Technical ABC Summary. Career/Technical Center - A specialized public secondary school used exclusively or principally for the provision of career/technical education to individuals in preparation for further education and/or employment. The department of a public secondary school exclusively or principally used for providing career/technical education to individuals in preparation for further education and/or employment. Career/Technical Course - The combination of minimum requirements that must be taught as identified in the approved Courses of Study: Career/Technical Education. Career/Technical Diploma Endorsement - Recognition of the completion of core curriculum and CTE coursework consistent with guidelines established by the SDE and local boards. Two credits earned in a CTE program plus one additional CTE or academic course related to the student’s career objective must be completed. 7 Career/Technical Education Magnet School - A school based on a unifying theme or an organizational structure designed for career/technical education students with different learning styles and similar interests. Career/Technical Education Program - An educational program that blends academic, occupational, non-occupational, and life skills leading to further education and employment. Occupational – Secondary programs leading to success in specific career pathways. Non-Occupational – Middle level programs to include: Agriscience, Business/Marketing, Career Technologies, and Family and Consumer Sciences Family Life. High school programs to include: Family and Consumer Sciences Family Life and Career Technologies. Career/Technical Implementation Plan (CTIP) - A component of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) for the career/technical education student with a disability and who needs accommodations and/or modifications in the career/technical education program. Career/Technical Level Certificate - A career/technical teaching certificate awarded to individuals who meet occupational standards and Department requirements for technical education and health science endorsements. Career/Technical Remedial Teacher - A teacher employed to help students meet the requirements for career/technical education courses of study, integration of academic and career/technical education skills, and remediation in the basic applied skills. Career/Technical Student Organization (CTSO) - An organization that functions as an integral part of the career/technical education instructional program with state and national affiliation that provides support for skill attainment and leadership development. CTSOs recognized in Alabama are: DECA-An Association for Marketing Students, FBLA-Future Business Leaders of America, FCCLA-Family, Career and Community Leaders of America, FFA-Agriscience Education, HOSA-Health Occupations Students of America, SkillsUSA- Technical Education, TSA-Technology Student Association. Career Technologies Program - Career Technologies is an application-oriented discipline designed to allow students to explore various technologies. This exploration includes concepts, practices, and careers associated with information technologies, physical technologies, and bio- related technologies in a problem-solving approach integrating technical, academic, and work- place knowledge skills that are essential in developing the human potential needed to compete in a technological society. The Technology Student Association (TSA) provides co-curricular educational experiences that enrich students' learning about technology. Certification (BIC) - Obtaining or maintaining compliance with BIC standards. Certifying Agency - Agency or organization approved by the Department to assess teacher content knowledge and/or program quality that may lead to business/industry certification. Clinical Experiences - Planned activities (non-paid) promoting the acquisition of knowledge by providing opportunities for the application of theory through assignments in a health care setting 8 such as a hospital, long-term care facility, clinic, community health agency, or other approved health care provider as part of a health science program. Co-curricular - Integrating CTSO activities and student-directed learning experiences into the instructional program. Community Cooperative Education Program - See Cooperative Education. Competency-Based Instruction - An instructional approach in which (a) the content is based upon significant tasks actually performed by workers on the job; (b) achievement is measured by satisfactory student demonstration of effective and efficient performance of actual or simulated job tasks; (c) instructional strategies are available to students for attaining necessary skills, knowledge, and attitudes to perform occupational tasks; and (d) the level of performance and conditions under which students are expected to perform are explained to them in advance of instruction. Completer - A concentrator earning one additional credit in a CTE or academic course related to his/her career objective. See Related Other. Compliance Review - An annual verification of certified programs documenting continued compliance or non-compliance of BIC standards per individual program conducted by a Local Education Agency (LEA) designated administrator. Comprehensive LEA Monitoring - An on-site review that monitors all LEAs for compliance with appropriate laws and regulations. Comprehensive School Counseling Program - Integral part of the total educational program that helps every student acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes in academic, career, and personal/social development that promote academic achievement and meet developmental needs. Concentrator - A student earning two credits in a CTE program. Courses with prerequisites must be taken sequentially. Connecting Experiences - Required experiences in all of the Family and Consumer Sciences Career Connections programs/majors. These experiences provide various opportunities for students to explore the world of work. Consumables - Non-reusable items. Continuous Improvement - The use of career/technical education resources to increase program quality and student achievement. Coop Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator. Cooperative Education - A structured component of CTE that integrates classroom instruction and learning with productive and progressive, supervised work-based experiences in fields related to students’ career objectives or career clusters. Cooperative education can be delivered as a full-time or combination/preparatory program. Cooperative Education (Coop) consists of 9 two strands for participation—Advanced Cooperative Education (ACE) and Structured Work Study (SWS). Both strands partner students with teachers and employers to provide students with progressive school- and work-based experiences that integrate theory and application. Full-Time Cooperative Education Program - A program that has 30-50 cooperative education students, is staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes 100 percent of the workday to coordinated studies and/or work-based experiences supervision, and has a stand-alone business/industry certification review. Combination/Preparatory Cooperative Education Program - o Combination - A coop program that has 20-30 cooperative education students, is staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes part of the workday to coordinated studies and/or work-based experiences supervision, and has a business/industry certification review that has a stand-alone program review. Teacher may be performing other duties, i.e., part-time administrator, part-time teacher. o Preparatory - A coop program that has 20-30 cooperative education students, is staffed by a teacher/coordinator that devotes part of the workday to coordinated studies and/or work-based experiences supervision and teaching in the CTE program, and has a business/industry certification review that is a part of a total program review. Strands of Cooperative Education - o Advanced Cooperative Education (ACE) - A coop strand that requires students to have achieved concentrator status in an occupational program, identified a specific career objective, and work a minimum of 270 hours in a field related to their career objective during the eleventh and/or twelfth grades. Students must have successfully completed the coordinated studies course prior to or concurrent with the work-based experience. The completion of this strand: Equals completer status. Meets the CTE course requirement for the Alabama High School Diploma with Advanced Career/Technical Endorsement. o Structured Work Study (SWS) - A coop strand that requires students to have earned one or more CTE credits in an occupational program, identified a career cluster and work a minimum of 270 hours in an area related to the career cluster. Students must have successfully completed the coordinated studies course prior to or concurrent with the work-based experience. Students participate in this strand during the twelfth grade only. Cooperative Education Manual - Document containing guidelines and procedures for managing cooperative education. Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator - An individual who holds a Class B or higher certificate in career/technical education, has taken the coursework ―Functions of Coordination‖ or ―Principles of Coordination,‖ and coordinates a program of study and practice that provides legal employment for students with structured work-based experiences and school-based instruction. Coordinated Studies - A one-credit course (required for cooperative education students and ideally taught by the Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator) that provides the students 10 with the opportunity to evaluate an occupational or career plan, develop an employment plan, and prepare a career/employment portfolio. Coordinated studies may not serve as a course for concentrator status. Coordinated studies may serve as the third course for completer status for non- cooperative education students. Coordinated Studies Seminar - One full class period per week (taught by the Cooperative Education coordinator) required for students to continue in the cooperative education work-based experience after earning one credit in Coordinated Studies. Coordination - The process of aligning administrative, organizational, and instructional activities to accomplish program objectives. Coordination Period - Time allotted in a cooperative education teacher-coordinator’s schedule to engage in establishing work-site partnerships, job development and/or placement, and on-site visitations. The daily schedule should reflect the coordination period as follows: Four-period day - (block schedule) two class periods per day of instruction, one period for coordination, and one period for planning. Six-period day - three class periods per day of instruction, one period for planning, and two periods for coordination. Seven-period day - four class periods per day of instruction, one period for planning, and two periods for coordination. Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator or Special Populations Coordinator. Coordinator R-1 Report - A form submitted by every cooperative education coordinator to the SDE that includes employment information for all students enrolled in cooperative education. Reports are submitted on October 1 and March 1 each year. Core Course - See Curriculum Core. Core Indicators of Performance (State and Local Education Agency Performance) - Negotiated performance indicators for federal to state and state to local agencies that enable Career/Technical Education to benchmark and track system performance from year-to-year. Counseling - See Comprehensive School Counseling Program. Courses of Study: Career/Technical Education - State Board of Education approved outlines describing the minimal instructional content of the career/technical education programs and related courses. Course Syllabus - The scope and sequence of content being taught in a course. See BIC document for required components. Credentialing - Process of validating an individual’s knowledge and skills. Credentials - Documentation validating an individual’s knowledge and skills. 11 CTSO - See Career/Technical Student Organization. Curriculum Core - Content standards taught to all students in a separate course, online, or integrated throughout each program, that represent the base of essential knowledge and skills to all career/technical education program clusters. Curriculum Innovations Unit - The Curriculum Innovations Unit focuses on curriculum development, guidance and counseling, high school reform, Tech Prep, technical writing, and special projects that develop and promulgate new and innovative career/technical initiatives. Curriculum Plans - Plans of instruction. Occupational program – Plans contain a minimum of three one-credit occupational courses in a two year time period, syllabus, lesson plans, and career/technical student organization activities with all components as outlined in the Methods of Administration Manual for Career/Technical Education. Non-Occupational program - Plans contain a syllabus, lesson plans, and career/technical student organization activities with all components as outlined in the Methods of Administration Manual for Career/Technical Education. Daily Schedule - A form completed by all career/technical faculty containing the teacher’s daily schedule, course titles, course numbers, and enrollment data. Reports are submitted electronically (http://schools.alsde.edu) to the SDE within one month of the beginning of each term. Data Source - The origin of demographic, socio-economic, program, and student achievement statistics. Diploma Endorsement - See Career/Technical Diploma or Advanced Career/Technical Diploma Endorsement. Disadvantaged Student - A student (other than students with disabilities) with academic or economic deficiencies that require special services or assistance in order to succeed in career/technical education programs. Academically Disadvantaged - One who lacks reading, writing, or mathematical skills or performs below grade level. Economically disadvantaged - One whose family income is at or below the national poverty level or whose parent(s) is receiving public assistance, or who himself/herself is institutionalized or under state guardianship. Dual Enrollment - Concurrent enrollment in both secondary and postsecondary education for the purpose of receiving credit. See Alabama Administrative Code, Chapter 290-3-1-.02. Early College Enrollment Program (ECEP) - A pilot dual enrollment program designed to enable qualifying high school juniors and seniors to earn credits applicable toward high school graduation and career degree requirements. 12 Economic Development - The process of creation, retention, or reinvestment of wealth in our communities including the attraction of new or expanding industry, tourism, retiree attraction, or retail and commercial development. Embedded Credit - An alternative method for receiving academic credit for one credit of math and/or science that may be applied to the requirements for the Alabama High School Diploma. See Highly Qualified Teacher. Employability Skills - See Workplace Readiness Skills. English Language Learner - A student who has limited or no ability in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language, and whose native language is not English or who lives in a family/community setting where the dominant language is not English. Enrollment Data - Information needed to measure performance of programs. This data consists of student demographics, academic and skill attainment, completion, and placement (follow-up). Extended Contract - Time that a career/technical education teacher is employed by the LEA beyond a 187-day contract. Family and Consumer Sciences Education Program - Family and Consumer Sciences Education includes two programs: Family Life and Career Connections. The family life program is a non-occupational career/technical education program. This program empowers individuals, strengthens families, and supports communities. The content areas of Art and Design, Clothing, Family, Foods, Housing and Resource Management provide the knowledge base for the program. The Career Connections program is an occupational career/technical education program that prepares students for careers in family and consumer sciences. Interior Design, Fashion Design, Early Childhood Education, Culinary Arts and Hospitality, Nutrition and Dietetics, Teaching, Consumer Services, and Older Adults are the career majors addressed in the program. Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), an integral component of the program, provides opportunities for developing leadership skills and rendering service to the community. Feeder School – A school that permits students to attend designated career/technical centers. Follow-Up Report - Documentation of program completion and successful transition to postsecondary education or advanced training, employment, and/or military service. Full-Time Work Experience - The average of 40 hours per week. Gender Bias - Uninformed or unintentional inclination or preference toward one sex. Guidance Plan - A developmental educational plan used to ensure that students’ academic, social, emotional, and career/technical needs are addressed within their school environment. This is a four-plus-two individualized student plan that provides a seamless transition from high school to life after high school. 13 Health Science Program - Health Science is an occupational career/technical program that introduces concepts common to a variety of clinical disciplines and includes understanding of professional behavior. Therapeutic Innovations, Dynamics of Diagnostics, Environmental Health, and Data Link are the career majors included in the program. Development of leadership skills is enhanced through student participation in Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA). High, Objective, Uniform State Standard of Evaluation (HOUSSE) - NCLB allows states to develop an additional way for current teachers to demonstrate subject-matter competency and meet highly qualified teacher requirements. Proof may consist of a combination of teaching experience, professional development, and knowledge in the subject garnered over time in the profession. High Schools That Work - The largest and oldest of the Southern Regional Education Board’s seven school-reform initiatives for high school and middle grades. The framework of goals and key practices is established to raise student achievement. Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) - A teacher who has met the criteria as outlined in the NCLB Act of 2001. To be deemed highly qualified, teachers must have: 1) a bachelor’s degree, 2) full state certification or licensure, and 3) proof that they know each subject they teach. Public elementary and secondary school teachers who teach a core academic subject must be highly qualified by 2005-2006. Core academic subjects include English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography. (Title IX, Part A, Section 23 of NCLB Act of 2001) A person that has received certification through the National Board for Professional Standards is also considered highly qualified. Career/technical teachers who have certification in their program area where they teach are highly qualified. Teachers teaching embedded or substitute credit must hold a Class B or higher certificate in the area and be highly qualified in the embedded or substitute core subject area. Individualized Education Program (IEP) - A formalized plan, mandated by state and federal legislation, detailing the educational experiences and course offerings of each special needs student. Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team - A group who works together to ensure that each student with a disability(s) has equal opportunity to access the full range of the education agency's career/technical education programs, including occupationally specific courses of study, cooperative education, and apprenticeship programs. A representative of career/technical education must be included as a member of the IEP Team for those children with disabilities who have been referred for, or are currently receiving career/technical education. Information Technology - The study and use of a range of technologies (especially computer systems, digital electronics, and telecommunications) to process, store, transmit, and retrieve information. Interest Inventory - A self-assessment tool that measures interest in a broad range of occupations, work activities, leisure activities, and school subjects. 14 Interim Certificate - A certificate issued by the SDE upon the request of the LEA for an employed teacher for the time between completion of a teacher education program and July 1, the issue date of a professional certificate. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) - ISO is a globally recognized certification for developing standards to assist organizations to implement and operate quality management systems focused on program improvement and customer satisfaction. Internship - Non-paid work experience. Jobs for Alabama’s Graduates (JAG) Program - Jobs for Alabama’s Graduates is an affiliate of Jobs for America’s Graduates and a program for serving at-risk youth to graduation and employment leading to career advancement opportunities. The Jobs for America’s Graduates model focuses on curriculum clusters in: basic academic competencies, career development skills, job attainment skills, job survival skills, leadership and self-development competencies, and personal skills competencies. The Alabama Career Association, a highly motivational student organization, is an integral component of the curriculum. Joint Leadership Development Conference (JLDC) - An annual event that provides opportunities for students and advisors from career/technical and other student organizations to network, develop leadership and teamwork skills, and learn strategies for personal and chapter growth. Labor Market Information – Occupational data available from the Alabama Department of Industrial Relations. LEA Data - Data that reports progress of each local education agency on specific objectives as identified in the CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual Report. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) - See English Language Learner. Live Work (Paid or Non-Paid) - Work presented from outside the classroom (may be from community sources, school-based projects, etc.) to be conducted by students that relates to the knowledge and skills taught as part of a career/technical education program. Local Education Agency's Comprehensive Plan - An annual plan for administration and instruction to enable the LEA to provide the maximum education opportunity for each student and professional development for each employee. Local Education Agency Personnel and Subject Codes (LEAPS) - A report completed annually by the local school system for certified personnel that contains personal information, daily schedules, and funding data. Local Maintenance Funds - Local financial support for maintenance provided in an amount not less than $300 per teacher, plus not less than $3 per student based upon enrollment. Alabama Administrative Code 290-6-1-.08(1)(6). Funding will be provided to all career/technical teachers based on the previous year’s program enrollment. 15 Local Program Application and Accountability Plan - The funding application that is a part of the LEA’s comprehensive plan addressing the administration and management of CTE programs. The Department distributes federal funds based on this application and pursuant to the policies, procedures, rules, and regulations of the State Board of Education. Magnet Schools - See Career/Technical Education Magnet Schools. Maintenance Funds - See Local Maintenance Funds. Maintenance of Effort - A requirement that no local board shall be permitted to spend fewer state dollars for career/technical education than it did during the 1994-95 school year. H.666 Accountability Plan, Section 8.c, page 19, Lines 6-1 Methods of Administration Manual - Document containing policies and procedures for managing career/technical education programs. Methods of Administration for Office of Civil Rights - Policies and procedures to ensure the rights of individuals according to the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights. Modifications - Changes made to course content. When course content is modified, the student is not pursuing the required content standards for completion of CTE programs. In order for any student (including a student with disabilities) to earn credit that can be applied toward obtaining an Alabama High School Diploma, the content that is prescribed in the applicable Alabama course of study must be taught. If the prescribed content is not taught, then credit may not be given for this course toward the regular Alabama High School Diploma. Modifications can only be made for students seeking certificates of attendance, not for students seeking diplomas. Needs Assessment - A survey of employing agencies to determine the manpower/labor market needs of the community. The findings of this survey are used to develop or update instructional methods or program offerings. Negotiated Level of Performance - Level of performance agreed upon between the U.S. Department of Education and Alabama State Department of Education for state performance expectations; and between the Department and local education agencies for local performance expectations. State performance expectations are dependent upon local performance expectations being met. New Administrator Academy - Professional development activities provided to new career/technical administrators to orient them to instructional leadership, administrative tasks, and program responsibilities. New Teacher Institute (NTI) - Professional development activities provided to new teachers to meet requirements for a Career/Technical Education Certificate endorsed in technical education or health science education, or a Career/Technical Alternative Baccalaureate Certificate. These activities orient them to CTE teachers’ tasks and responsibilities. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) - A reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Act (ESEA) of 1965. Four major pillars are: stronger accountability for results, more freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and more choices for parents. Non-Occupational Program - See Career/Technical Education Program. 16 Nontraditional Program - A program in which individuals from one gender comprise less than 25 percent of the individuals employed in areas for which the program provides training. Nontraditional Student - A student in a program that addresses an occupational area in which the student’s gender group is less than 25 percent of individuals employed nationally in the occupational area. Observational Experiences - Required experience in the parent and child dynamics, parenting, child development, human dynamics, and life dynamics courses in the family and consumer sciences curriculum. These experiences include various observational experiences to provide real-life experiences for students as they study the content of the course. Occupation - An area of employment that encompasses two or more closely related tasks having a common set of specialties in knowledge, skills, and attitudes with limited variations in work elements, e.g., Financial Analyst. Occupational Information - The valid and usable data about occupations, including duties, prerequisites, working conditions, rewards offered, advancement pattern, existing and predicted supply and demand for workers, and sources of further information. Occupational Objective - See Career Objective. Occupational Program - See Career/Technical Education Program. OCR – See Methods of Administration for Office of Civil Rights. One-Credit Course - A unit of measure for documenting a minimum of 140 clock hours of instruction. One-Half Credit Course - A unit of measure for documenting a minimum of 70 clock hours of instruction. Online/Distance Learning Courses - Courses delivered through web-based methodologies consistent with guidelines established by the Department and the local education agency. Other Educational Barriers (Formerly Academically Disadvantaged) - Part of data collection where a student meets at least one of the following: scored below the 25th percentile on a standardized achievement or aptitude test, secondary school grades are below 2.0 on a 4.0 scale (where a grade ―A‖ equals 4.0), fails to attain minimal academic competencies, potential dropout from secondary school. Participant - A student who has earned one credit in CTE but has not reached concentrator status. Perkins - The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998, which has as its purpose to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary and postsecondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs. 17 Phase I - The original BIC review cycle, 1998-2003. Phase II - The second BIC review cycle, 2004-2008. Policy - Practices requiring local board of education approval prior to implementation. Positive Placement - Placement of program completers in employment in-field or related field, continuing education, or military service. Postsecondary Education - Education beyond/after high school that includes enrollment and participation at two- and four-year institutions, apprenticeship training, life-long learning opportunities, and work requiring sustained certifications. Praxis I Exam - A basic skills test for Applied Mathematics, Reading for Information, and Writing. A precondition for obtaining Alabama teacher certification. Praxis II Exam - A subject matter or content test provided by the Educational Testing Service. Individuals seeking a Professional Teaching Certificate endorsed in Agriscience Education, Business/Marketing Education, Family and Consumer Sciences Education, and Technology Education must take this exam. Prerequisite - A course that a student must complete in order to progress to the next course. Preventive Maintenance - Written procedures to minimize equipment downtime. Professional Development - The process of improving staff skills and competencies needed to produce outstanding educational results for students. High-quality professional development (NCLB) is the process of developing teacher competencies regarding rigorous and relevant content, strategies, and organizational supports that ensure the preparation and career-long development of teachers and others whose competence, expectations, and actions influence the teaching and learning environment. Professional Development Plan - A document that sets out in detail the professional development framework, methods of delivery, and the learning outcomes for career/technical education teachers and administrators. The plan is developed to align with federal legislation and the Local Program Application and Accountability Plan and support state standards while meeting the needs of career/technical education teachers and administrators to ultimately impact the learning experiences provided for students. Program Application - See Local Program Application and Accountability Plan. Program Cluster - A group of related programs in a related field. Program Completion - The process of becoming a career/technical education completer. Program Evaluation - The analysis of curriculum, instructional activities and materials, and instructional staff to determine if these and other essential components of the program are meeting student, business, and industry needs. 18 Program Improvement Plan - An annual assessment and evaluation of activities conducted to determine levels of program performance. The plan must address the strategies for improvement of programs. Program Majors - A group of program-related career paths within a program cluster. Program Major/Career Major - This is a group of career/technical education program-related career paths in a program cluster. Program of Study - Courses within a career cluster that prepare students for employment, postsecondary, and that: Integrates academic and occupational learning, and school- and work-based learning, and establishes linkages between secondary schools and postsecondary institutions. Prepares the student for employment in a broad occupational cluster. Provides the students, to the extent practicable, with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of the industry the student is planning to enter. Results in the award of a high school diploma or its equivalent; such as a General Educational Development (GED) or alternative diploma or certificate for students with disabilities for whom such alternative diploma or certificate is appropriate. Leads to further education and training, such as entry into a registered apprenticeship program, or may lead to admission to a two- or four-year college or university. Program of Work - An organized list of tasks and objectives that includes time lines, activities, responsibilities, and evaluations. Program Related Careers - Careers related to a specific program cluster. Project-Based Learning - A model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and practices. Quorum - Fifty-one percent or more of the members of an organization. Reciprocal - The same teachers serving on each other’s BIC team. Reimbursement/Funding - The funds received from state and federal sources to cover costs (primarily teacher salaries) incurred in operating a career/technical program. The program must be organized and conducted in accordance with the provisions of the State Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Education. Related Other - An earned third credit in CTE, advanced academics, or other courses, depending on a student’s career pathway. Report Card - A compilation of grades resulting from evaluations of performance. Research-Based - Decisions based on evidence obtained from promising practices, data analysis, printed/electronic resources, observations, experiential experiences, etc. 19 Review Team (BIC) - Administrator Review - The business/industry team consisting of two business/industry persons with basic knowledge of the system’s career/technical education program. Program Review - The business/industry team consisting of two business/industry persons with experience directly related to the career/technical education program being reviewed, and one or more teachers familiar with the career/technical education program being reviewed. Rotation Course - A short-term course offering content in one or more CTE program areas. Safety Assessment - The means of determining that students can perform at a proficient level (100%) regarding safety requirements of the career/technical program. Safety Policy - A local board approved plan of action clearly outlining student and staff responsibilities ensuring that policies and procedures are in place regarding potentially dangerous or hazardous situations. School Safety Plan - A written document based upon the Department School Safety Format that encompasses all aspects of an individual school building, including the physical and emotional safety of all students and staff. This is a part of the LEA comprehensive plan. Scientifically Based Research - Research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs. Research that - o Employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment. o Involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypothesis and justify the general conclusions drawn. o Relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and valid data across evaluators and observers, across multiple measurements and observations, and across studies by the same or different investigators. o Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which individuals, entities, programs, or activities are assigned to different conditions and with appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of the condition of interest, with a preference for random-assignment experiments, or other designs to the extent that those designs contain within-condition or across-condition controls. o Ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, offer the opportunity to build systematically on their findings. o Has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review. Secondary Career/Technical Education - Career/technical education for students in Grades 7- 12. 20 Service Areas - Agriscience Education, Business/Marketing Education, Family and Consumer Sciences Education, Technical Education, Career Technologies, and Health Science. Service Area Data - Data that reports progress of groups of students on specific objectives as identified in the Alabama CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual Report. Program areas include Agriscience Education, Business/Marketing Education, Family and Consumer Sciences Education, Technical Education, Career Technologies, and Health Science. Single Parent - An individual who is unmarried or legally separated from a spouse, has a minor child or children for which the parent has either custody or joint custody, or is pregnant. Skill Sets - A broad base of skills that allows learners to add to or transfer knowledge in the work environment. Small Learning Community - A group of students within the larger high school that take classes together for at least two years and are taught by a team of teachers from different disciplines. Special Needs Student - See Special Populations. Special Populations - The term special populations means: a) individuals with disabilities; b) individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children; c) preparing for non-traditional training and employment; d) single parents, including single pregnant women; e) displaced homemakers, and f) individuals with other barriers to educational achievement, including individuals with limited English proficiency. Special Populations Coordinator - An individual employed to assist local recipients of federal funds under P.L. 101-392 to meet the criteria specified in that law to provide adequate services and job-skill training for special populations. Standards and Accountability Unit - The Standards and Accountability Unit supports the improvement of career/technical education programs through review of applications and plans, collection and reporting of data, and monitoring of activities that document the uses of state and federal funds. State Data - Data that reports the progress of career/technical education as a whole on specific objectives as identified in the Alabama CTE Strategic Plan and documented in the CTE Annual Report. State Plan for Career/Technical Education - Accountability plan written by the State Career/Technical Section and approved by the State Board of Education and the U.S. Department of Education addressing requirements of federal legislation to ensure continued career/technical funding. State Teacher Allocation - State funds provided per teacher unit for instructional purposes. 21 Strategic Plan - A plan that projects the future and anticipates trends and events relevant to the future of career/technical education and determines the key initiatives that should be undertaken to ensure effectiveness. Student With Disabilities - Any individual who (a) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (b) has been evaluated under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and determined to have a disability and is in need of special education and related services; or (c) is considered disabled under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Substitute Credit - Credit awarded for satisfactory completion of a designated CTE course containing academic content from the core curriculum. Approved coursework may be used in place of required courses or an elective in math, science, fine arts, health education, or computer applications. Supplanting - The use of federal funds to provide services that were previously provided with nonfederal funds. Supplement ABC (Form C/T ABC 2004) - A required form completed by the employing superintendent for individuals seeking an Alternative Baccalaureate-Level Certificate and submitted directly to the Teacher Education and Certification Office. It documents the employment history, education experience, assigned mentor, and subject and grade level to be taught. Supplementary Services - Assistance given by providing personnel or resources to strengthen or modify instruction. System Report Card – A compilation of grades resulting from evaluations of performance. Task/Job Analysis - The process of critically examining all components of a job. Teacher Certification - The teacher license issued by the Teacher Education Certification Section of the SDE on the basis of educational attainment from approved teacher-training institutions. (See Subject and Personnel Code Manual.) Teacher-Coordinator - See Cooperative Education Teacher-Coordinator. Technical Education Program – The Technical Education Program introduces students to basic knowledge in the areas of Logistics, Transportation, and Distribution; Manufacturing; Science Engineering Technology; Arts and Communication Services; Construction; Human Services; and Information Technology Services. These six areas are comprised of 36 occupational programs. The curriculum is designed to provide students with the specialized skills, experiences and technical knowledge necessary for further education and training at the postsecondary or apprenticeship level and/or entry-level employment. SkillsUSA is the co-curricular component of the Technical Education Program. 22 Tech Prep - Combines at least two years of secondary education with at least two years of postsecondary education in a non-duplicative, sequential course of study based on the recommended career/technical education secondary programs. Tech Prep Student - A student who is enrolled in a secondary career/technical education program of study that has a formal agreement for articulation to a postsecondary program and is located in a secondary school that is a member of a Tech Prep consortium. Training Agreement - A written agreement of the commitment between the student, parent/guardian, employer, cooperative education teacher-coordinator, and school administrator that stipulates the essential responsibilities and conditions of student employment in a cooperative education work-based experience. Training Plan - A list of processes, knowledge, and skills that the student is expected to learn in the work-based experience. The cooperative education teacher-coordinator and the workplace mentor develop the training plan. Transcript (Student) - An official document of evidence issued by a secondary or postsecondary institution listing coursework and grades. Transcript (Teacher Certification) - An official document of evidence issued by a regionally accredited postsecondary institution listing coursework and grades. Wage-Earning Experience - Experience as a wage earner in a technical enterprise in business and industry that substantiates qualifications toward earning teacher certification through CTE Levels or the ABC. Work-Based Experience - A minimum of 270 continuous and successful hours of paid employment (average of 15 hours per week) in the student’s occupational objective or cluster performed in a licensed enterprise under the supervision of a workplace mentor and a cooperative education teacher-coordinator. Summer hours are not included in the minimum requirement. Workforce Development - The act of preparing students with worker competencies leading to employment. Career/technical education launches students from the classroom to the workplace through experiences in occupational and academic preparation, technological fluency, and work readiness. Workplace Mentor - An individual employed at the training site who possesses the skills and knowledge to be mastered by a student, and who guides, instructs, and critiques the student’s performance in consultation with the cooperative education teacher-coordinator. Workplace Readiness Skills - Core skills needed in the workforce such as: negotiation, leadership, presentation, communication, conflict resolution, time management, team building, problem solving, decision making, creative thinking, occupational content, etc. Work Ready - A student who has acquired broad skill sets in the areas of technical, academic, technological fluency, and workplace readiness. 23