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Romanian grammar

Romanian grammar
Romanian (technically called Daco-Romanian) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, MeglenoRomanian, and Istro-Romanian. As a Romance language, Romanian shares many characteristics with its more distant relatives: Italian, French, Spanish, etc. However, many linguists seem to agree that Romanian has preserved many features of Latin grammar, which could be explained by a host of arguments such as: relative isolation in the Balkans, possible pre-existence of identical grammatical structures in the Dacian or other substratum (as opposed to the Germanic and Celtic substrata that the other Romance languages developed in contact with), and existence of similar elements in the neighboring languages. Examples of Latin grammar elements that survived in Romanian while having disappeared from other Romance languages include: the retention of the neutral gender in nouns (albeit Romanian neuter is simply a combination of masculine and feminine) and the morphological case differentiation in nouns, reduced however to only three forms (nominative/accusative, genitive/dative, and vocative). Many writings on Romanian grammar, in particular most of those published by the Romanian Academy (Academia Română), are prescriptive; the rules regarding plural formation, verb conjugation, word spelling and meanings, etc. are revised periodically to include new tendencies in the language. [1] [2]
[3] [4] [5] [6]

Nouns
Gender
Romanian nouns are categorized into three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter, a feature preserved from Latin. Nouns which in their dictionary form (singular, nominative, with no article) end in a consonant or in vowel/semivowel u are mostly masculine or neuter; if they end in ă or a they are usually feminine. In the plural, ending i corresponds

generally to masculine nouns, whereas feminine and neuter nouns often end in e. As there are many exceptions to these rules, each noun has to be learned together with its gender. Examples: • Masculine: om (man, human being), bou (ox), copac (tree); • Neuter: drum (road), cadou (present, gift), exemplu (example); • Feminine: bunică (grandmother), carte (book), cafea (coffee). For nouns designating people and animals the grammatical gender can only be masculine or feminine, and is strictly determined by the biological sex, no matter the phonetics of the noun. For example nouns like tată (father) and popă (priest) are masculine as they refer to male people, although phonetically they are similar to a large category of feminine nouns. For native speakers the general rule for determining a noun’s gender relies on the "one-two" test, which consists in inflecting the noun to both the singular and the plural, together with the numbers one and two. Depending on the gender, the numbers will have different forms for each of the three genders, as illustrated below. • Masculine: un om, doi oameni (one human being, two human beings), un iepure, doi iepuri (one rabbit, two rabbits). In this case both un and doi are in their masculine forms. • Feminine: o fată, două fete (one girl, two girls), o pasăre, două păsări (one bird, two birds). In this case both o and două are in their feminine forms. • Neuter: un corp, două corpuri (one body, two bodies), un sertar, două sertare (one drawer, two drawers). In this case un is in its masculine form while două is in its feminine form. This is the only case in which the two numbers have different genders. Note: Romanian numbers generally have a single form regardless of the gender of the determined noun. Exceptions are the numbers un/o (one) doi/două (two) and all the numbers made up of two or more digits when

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the last digit is 1 or 2; these have masculine and feminine forms. Unlike languages such as Russian, in Romanian there is no neutral form for numbers, adjectives or other noun determiners.

Romanian grammar
names designating people form the genitivedative by placing the article lui before the noun: lui Brâncuşi (of/to Brancusi); the same applies to feminine names only when they don’t have a typically feminine ending: lui Carmen. In usual genitival phrases such as numele trandafirului (the name of the rose), the genitive is only recognized by the specific ending (-lui in this example) and no other words are necessary. However, in other situations, usually if the noun modified by the genitive attribute is indefinite, the genitival article is required, as for example in câteva opere ale scriitorului (some of the writer’s works). Romanian dative phrases exhibit clitic doubling similar to that in Spanish, in which the noun in the dative is doubled by a pronoun. The position of this pronoun in the sentence depends on the mood and tense of the verb. For example, in the sentence Le dau un cadou părinţilor (I give a present to [my] parents), the pronoun le doubles the noun părinţilor without bringing any additional information. As specified above, the vocative case in Romanian has a special form for most nouns, but for convenience reasons the form of the nominative is often employed. The traditional vocative is retained in speech, however, in informal speech, or by people living in the countryside. It is seen as a mark of unrefined speech by the majority of city-dwellers, who refrain from its usage. The forms of the vocative are as follows. (Note that the vocative does not have both definite and indefinite forms, as it is not used with any specific function within sentences. The following rules are to be applied for the indefinite form of the nouns): • Singular feminine nouns and proper names ending in an unstressed take the ending -o e.g. fată → fato (girl!) some
popular plurals are different, though: Maria → Mărie! (Mary!)

Number
Romanian has two numbers: singular and plural. Morphologically the plural form is built by adding specific endings to the singular form. For example, nominative nouns without the definite article form the plural by adding one of the endings -i, -uri, -e, or -le. The plural formation mechanism, often involving other changes in the word structure, is an intrinsic property of each noun and has to be learned together with it. Examples: • : pom - pomi (tree), cal - cai (horse), tată taţi (father), barcă - bărci (boat); • : tren - trenuri (train), treabă - treburi (job, task), cort - corturi (tent); • : pai - paie (straw), masă - mese (table, meal), teatru - teatre (theater); • : stea - stele (star), cafea - cafele (coffee), pijama - pijamale (pajama)

Case
Romanian has inherited from Latin five cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative. Morphologically the nominative and the accusative are identical; similarly the genitive and the dative share the same form. The vocative is less used as it is normally restricted to nouns designating people or things we can address directly; additionally, nouns in the vocative often borrow the nominative form even when there is a distinct vocative form available. The genitive-dative form can be derived from the nominative. If the noun is determined by an indefinite article then the genitivedative mark is applied to the article, not to the noun, for example un băiat - unui băiat (a boy - of/to a boy); for feminine nouns the form used in the singular is most often identical to the plural, for example o carte unei cărţi - două cărţi (a book - of/to a book two books). Similarly, if the noun is determined by the definite article (enclitic in Romanian, see that section), the genitive-dative mark is added at the end of the noun together with the article, for example băiatul - băiatului (the boy - of/to the boy), cartea - cărţii (the book - of/to the book). Masculine proper

• Singular feminine nouns ending in an unstressed take the ending -eo e.g. punte → punteo! (bridge!) although sometimes the e
is dropped altogether

• Singular feminine nouns ending in a stressed take the ending -auo e.g. nuia → nuiauo! (stick!) • Singular masculine and neuter nouns ending in a consonant take the ending e.g. băiat → băiatule! (boy!) the vocative for

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Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Lat. illum → Rom. -lu → -l, -le Lat. illui → Rom. -lui Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Lat. unum → Rom. un Lat. unius → Rom. unui Plural Lat. ne scio → Rom. nişte Lat. unorum → Rom. unor Plural Lat. illi → Rom. -l’i → -i Lat. illorum → Rom. -lor Feminine Singular

Romanian grammar

Plural Lat. illae → Rom. -le Lat. illorum → Rom. -lor

Lat. illa → Rom. -euă → -eau → -a Lat. illaei → Rom. -ei Feminine Singular Lat. unam → Rom. o Lat. unae → Rom. unei

Plural Lat. ne scio → Rom. nişte Lat. unorum → Rom. unor

animate nouns is sometimes formed as if the noun were a proper name: băiat → băiete! (see below)

loc - locul (place - the place); • Feminine nouns (singular, nominative/ accusative): casă - casa (house - the house); floare - floarea (flower - the flower); cutie - cutia (box - the box); stea - steaua (star - the star);

• Singular masculine and neuter nouns ending in unstressed take no extra ending (-Ø) e.g. frate → frate! (brother!) • Masculine proper names take the ending e.g. Ştefan → Ştefane! (Stephen!) some
words also experience some change in their vowels (Ion → Ioane! John!)

• All plural nouns take the ending e.g. mere → merelor! (apples!)

Articles
Definite article
An often cited peculiarity of Romanian is that it is the only Romance language where definite articles are attached to the end of the noun as enclitics (as in Bulgarian, Macedonian, Albanian, and North Germanic languages) instead of in front. They are believed to have been formed, as in other Romance languages, from Latin demonstrative pronouns. The table below shows the generally accepted etymology of the Romanian definite article. Examples: • Masculine nouns (singular, nominative/ accusative): codru - codrul (forest - the forest); pom - pomul (tree - the tree); frate - fratele (brother - the brother); tată - tatăl (father - the father). • Neuter nouns (singular, nominative/ accusative): teatru - teatrul (theater - the theater);

Indefinite article
The Romanian indefinite article, unlike the definite article, is placed before the noun, and has likewise derived from Latin: Nouns in the vocative case cannot be determined by an indefinite article. Examples of indefinite article usage: • Masculine: • nominative/accusative: singular un copil (a child) - plural nişte copii ([some] children); • genitive/dative: singular unui copil (of/ to a child) - plural unor copii (of/to [some] children); • Neuter: • nominative/accusative: singular un loc (a place) - plural nişte locuri ([some] places); • genitive/dative: singular unui loc (of/to a place) - plural unor locuri (of/to [some] places); • Feminine: • nominative/accusative: singular o masă (a table) - plural nişte mese ([some] tables); • genitive/dative: singular unei mese (of/ to a table) - plural unor mese (of/to [some] tables);

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Masculine Singular Plural al ai ale Neuter

Romanian grammar
Feminine a

Article appended to adjectives
When a noun is determined by an adjective, the normal word order is noun + adjective, and the article (definite or indefinite) is appended to the noun. However, the word order adjective + noun is also possible (and mostly used for emphasis on the adjective), in which pattern the article and any case marker that may be present is applied to the adjective instead. Examples follow. • Noun + adjective (normal order): un student bun (a good student); studentul bun (the good student); unui student bun (to a good student); studentului bun (to the good student). • Adjective + noun (reversed order): un bun student (a good student); bunul student (the good student); unui bun student (to a good student); bunului student (to the good student).

so they can only fulfill the syntactical functions of attribute and adjectival complement, which in Romanian is called nume predicativ (nominal predicative)

Endings and Flexionary Forms
Singular Masculine Feminine frumos frumoasă Plural frumoşi frumoase

The number of different forms an adjective takes only in the singular are called endings, terminaţii. Similarly, the number of different forms an adjective takes in both the singular and the plural are called flexionary forms, forme flexionare. The adjective frumos (beautiful) has 2 endings, and 4 flexionary forms. (see above table) Singular Masculine Feminine verde verde Plural verzi verzi

Genitival article
There are situations in Romanian when the noun in the genitive requires the presence of the so-called genitival (or possessive) article (see for example the section "Genitive" in "Romanian nouns"), somewhat similar to the English preposition of, for example in a map of China. In Romanian this becomes o hartă a Chinei, where "a" is the genitival article. The table below shows how the genitival articles depend on gender and number. The genitival article also has genitive/dative forms, which are used only with a possessive pronoun. They are: alui (m. sg.), alei (f. sg.), and alor (pl., both genders). These forms are rarely used—especially the singular ones—and the sentences are usually rephrased to avoid them.

The adjective verde (green) on the other hand, has 1 ending and 2 flexionary forms. Singular Masculine Feminine oranj oranj Plural oranj oranj

The foreign borrowed adjective oranj (orange) is called invariable, as it has only 1 ending, and 1 flexionary form. Adjectives that do not have only 1 flexionary form (and thus 1 ending) are called variable.[7]

Syntactical functions
Syntactical functions of the adjective can be:[7] • Attribute, in case it defines a noun, pronoun or numeral. (e.g.: The blond boy is here. Băiatul blond este aici.) • Adjectival complement, in case it defines a copulative verb. (e.g.: The boy is blond. Băiatul este blond.)

Adjectives
Romanian adjectives determine the quality of things. They are always determinants of a noun, pronoun, numeral or copulative verb,

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Romanian grammar

Degrees of comparison
An adjective also can have degrees of comparison.[7] • Positive Degree (frumos, beautiful) • Comparative Degree: • Of superiority (mai frumos, more beautiful) • Of equality (la fel de frumos, as beautiful as) • Of inferiority (mai puţin frumos, less beautiful) • Superlative Degree: • Relative Superlative • Of superiority (cel mai frumos, the most beautiful) • Of inferiority (cel mai puţin frumos, the least beautiful) • Absolute Superlative (foarte frumos, very beautiful)

Accusative Case
The accusative forms of the pronouns come in two forms: a stressed and an unstressed form:[8] Singular First person Second person (pe) mine (pe) tine mă te îl o (pe) noi (pe) voi (pe) ei (pe) ele

Plur

Stressed Unstressed Stressed Un

ne

vă îi le

Third Masc. (pe) el person Fem. (pe) ea

Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns come in four different cases, depending on their usage in the phrase.

Nominative Case
There are eight personal pronouns (pronume personale) in Romanian:[8] Singular Plural First person Second person Fem. eu tu ea noi voi ei ele

The stressed form of the pronoun is used (in phrases that are not inverted) after the verb, while the unstressed form is employed before the verb. Romanian requires both forms of a pronoun to be present in a sentence, if a relative clause is employed, which also reverses the order of the forms (stressed before unstressed). Otherwise, the stressed form is usually left out, the only exception being its usage for adding emphasis to the pronoun. • Îl văd - I see him/it (a statement of fact) • Îl văd pe el - I see him (It is him that I see, and no other) • Fata pe care o văd - The girl whom I see

Dative Case
The dative forms of the pronouns:[8] Singular First person Second person mie ţie îmi îţi îi îi nouă vouă lor lor

Plur

Stressed Unstressed Stressed Un

ne

Third person Masc. el

vă le le

The pronouns above are those in the nominative case. They are usually omitted in Romanian unless required to disambiguate the meaning of a sentence. Usually, the verb ending provides information about the subject. The feminine forms of plural pronouns are only used for groups of persons of items of exclusively female gender. If the group contains elements of both genders, the masculine form is used. Pronouns in the vocative case in Romanian, which is used for exclamations, or summoning, also take the forms of the nominative case.

Third Masc. lui person Fem. ei

Genitive Case
The genitive forms of the pronouns (also called possessive pronouns, pronume posesive):[8] Singular Singular First person Second person al meu al tău a mea a ta a lui a ei al al al al

Masculine Feminine Ne

Third Masc. al lui person Fem. al ei

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Plural First person Second person Third person al nostru al vostru al lor

Romanian grammar
dumneata, with ai genitive/dative form ale of a noastră al nostru thenoştri ale dumitale), and they exist only noastre second in the noastre and third person, due to them not being used a voastră al to oneself: voştri ai ale ale to refer vostru voastre voastre Singular Plural a lor al lor ai lor ale lor ale lor dumneata[1] dumneavoastră Second person Third Masc. dumnealui person Fem. dumneaei dumnealor

Reflexive pronouns
Accusative

There are the forms of the reflexive pronouns (pronume reflexive):[8] Dative

• ^ The second person singular denotes a level of politeness that is between that of Singular Plural Singular Plural tu and that of dumneavoastră. However, it pe mine / pe noi mie / îmi nouă / First is considered by some to be of the same / ne ne person mă degree of politeness as tu. It is generally found in conversation where old people pe voi ţie / îţi vouă / Second pe tine / are involved, as its use is slowly / vă vă person te deprecating in favour of pe sine / se sieşi / îşi Third dumneavoastră.[9] person The above reflexive pronouns are in the accusative and dative cases, and in both stressed / unstressed forms. As is made clear, the reflexive pronouns are identical to the personal pronouns, with the exception of the 3rd person, which has entirely new forms. The genitival forms of the reflexive pronouns are the same for the 1st and 2nd persons, but also differ in the 3rd person singular, which is al său.

Demonstrative Pronouns
There are a lot of demonstrative pronouns (pronume demonstrative) in Romanian. They are classified as: pronume de apropiere, pronume de depărtare, pronume de diferenţiere, pronume de identitate, which mean, respectively, pronouns of proximity, pronouns of remoteness, pronouns of differentiation, and pronouns of identity.

Polite Pronouns
Pronumele de politeţe, the polite pronouns, are a way of addressing someone formally. They are normally used for interaction with strangers, or by children talking to adults whom they don’t know well, or to teachers as a sign of respect. When used in the plural, the second person pronoun is a respectful one, for use in formal occasions, or among unacquainted adults, whereas its singular forms are less respectful, their use having become highly pejorative in modern use. (see below) The polite pronouns are derived from the old Romanian expression for addressing royalty, Domnia Ta, Domnia Voastră, Domnia Lui, etc. (Your Majesty, Your Majesty (plural), His Majesty). By means of vowel elision, Domnia became shortened to dumnea, which is appended as a prefix to the personal pronouns. The polite pronouns all have the same forms in all cases (the only exception being

Pronouns of Proximity and Remoteness
These pronouns describe objects which are either close to the speaker, or farther away from the speaker:[8] Pronoun of Proximity Singular Masculine acesta Feminine Neutrum aceasta acesta Plural aceştia Pronoun of Remoteness Singular Plural acela aceia acelea acelea

acestea aceea acestea acela

Pronouns of Differentiation and Identity
These pronouns describe objects which are either different from an aforementioned object, or one and the same:[8] Pronoun of Differentiation Singular Masculine celălalt Plural ceilalţi Pronoun of Identity Singular acelaşi Plural aceiaşi

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Feminine Neutrum cealaltă celălalt celelalte aceeaşi celelalte acelaşi

Romanian grammar
many aceleaşi indefinite pronouns, but only a limited number of negative pronouns. aceleaşi most common indefinite pronouns The are:[8] Indefinite Pronoun mult tot unul/ altul/ una alta one atât

Fortification Pronouns
Pronumele de întărire, the fortification pronoun (or confirmation pronoun) is a way to emphasize an object, pointing out that it, and no other thing or person, is being referred to. It is often misused by Romanian native speakers because of its many similar-sounding forms. The forms in parentheses are the corresponding personal pronouns[10]:

puţin/ d niţel

much all English translation

other so a much/ little as much

e

The most common negative pronouns are:[8] nimic/ nimica niciunul/ niciunui(a)/ niciuna niciunei(a) to none (of none)

nimeni/ Negative nimenea Pronoun Pronoun of Fortification nobody English Plural Singular translation Masculine Feminine Neutrum Masculine Feminine însumi însămi însăţi însumi însuţi înşine

nothing none Neutrum însene

First Person

Numbers

însene

In Romanian grammar,însevă English, the unlike înşivă însevă words representing numbers are considered to form a distinct part of speech, called nuînsuşi însăşi însuşi înşişi înseşi înseşi Third meral (plural: numerale). Examples: Person • Cardinal • Proper: doi (two); Relative and Interrogative • Multiplicative: îndoit (double); • Collective: amândoi (both); Pronouns • Distributive: câte doi (in twos); Pronumele relative şi interogative, these two • Fractional: doime (half); types of pronouns are identical in form, but • Adverbial: de două ori (twice); differ in usage. The relative pronouns are • Ordinal: al doilea (the second). used to connect relative clauses to their main clause, whereas interrogative pronouns are used to form questions. The interrogative pronouns are usually written out with a quesAs in all Romance languages, Romanian tion mark after them, to differentiate them verbs are highly inflected according to perfrom their relative counterparts. son, number, tense, mood, voice. The usual The most common relative/interrogative word order in sentences is SVO (Subject pronouns are[8] Verb - Object). Romanian verbs are categorcine (a/al/ai/ care pe ce (a/al/ai/ Relative ized into four large conjugation groups deale) cui care ale) Pronoun pending on the ending in the infinitive mood. cărui(a)/ The actual conjugation patterns for each cărei(a)/ group are multiple. căror(a) • First conjugation: verbs ending in –a (alternatively who (whose), which which/ which/ (whose), -are), such as a da (to give), English a to to whom whom cânta (to sing), including those ending in translation hiatus ea such as in a crea (to create); whom whom • Second conjugation: verbs ending in –ea (shortened from -are) (only when ea is a Negative and Indefinite diphthong), such as a putea (can), a cădea Pronouns (to fall); • Third conjugation: verbs ending in –e’ Pronumele negative şi nehotărâte, these two (alternatively -ere)’, such as a vinde (to types of pronouns are used to express negasell), a crede (to believe); tion, as well as indefinite concepts. There are Second însuţi Person

Verbs

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• Fourth conjugation: verbs ending in –i/ire or –î/îre, such as a veni(re) (to come), a urî(re) (to hate).

Romanian grammar

Common Interjections
Vai! - Oh, my! / Oh, dear! Ah! - same as in English Oau! - Wow! Of! - equivalent to a sigh Hmmm... - said when thinking Mamă-mamă - said when expressing something cool or extraordinary • Iată - somewhat like behold! • • • • • •

Prepositions
The preposition before a noun determines which case the noun must take. No prepositions take nouns in the nominative case.

Onomatopoeia
• lip-lip - the sound made when slurping liquids (usually by dogs) • ţuşti - a sound designating a quick move • mor-mor - the sound a bear makes • cucurigu - the sound a rooster makes, cock-a-doodle-doo! • ham-ham - the sound a dog makes, bark! • miauuu - the sound a cat makes, meow! • cip-cirip - the sound birds make, chirp! • mu - the sound a cow makes, moo!

Accusative
• is used to introduce a direct object when it is represented by a proper name, in which case it does not have a lexical meaning. Pe is also used with the accusative to introduce a circumstantial object of location (engl. on). • (with) introduces the instrument of the action. It is used to indicate (among others) one’s conversation partner, an association with an object, or means of transport. • (at) indicates the location or time of the action or its direction. More specific forms are în (in), spre (towards), pe la (around) • (for) indicates the scope of an action, or the beneficiary thereof.[11]

Use within sentences
Within a sentence, interjectons can function as attributes, verbal equivalents, or they can be used as filler, which has no syntactical function at all. • Mi-am luat o fustă mamă-mamă. I bought a cool skirt. • Iată-l pe Ion. Look, there is Ion • Hmmm... Mă gândesc ce să fac. Hmmm... I am thinking about what to do.

Dative
The only prepositions that demand the Dative Case, are: graţie, datorită, mulţumită, conform, contrar, potrivit, aidoma, asemenea

Genitive
Other prepositions require the genitive case of nouns. Note that some prepositions of this sort have evolved from phrases with feminine nouns and, as a consequence, require a feminine possessive form when the object is a pronoun; e.g., împotriva mea (against me).

Phrase syntax
Romanian has terminology and rules for phrase syntax, which describes the way simple sentences relate to one another within a single complex sentence. There are many functions a simple sentence may take, their number usually being determined by the number of predicates. It is also noteworthy that Romanian terminology for the terms simple sentence, complex sentence, and phrase is somewhat counterintuitive. The Romanian term propoziţie means as much as simple sentence (or clause). To describe a complex sentence (or compound sentence), Romanian uses the word frază, which can cause confusion with the English word phrase, which describes not a complex sentence, but a grouping of words. In consequence, Romanian doesn’t have terms for the English noun phrase, or verb phrase, preferring the more commonly understood term

Interjections
In Romanian there are many interjections, and they are commonly used. Those that denote sounds made by animals or objects are called onomatopee, a form similar to the English language onomatopoeia. Below, some interjections and their approximative equivalent in English are shown.

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predicate for the latter. The former has no formal equivalent in Romanian. Simple sentences can be of two types: main clauses and subordinate clauses

Romanian grammar
I am thinking 1/ at what the teacher is saying. 2/ Subject Clause (propoziţie subordonată subiectivă): Ceea ce zice profesoara, 1/ e corect. 2/ What the teacher is saying, 1/ is true. 2/ Local Circumstantial Object Clause (propoziţie subordonată completivă circumstanţială de loc): Mă văd cu Ionuţ 1/ unde (mi-)a propus el. 2/ I am meeting Johnny 1/ where he suggested (to me). 2/

Main Clause
The main clause, within a complex sentence, does not rely on another sentence to be fully understood. In other words, it has standalone meaning. The following example has the verb phrase underlined. Example: Am văzut copiii din curtea şcolii. I have seen the children in the school courtyard. Even though this sentence is long, it is still composed of a single simple sentence, which is a main clause.

Clauses introduced by Coordinating Conjunctions
Some conjunctions are called coordinating because they do not define the type of clause introduced. Rather, they coordinate an existing clause with another, making the new clause of the same type as the other one. The coordinating conjunctions are of four types (note that the list is not exhaustive): • The copulative conjunctions are: şi (and), nici (neither), and precum şi (as well as). • The adversative conjunctions are: dar/ însă/ci (but) and iar (on the other hand). • The disjunctive conjunctions are: sau/ori/ fie (or/either). • The conclusive conjunctions are: deci/ aşadar (thus), în concluzie (in conclusion), and prin urmare (therefore). An example of two main clauses (1, 2) linked together by a coordinative conjunction (bold) is: Ana este o fată 1/ şi Ion este un băiat. 2/ Ana is a girl, 1/ and Ion is a boy. 2/ Two subordinate clauses (2, 3) can also be joined to the same end: V-am spus despre băiatul 1/ care este la mine în clasă, 2/ şi care este foarte bun la matematică. 3/ I have told you about the boy 1/ who is in my class, 2/ and who is very good in mathematics. 3/ The same effect of two main clauses (1, 2) being tied together can also be achieved via juxtaposition of the sentences using a comma:

Subordinate Clause
A subordinate clause cannot have stand-alone meaning. It relies on a main clause to give it meaning. It usually determines or defines an element of another clause, be it a main clause, or a subordinate one. The following example has the verb phrase underlined, and the element of relation, which is to say, the relative pronoun used to link the two sentences, is bold. The sentences are also separated and numbered. Example: Am văzut copiii 1/ care sunt în curtea şcolii. 2/ I have seen the children 1/ who are in the school courtyard. 2/ There are also subordinate clauses other than the relative clause, which is an attributive clause, since it determines a noun, pronoun or numeral, and not a verb phrase. Here is a list of examples illustrating some of the remaining cases: Direct Object Clause (propoziţie subordonată completivă directă): Înţeleg 1/ ce zice profesoara. 2/ I understand 1/ what the teacher is saying. 2/ Indirect Object Clause (propoziţie subordonată completivă indirectă): Ma gandesc 1/ la ce spune profesoara. 2/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Am păzit palatul, 1/ palatul era şi foarte greu de păzit. 2/ I guarded the palace, 1/ the palace was very hard to guard, too. 2/

Romanian grammar
[3] Gheorghe Doca, "Romanian language. Vol. I: Essential Structures," Ars Docendi, Bucharest, Romania (1999) [4] Gheorghe Doca, "Romanian language. Vol. II: Morpho-Syntactic and Lexical Structures," Ars Docendi, Bucharest, Romania (2000) [5] (Romanian) Liana Pop, Victoria Moldovan (eds), "Gramatica limbii române / Grammaire du roumain / Romanian Grammar," Echinox, ClujNapoca, Romania (1997) [6] (Romanian) Maria Aldea, "Valori referenţiale generate de articolul definit şi de cel indefinit românesc în determinarea substantivului. Studiu de caz: Scrisoarea lui Neacşu (1521)" (available online) [7] ^ Information on the adjective in Romanian [8] ^ PPT file illustrating the Morphosyntax of the Pronoun [9] http://www.ziarulprahova.ro/ articol~categoriecultura~stire-5049~pronumeledumneata~perioada-martie-2006.html [10] The forms of the Fortification pronoun [11] http://www.rapido.org.uk/prepconj1.html

External links
• Very detailed Romanian grammar (PDF; 183 pages; 4.6 MB) • Verbix: Romanian verbs conjugation (Attention: Generally good output, but a few verbs are not conjugated correctly.) • Romanian <-> English online dictionary and Romanian verb conjugator (few mistakes) • Romanian online dictionary and lemmatizer

References
[1] James E. Augerot, "Romanian / Limba română: A Course in Modern Romanian," Center for Romanian Studies (2000) [2] Laura Daniliuc and Radu Daniliuc, "Descriptive Romanian Grammar: An Outline," Lincom Europa, München, Germany (2000)

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