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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration
Legal status of persons Concepts Citizenship Nationality Naturalization Leave to Remain Immigration Illegal immigration Statelessness Legal designations Citizen Native-born citizen Naturalized citizen Dual-citizen Alien Migrant worker Refugee Illegal immigrant Political prisoner Stateless person Administrative detain Social politics Immigration law Nationality law Nationalism Nativism (politics) Immigration debate

• sans papiers/"without papers"[2] • Irregular immigrant/immigration • undocumented immigrant/migrant/alien/ worker/resident • unauthorized immigrant/migrant/alien/ worker/resident • paperless immigrant/migrant/alien/ worker/resident • immigrant "without immigration status" • out of status • unnaturalized immigrant • boat people

Causes
War
Illegal immigration may be prompted by the desire to escape civil war or repression in the country of origin. Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, and genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows - to escape dictatorship for instance. After decades of armed conflict, roughly one of every 10 Colombians now lives abroad. [3] For example, Colombians emigrating to Spain have "grown exponentially, from a little over 7,000 in 1993 to more than 80,000 in 2002 and 244,000 in 2003." [4] This is equivalent to 124,000 Colombian immigrants in year 2003 into Spain alone. Also, figures from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security indicate that Colombia is the fourthleading source country of unauthorized immigration to the United States. According to its estimates, the number of unauthorized Colombian residents in the United States almost tripled from 51,000 in 1990 to 141,000 in 2000. [5] According to the US Census Bureau, the number of authorized Colombian immigrants in the United States in 2000 was 801,363. [6] Census data are important because, as the Department of Homeland Security states, [U.S.] "census data are more complete and reliable [than INS’s data] because of the national scope of the data collection, the vastly larger data sample, and the

Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Illegal immigrants are also known as illegal aliens to differentiate them from legal immigrants. In politics, the term may imply a larger set of social issues and time constraints with disputed consequences in areas such as economy, social welfare, education, health care, slavery, prostitution, legal protections, voting rights, public services, and human rights. Conversely, Illegal emigration refers to unlawfully leaving a country.

Terminology
See also: Illegal immigration to the United States#Terminology • illegal alien • Illegal immigrant • undocumented immigrant • clandestine workers[1]

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extensive preparation and follow-up activities involved in conducting the decennial census."
[7]

Illegal immigration
have entered the country in search of wages higher than those achievable in their home countries. The case of U.S. Marine Lance Corporal Jose Gutierrez is atypical, but it serves to demonstrate how poor immigrants enter the United States illegally in search for a better tomorrow. According to CBS 60 Minutes, U.S. Marine Lance Corporal Jose Gutierrez, one of the first U.S. servicemen to die in combat in Iraq, was a former street child in Guatemala having been orphaned at age eight. Gutierrez, 60 Minutes reported, first entered the United States as an illegal immigrant in 1997 to escape poverty, and dreamed of becoming an architect.[16] The chief cause of illegal immigration is considered to be economic.[17] Illegal immigrants in the United States traditionally have been portrayed as seeking jobs and wages better than those available in their home countries. For example, the 1994 economic crisis in Mexico was associated with widespread poverty and a lower valuation for the peso relative to the dollar. The United States Department of Labor calculates that the Zone A (most industrialized) minimum wage in Mexico in 1999 was 34.45 pesos, or about US$3.50 per day . The Zone C (rural/agricultural) minimum wage was 29.70 Pesos a day, or roughly US$3.02 a day . By contrast, the U.S. minimum for non agricultural work was set at $5.85 per hour under U.S. federal law, and many states required rates higher than the federally mandated minimum.[18] Natural disasters and overpopulation can amplify poverty-driven migration flows.[19]

El Salvador is another country which experienced substantial emigration as a result of civil war and repression. The largest percapita source of immigrants to the United States comes from El Salvador. Up to a third of the world’s Salvadoran-born population lives outside the country, mostly in the United States. [8] According to the Santa Clara County, California, Office of Human Relations. Despite the fact that the U.S. government’s role in the Salvadoran conflict was unique in sustaining the prolongation of the civil conflict, the government and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) extended little sympathy to the people affected by the war. In the 1980s, the INS granted only 2% of political asylum applications, claiming that democracy existed in El Salvador and that reports of U.S. and government-sponsored “death squads” were overblown. As a response to what they considered a failure of the U.S. government to address the situation of Salvadoran refugees in the country, American activists established a loose network to aid refugees. Operating in clear violation of U.S. immigration laws, these activists took refugees into their houses, aided their travel, hid them and helped them find work. This became known as the “sanctuary movement”.[9]

Family reunification
Some illegal immigrants seek to live with loved ones, such as a spouse or other family members. [10] [11] [12] This is particularly true for the families of binational same sex couples. [13] The Lesbian and Gay Immigration Rights Task Force (LGIRTF) warns binational same sex couples in the United States that marriage may actually increase the likelihood of becoming undocumented, rather than decreasing it. [4] [5] Other individuals seek to distance themselves from their spouses.

Population growth
Population growth which exceeds the carrying capacity of an area or environment results in overpopulation.[20] Spikes in human population can cause problems such as pollution, water crisis[21][22] and poverty.[23][24] World population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to an estimated 6.7 billion today. In Mexico alone, population has grown from 13.6 million in 1900 to 107 million in 2007.[25] In 2000, the United Nations estimated that the world’s population was growing at the rate of 1.14% (or about 75 million people) per year. According to data from the CIA’s 2005–2006 World Factbooks, the world human population currently increases by

Poverty
One cause of illegal immigration can be poverty.[14][15] This is the case in the United States, where illegal immigrants traditionally

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203,800 every day.[26] The United States Census Bureau issued a revised forecast for world population that increased its projection for the year 2050 to above 9.4 billion people, up from 9.1 billion people. We are adding a billion more every 12 years. Almost all growth will take place in the less developed regions.[27]

Illegal immigration
Southwestern United States during the hot summer season. [34]

Methods
Border crossing

Dangers
Illegal immigrants expose themselves to dangers while engaged in illegal entry to another country. Aside from the possibility that they may be intercepted and deported, some considerably more dangerous outcomes have been known to result from their activity. As an example, illegal immigrants may be trafficked for exploitation.

Slavery
After the end of the legal international slave trade by the European nations and the United States in the early 19th century, the illegal importation of slaves has continued, albeit at much reduced levels. Although not as common as in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, some women are undoubtedly smuggled into the United States and Canada.[28] People have been kidnapped or tricked into slavery to work as laborers, for example in factories. Those trafficked in this manner often face additional barriers to escaping slavery, since their status as illegal immigrants makes it difficult for them to gain access to help or services. For example Burmese women trafficked into Thailand and forced to work in factories or as prostitutes may not speak the language and may be vulnerable to abuse by police due to their illegal immigrant status.[29] In the Dominican Republic, Haitian migrant workers are sold into slavery on Dominican Sugar plantations, including children till this day.[30][31]

Border control at sea by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection

UK Border Agency "Customs Cutters" at sea which are capable of top speeds of 26 knots Immigrants from nations that do not have automatic visa agreements, or who would not otherwise qualify for a visa, often cross the borders illegally in some areas like the United States–Mexico border, the Mona Channel between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Strait of Gibraltar, Fuerteventura, and the Strait of Otranto. Because these methods are illegal, they are often dangerous. Would-be immigrants have been known to suffocate in shipping containers,[35] boxcars,[36] and trucks [6], sink in shipwrecks caused by unseaworthy vessels [7], die of dehydration [8] or exposure during long walks without water. An official estimate puts the number of people who died in illegal crossings across the U.S.-Mexican border

Prostitution
Some people forced into sexual slavery face challenges of charges of illegal immigration.
[32]

Death
Each year there are several hundred Immigrant deaths along the U.S.-Mexico border.[33] Death by exposure occurs in the deserts of

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between 1998 and 2004 at 1,954 (see immigrant deaths along the U.S.-Mexico border). Human smuggling is the practice of intermediaries aiding illegal immigrants in crossing over international borders in financial gain, often in large groups. Human smuggling differs from, but is sometimes associated with, human trafficking. A human smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. Trafficking involves a process of using physical force, fraud, or deception to obtain and transport people. Types of notorious human smugglers include Snakehead gangs present in mainland China (especially in Fujian) that smuggle laborers into Pacific Rim nations (making Chinatowns frequent centers of illegal immigration) [9] and "coyotes," who smuggle illegal immigrants to the Southwestern United States and have been known to abuse or even kill their passengers. [10] Sometimes immigrants are abandoned by their human traffickers if there are difficulties, often dying in the process. Others may be victims of intentional killing.

Illegal immigration
parents does not automatically obtain french nationality until residency duration conditions are met.

Legal and political status
Many countries have had or currently have laws restricting immigration for economic or nationalistic political reasons. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 concerning counter-terrorism, enacted in October 2001, requested of UN member states to restrict immigration laws. Whether a person is permitted to stay in a country legally may be decided by quotas or point systems or may be based on considerations such as family ties (marriage, elderly mother, etc.). Exceptions relative to political refugees or to sick people are also common. Immigrants who do not participate in these legal proceedings or who are denied permission under them and still enter or stay in the country are illegal immigrants, as well as people born on national territory (henceforth not "immigrants") but who have not obtained nationality of their birthplace and have no legal title of residency [12]. Most countries have laws requiring workers to have proper documentation, often intended to prevent or minimize the employment of unauthorized immigrants. However the penalties against employers are often small and the acceptable identification requirements vague and ill-defined as well as being seldom checked or enforced, making it easy for employers to hire unauthorized labor. Unauthorized immigrants are especially popular with many employers because they can pay less than the legal minimum wage or have unsafe working conditions, secure in the knowledge that few unauthorized workers will report the abuse to the authorities. Often the minimum wages in one country can be several times the prevailing wage in the unauthorized immigrant’s country, making even these jobs attractive to the unauthorized worker. In response to the outcry following popular knowledge of the Holocaust, the newly-established United Nations held an international conference on refugees, where it was decided that refugees (legally defined to be people who are persecuted in their original country and then enter another country seeking safety) should be exempted from immigration laws. [13] It is, however, up to the

Overstaying a visa
Some illegal immigrants enter a country legally and then overstay or violate their visa. [11] For example, most of the estimated 200,000 illegal immigrants in Canada (perhaps as high as 500,000), are refugee claimants whose refugee applications were rejected but who have not yet been ejected from the country.[37] A related way of becoming an illegal immigrant is through bureaucratic means. For example, a person can be allowed to remain in a country - or be protected from expulsion - because he/she needs special pension for a medical condition, etc., without being able to regularize his/her situation and obtain a work and/or residency permit, let alone naturalization. Hence, categories of people being neither "illegal" immigrants nor legal citizens are created, living in a judicial "no man’s land". Another example is formed by children of foreigners born in countries observing jus soli ("right of territory"), such as was the case in France till 1994. In that country, it was possible to obtain French nationality if one was born in France before 1994. At present, a french born child of foreign

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countries involved to decide if a particular immigrant is a refugee or not, and hence whether they are subject to the immigration controls. The right to freedom of movement of an individual within National borders is often contained within the constitution or in a country’s human rights legislation but these rights are restricted to citizens and exclude all others. Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right and that nationalism and immigration policies of state governments violate this human right that those same governments recognize within their own borders. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, fundamental human rights are violated when citizens are forbidden to leave their country. (Article 13). However, immigrants are not assured the right to enter a country, that right is given at the host country’s discretion. Since illegal immigrants without proper legal status have no valid identification documents such as identity cards, they may have reduced or no access to public health systems, proper housing, education and banks. This lack of access may result in the creation or expansion of illegal underground forgery to provide this documentation. [14]. When the authorities are overwhelmed in their efforts to stop "illegal" immigration, they have historically provided amnesty. Amnesties waive the "subject to deportation" clause associated with illegal aliens.

Illegal immigration
and attempted to enforce the 1958 Citizenship Act to control the flood of illegal immigration. Those individuals who could not provide proof of residency prior to 1958 were adjudged to be illegal immigrants. In 1991-92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 ethnic Nepalis, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. The United States has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in U.N. refugee camps in Nepal.[42]

Chile
Chile has recently become a new pole of attraction for illegal immigrants, mostly from neighboring Peru and Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the 2002 national census, Chile’s foreignborn foreign population has increased by 75% since 1992.[43]

People’s Republic of China
People’s Republic of China is building a security barrier along its border with North Korea to prevent the defectors or refugees from North Korea.[44] Also, many immigrants from Mongolia have tried to make it to China.

European Union
The European Union is developing a common system for immigration and asylum and a single external border control strategy. In France, helping an undocumented immigrant (providing shelter, for example) is prohibited by a law passed on December 27, 1994 [15]. The law was heavily criticized by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the CIMADE and the GISTI, left-wing political parties such as the Greens and the French Communist Party, and trade-unions such as the magistrates’ Syndicat de la magistrature. The Turkish newspaper Hürriyet published stories once in July 2004 and a second time in May 2006 that Hellenic Coast Guard ships were caught on film cruising as near as a few hundred meters off the Turkish coast and abandoning clandestine immigrants to the sea. This practice allegedly resulted in the drowning of six people between Chios and Karaburun Peninsula on 26 September 2006 while three others disappeared and 31 were saved by Turkish gendarmes and fishermen.[45] However, there are numerous non-

By region
Angola
In 2007 around 44,000 Congolese were forced to leave Angola.[38] Since 2004, more than 400,000 illegal immigrants, almost all from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, have been expelled from Angola.[39][40]

Argentina
Illegal immigrants in Argentina are estimated at 50,000 to 2,500,000.[41]

Bhutan
Immigration in Bhutan by Nepalese settlers (Lhotshampa) began slowly towards the end of the 19th century. In 1985, the government passed a new Citizenship Act which clarified

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Turkish claims and testimonies that Turkish authorities and/or citizens lead immigrants through the sea, often resulting to the abandonment and sometimes drowning of said immigrants. A tough new EU immigration law detaining illegal immigrants for up to 18 months before deportation has triggered outrage across Latin America, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez threatening to cut off oil exports to Europe.[46][47]

Illegal immigration
summarily deport all undocumented foreigners was announced by Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi in January 2008. "No resident without a legal visa will be excluded."[57] [58]

Malaysia
An ethnic Indian Malaysian was recently sentenced to whipping and 10 months in prison for hiring six illegal immigrants at his restaurant. "I think that after this, Malaysian employers will be afraid to take in foreign workers (without work permits). They will think twice," said immigration department prosecutor Azlan Abdul Latiff. “This is the first case where an employer is being sentenced to caning,” he told. Illegal immigrants also face caning before being deported.[59] There are an estimated 800,000 illegal immigrants in Malaysia. [60] In January 2009, Malaysia has banned the hiring of foreign workers in factories, stores and restaurants to protect its citizens from mass unemployment amid the global economic crisis.[61]

Greece
After the opening of the Albanian borders in 1991, a huge influx of Albanian economic migrants crossed illegally into Greece in order to find work. They are currently estimated at about 600,000-800,000, but an accurate calculation is very difficult because of the large percentage of illegal immigrants.[48][49]

India
The Indo-Bangladeshi barrier is 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) long. Presently, India is constructing a fence along the border to restrict illegal traffic from Bangladesh.[50] This obstruction will virtually isolate Bangladesh from India. The barrier’s plan is based on the designs of the Israeli West Bank barrier and will be 3.6 m (11.8 ft) high. The stated aim of the fence is to stop infiltration of terrorists, prevent smuggling, and to bring a close to illegal immigration from Bangladesh.[51][52]

Mexico
In the first six months of 2005 alone, more than 120,000 people from Central America have been deported to their countries of origin. This is a significantly higher rate than in 2002, when for the entire year, only 130,000 people were deported [16]. Another important group of people are those of Chinese origin, who pay about $5,500 to smugglers to be taken to Mexico from Hong Kong. It is estimated that 2.4% of rejections for work permits in Mexico correspond to Chinese citizens [17]. Many women from Eastern Europe, Asia, and Central and South America are also offered jobs at table dance establishments in large cities throughout the country causing the National Institute of Migration (INM) in Mexico to raid strip clubs and deport foreigners who work without the proper documentation [18]. In 2004, the INM deported 188,000 people at a cost of $10 million [19]. Illegal immigration of Cubans through Cancún tripled from 2004 to 2006. [20] In September 2007, Mexican President Calderón harshly criticized the United States government for the crackdown on illegal immigrants, saying it has led to the persecution of immigrant workers without visas. “I have said that Mexico does not stop at its border,

Iran
Since late April 2007, the Iranian government has forcibly deported back to Afghanistan nearly 100,000 registered and unregistered Afghans living and working in Iran. The forceful evictions of the refugees, who have lived in Iran and Pakistan for nearly three decades, are part of the two countries’ larger plans to repatriate all Afghan refugees within a few years. Iran says it will send 1,000,000 by next March, and Pakistan announced that all 2,400,000 Afghan refugees, most living in camps, must return home by 2009. Experts say it will be ’disastrous’ for Afghanistan.[53][54][55]

Libya
Libya is home to a large illegal Sub-Saharan African population which numbers as much as 2,000,000.[56] The mass expulsion plan to

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that wherever there is a Mexican, there is Mexico,” he said.[62] In October 2008, Mexico tightened its immigration rules and agreed to deport Cubans using the country as an entry point to the US. It also criticized U.S. policy that generally allows Cubans who reach U.S. territory to stay. Cuban Foreign Minister said the Cuban-Mexican agreement would lead to "the immense majority of Cubans being repatriated."[63]

Illegal immigration
Russian authorities an "economic migrant", he was sentenced to 6 month in prison, and was to be deported to the country of his nationality after serving his sentence, even though he may now risk an even heavier penalty there. That was just one of the 26 cases year-to-date of illegal entrants, of various nationalities, receiving criminal punishment in in Amur Oblast.[73]

Nepal
In 2008, Nepal’s Maoist-led government has initiated a major crackdown against Tibetan exiles with the aim to deport to China all Tibetans living illegally in the country. Tibetans started pouring in Nepal after a failed anti-Chinese uprising in Tibet in 1959.[64]

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia has begun construction of a separation barrier between its territory and Yemen to prevent the unauthorized movement of people and goods into and out of the kingdom. See Saudi-Yemen barrier. In 2006 Saudi Arabia proposed plans for the construction of a security fence along the entire length of its 560-mile (900 km) desert border with Iraq in a multimillion-pound project to secure the kingdom’s borders in order to improve internal security, control illegal immigration and bolster its defences against external threats. [74] • Saudi Iraq barrier

Russia
Russia experiences a constant flow of immigration. On average, 200,000 legal immigrants enter the country every year; about half are ethnic Russians from other republics of the former Soviet Union. In addition, there are an estimated 10-12 million illegal immigrants in the country.[65] There has been a significant influx of ethnic Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Tajiks, and Uzbeks into big Russian cities in recent years, which has been viewed very unfavorably by many citizens, and has given rise to nationalist sentiments.[66][67][68] Many immigrant ethnic groups have much higher birth rates than native Russians, further shifting the balance. Some Chinese flee the overpopulation and birth control regulations of their home country and settle in the Far East and in southern Siberia. Russia’s main Pacific port and naval base of Vladivostok, once closed to foreigners, today is bristling with Chinese markets, restaurants and trade houses.[69] Experts predict that the Chinese diaspora in Russia will increase to at least 10 million by 2010 and Chinese may become the dominant ethnic group in the Russian Far East region 20 to 30 years from now.[70][71][72] Illegal border crossing is considered a crime, and on occasions captured illegal border crossers are sentenced to a prison term. For example, Rossiyskaya Gazeta reported in October 2008 the case of a North Korean who was detained after illegally crossing the Amur River from China. Considered by

South Africa
South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans.[75][76][77] Attacks on foreign nationals increased markedly in late 2007 and it is believed that there have been at least a dozen attacks since the start of 2008. A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on May 11, 2008.[78][79] see (Zimbabwean diaspora)

Syria
Refugees from Iraq have increased in number since the U.S.-led invasion of that country in March 2003. The United Nations estimates that nearly 2,200,000 Iraqis have fled the country since 2003,[80] with nearly 100,000 fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[81][82] Most ventured to Jordan and Syria, creating demographic shifts that have worried both governments. Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries.[83][84] Syrian authorities worried that the new influx of refugees would limit the country’s resources. Sources like oil, heat, water and electricity were said to be becoming more scarce as demand had gone up.[85] On October 1, 2007 news agencies reported that

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Syria re-imposed restrictions on Iraqi refugees, as stated by a spokesperson for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Under Syria’s new rules, only Iraqi merchants, businessmen and university professors with visas acquired from Syrian embassies may enter Syria.[86][87][88]

Illegal immigration
that the US enforce immigration laws and secure the borders. Several counties throughout the United States have chosen to deputize police officers as immigration officials.[100]

Venezuela
There are hundreds of thousands, possibly even millions of Colombian immigrants living in Venezuela.[101] In 1995, Venezuela announced plans to conduct a census to locate and deport illegal immigrants.[102] An estimated 200,000 Colombians have fled the Colombian Civil War and sought safety in Venezuela. Most of them lack identity documents and this hampers their access to services, as well as to the labor market. The Venezuelan government had no specific policies on refugees.[103][104]

Turkey
Turkey receives many economic migrants from nearby countries such as Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Iran, but also from Afghanistan, Central Asia and Pakistan.[89][90] The Iraq War is thought to have increased the flow of illegal immigration into Turkey, while the global parties directly involved in the conflict have been accused of extending a less-helping hand than Turkey itself to resolve the precarious situation of immigrants stranded in passage.[91]

United Kingdom
There are between 500,000 and 700,000 illegal immigrants in Britain.[92] [93]

See also
• • • • • • • • • Alien (law) Aliyah Bet Illegal emigration Separation barrier Working under the table Illegal entry Free migration Nationality law Immigration law

United States
Between 12 and 20 million illegal immigrants are estimated to be living in the United States; due to the nature of illegal immigration, the exact number is unknown.[94] The majority of the illegal immigrants are from Latin America.[95] Illegal immigration has been a longstanding issue in the United States, creating immense controversy. Harvard University economist George J. Borjas explains that the controversy centers around the "huge redistribution [of wealth] away from [unskilled American] workers to [American employers] who use immigrants."[96] In 2007, President Bush called for Congress to endorse his guest worker proposal, stating that illegal immigrants took jobs that Americans would not take.[97] The Pew Hispanic Center notes that while the number of legal immigrants (including LPRs, refugees, and asylees) arriving has not varied substantially since the 1980s, the number of illegal aliens has increased dramatically and, since the mid 1990s, has surpassed the number of legal immigrants.[98] Penalties for employers who hire illegal immigrants range from $2,000-$10,000 and up to six months’ imprisonment.[99] Political groups have been formed to fight what they perceive as the threat of illegal immigration by demanding

References

[1] Reem Saad (May 2006). "Egyptian Workers in Paris: Pilot Ethnography". SRC, American University in Cairo. http://www.migrationdrc.org/ publications/research_reports/ EgyptianWorkersInParis.pdf#search=%22clandestin [2] The undocumented Africans "of St. Ambroise" Bok.net. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [3] Myriam Bérubé (November 2005). "Colombia: In the Crossfire". Migration Information Source. http://www.migrationinformation.org/ Profiles/display.cfm?ID=344. Retrieved on 2007-01-22. [4] Pilar Marrero, Immigration Shift: Many Latin Americans Choosing Spain Over U.S. Pacific News Service, December 9, 2004. Retrieved on 2008-09-02. [5] Office of Policy and Planning U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service:

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Estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States: 1990 to 2000 page 9. [6] U.S. Census Bureau, Selected Population Profile in the United States: Colombians U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. "S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States; Population Group: Colombian; Data Set: 2006 American Community porn Survey; Survey: 2006 American Community Survey. (Via: Main>Data Sets>American Community Surveys>Selected Population Profiles (Geographic Type=Nation, Ethnic Group=Colombian)" [7] Office of Policy and Planning U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service: Estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States: 1990 to 2000 pages 2,3. [8] Tania Snyder,To slow immigration from El Salvador, understand its causes Baltimore Sun, January 11, 2007 [9] Knowledge of immigrant nationalities of Santa Clara County (KIN): El Salvador [10] N.C. Aizenman, Young migrants risk all to reach U.S.: Thousands detained after setting out from Central America without parents Washington Post, August 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [11] Rosario Vital, Love unites them, La Migra separates them El Observador, November 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [12] After such respect, such humiliation. Haaretz, January 31, 2005. [13] Family, unvalued: Discrimination, denial, and the fate of binational same-sex couples under U.S. law. Human Rights Watch, May 2, 2006 Faced with the unpalatable choice between leaving and living with the person they love in violation of U.S. immigration laws, foreign-born partners may become undocumented—staying after their visa expires. [14] Gambia - new front in migrant trade, BBC News, October 10, 2006 [15] Migrant warns Africans off ‘misery’ Europe. The Sunday Times. May 10, 2009 [16] The Death Of Lance Cpl. Gutierrez: Simon Reports On Non-Citizen Soldiers, CBS 60 Minutes, Aug. 20, 2003

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[17] Guinea: Unstoppable exodus, BBC News, May 18, 2004 [18] Minimum Wage Laws in the States July 24, 2007 [19] High population growth could slow development - gov’t [20] Poverty Causes Population Growth Causes Poverty [21] World warned on water refugees [22] Population Growth Sentencing Millions to Hydrological Poverty [23] Population and Poverty: the Policy Issues, Part 1 [24] UNFPA State of World Population [25] From Traitors to Heroes: 100 Years of Mexican Migration Policies March 2004 [26] Current world population (ranked) source: "The World Factbook 2006-2007", CIA [27] SUSPS - Population, Immigration, and Global Ethics by Jonette Christian October 9, 1999 [28] Modern slavery thriving in the U.S. [29] Bales, Kevin (1999). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22463-9. [30] The Price of Sugar. thepriceofsugar.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. [31] "No Papers, No Rights" New York Times 2005 [32] Jo Doezema [http://www.walnet.org/csis/ papers/doezema-loose.html#moralpanics Loose Women or Lost Women? The reemergence of the myth of ’white slavery’ in contemporary discourses of ’trafficking in women’] International Studies Convention Washington, DC, February 16 - 20, 1999 Gender Issues, Vol. 18, no. 1, Winter 2000, pp. 23-50 ] [33] United States Government Accounting Office. GAO-06-770, August 2006. [34] Evelyn Nieves (August 6, 2002). "Illegal Immigrant Death Rate Rises Sharply in Barren Areas.". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ fullpage.html?res=9806E7D6103BF935A3575BC0A9 Retrieved on 2008-02-16. [35] CBC News, Three illegal migrants die in shipping container. November 11, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [36] Siskind Susser Bland, At least 52 immigrants die of heat crossing from Mexico. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. [37] Marina Jimenez (2003-11-15). "200,000 illegal immigrants toiling in Canada’s

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Illegal immigration

underground economy". Globe and Mail. [59] Malaysian man receives unusually harsh http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ punishment for employing illegals Page/document/v4/sub/ [60] Indians among illegal immigrants MarketingPage?user_URL=http://www.theglobeandmail.com%2Fservlet%2Fstory%2FLAC.20031115. rounded up in Malaysia [38] Angolan soldiers rape, beat Congolese [61] Malaysia bans foreign labourers, Al migrants - group Jazeera English, January 22, 2009 [39] IOL: Angola warns against illegal [62] Mexican President Assails U.S. Measures immigration on Migrants, New York Times, [40] Angola expels thousands of Congolese September 3, 2007 [41] Racial Discrimination in Argentina, The [63] Mexico to deport Cubans heading Record of Argentina , Human Rights illegally to US, MiamiHerald.com, Documentation Center (September 2001) October 22, 2008 [42] Bhaumik, Subir (November 7, 2007). [64] NEPAL: Tibetans Warned of Deportation "Bhutan refugees are ’intimidated’". BBC to China, News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ [65] "Russia cracking down on illegal south_asia/7082586.stm. Retrieved on migrants". International Herald Tribune. 2008-09-19. January 15, 2007. http://www.iht.com/ [43] Landaburu, Juan (2007-06-24). "El articles/2007/01/15/news/migrate.php. debate sobre la inmigración ilegal se [66] Moscow to deport Tajiks by air extiende a la región". La Nación. [67] Russian police determined to oust http://www.lanacion.com.ar/ Georgians from Moscow nota.asp?nota_id=920108. Retrieved on [68] Russian nationalists protest against 31 December 2008. illegal immigration in Irkutsk [44] China building border fence facing North [69] Chinese Come To Russia Korea [70] A Chinese ’Invasion’ [45] Delete the Border quoting Khaleej Times; [71] Chinese Presence Grows in Russian Far ADN Kronos Survivors of the immigrant East boat tragedy accuse Greeks (in English) [72] Vladivostok’s Chinese puzzle [1] [2] [3]. The newspaper Hürriyet (in [73] Yevgeniy Basenko (Евгений Басенко) Turkish). Three of the drowned were (2008-10-29). "A North Korean has swum Tunisians, one was Algerian, one across the Amur, only to end up in a Palestinian and the other Iraqi. The three Russian prison. (Северокореец disappeared were also Tunisians. переплыл Амур, чтобы оказаться в [46] Chavez: Europe risks oil over immigrant российской колонии)" (in Russian). law Rossiyskaya Gazeta. http://www.rg.ru/ [47] Venezuela’s Chavez Threatens to Deny 2008/10/29/reg-priamurje/koreetsOil, Investments to EU Over Immigration anons.html. Laws [74] Saudis plan to fence off border with [48] Background Note: Greece chaos, The Times, April 10, 2006. [49] Greece launches illegal immigrant [75] Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South crackdown Africa, with attacks reported in Cape [50] Villagers left in limbo by border fence Town [51] The good fences epidemic [76] Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe’s [52] India builds a 2,500-mile barrier to rival Exodus the Great Wall of China [77] More illegals set to flood SA [53] Iranian Deportations Raise Fears of [78] "South African mob kills migrants". BBC. Humanitarian Crisis in Afghanistan http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/ [54] To root out Taliban, Pakistan to expel 2.4 7396868.stm. Retrieved on 2008-05-19. million Afghans [79] Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South [55] Expelled from Iran - refugee misery African Mobs [56] Libya asserts its right to deport 2 million [80] UN warns of five million Iraqi refugees illegal immigrants in face of criticism [81] U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee [57] Libya to Deport Illegal Immigrants monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston [58] Libya: Summary Deportations Would Globe, November 3, 2006 Endanger Migrants and Asylum Seekers [82] Take Iraqi refugees in [83] Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis

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[84] Iraq’s middle class escapes, only to find poverty in Jordan [85] Displaced Iraqis running out of cash, and prices are rising [86] "Syria shuts border to Iraqi refugees UNHCR" Reuters http://www.reuters.com/article/ homepageCrisis/ idUS119126393845._CH_.2400 [87] Laura Zuber, "Syrian visa restrictions "trap" Iraqi refugees," uruknet.info of Italy http://uruknet.info/ ?p=m37030&s1=h1 [88] "Syria restores visa limits" "BBC News" [89] Turkey captures over 500,000 illegal immigrants in past 10 years [90] Over one million illegal immigrants in Turkey: report. [91] Iraq’s Christians on the run (in German) [92] The true cost of an amnesty, Migration Watch UK [93] Archbishop backs amnesty for Britain’s illegal immigrants, The Independent, November 24, 2008 [94] Illegal immigrants in the US: How many are there?, csmonitor.com [95] Study Details Lives of Illegal Immigrants in U.S., NPR [96] David J. Lynch and Chris Woodyard, USA TODAY, April 11, 2006. Immigrants Claim Pivotal Role in Economy. [97] David J. Lynch and Chris Woodyard, USA TODAY, April 11, 2006. Immigrants Claim Pivotal Role in Economy. [98] "Unauthorized Migrants: Numbers and Characteristics". Pew Hispanic Center. 2005-05-14. http://pewhispanic.org/files/ reports/46.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-01. [99] "Title 8--Aliens and Nationality, Chapter 12--Immigration and Nationality, Subchapter II--Immigration (Sec. 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) and 8 U.S.C. 1324a)". U.S. Code Online. United States Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/osc/ref/ 8usc1324a.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-01. [100] inger, Thom (2008). "Going Off the R Record: Local Immigration Enforcement and the National Crime Information Center Database". American Journal of Criminal Law, 35. [101] olombia: In the Crossfire C [102]mmigration into Venezuela I [103] olombia: UNHCR signs agreement with C Venezuelan "Banco del Pueblo Soberano"

Illegal immigration
[104] enezuela | Child Soldiers Global Report V 2008

Further reading
• Barkan, Elliott R. "Return of the Nativists? California Public Opinion and Immigration in the 1980s and 1990s." Social Science History 2003 27(2): 229-283. in Project Muse • Vanessa B. Beasley, ed. Who Belongs in America?: Presidents, Rhetoric, And Immigration (2006) • Borjas, G.J. "The economics of immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, v 32 (1994), pp. 1667–717 • Cull, Nicholas J. and Carrasco, Davíd, ed. Alambrista and the US-Mexico Border: Film, Music, and Stories of Undocumented Immigrants U. of New Mexico Press, 2004. 225 pp. • Thomas J. Espenshade; "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual Review of Sociology. Volume: 21. 1995. pp 195+. • Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives 2003 30(2): 87-100 • Griswold, Daniel T.; "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States," Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, October 15, 2002. • Kennedy, Marie and Chris Tilly, ’They Work Here, They Live Here, They Stay Here!’: French immigrants strike for the right to work—and win. Dollars & Sense, July/August 2008. • Nicholas Laham; Ronald Reagan and the Politics of Immigration Reform Praeger Publishers. 2000. • Lisa Magaña, Straddling the Border: Immigration Policy and the INS (2003)j63-a12036-m12i-3620+3e • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Latetwentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341 9-4894945651 • Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (2004), 90952-15665 • Ngai, Mae M. "The Strange Career of the Illegal Alien: Immigration Restriction and Deportation Policy in the United States, 1921-1965" Law and History Review 2003

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21(1): 69-107. ISSN 0738–2480 Fulltext in History Cooperative • Mireille Rosello; "Representing Illegal Immigrants in France: From Clandestins to L’affaire Des Sans-Papiers De SaintBernard" Journal of European Studies, Vol. 28, 1998 959525126 • Dowell Myers (2007), Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America, Russell Sage Foundation, ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4. • Tolley, Brett "Dying to Get In" Documentary (2006) Undocumented Immigration Documentary

Illegal immigration
• Tranaes, T. and Zimmermann, K.F. (eds), Migrants, Work, and the Welfare State, Odense, University Press of Southern Denmark, (2004) • Venturini, A. Post-War Migration in Southern Europe. An Economic Approach Cambridge University Press (2004) • Zimmermann, K.F. (ed.), European Migration: What Do We Know? Oxford University Press, (2005) • Range, Peter R., Europe faces an immigrant tide National Geographic Magazine May 1993

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration" Categories: Wikipedia articles with off-topic sections, Human migration, Illegal immigration, Crimes This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 00:05 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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