Charlestown__South_Carolina by zzzmarcus

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Charleston, South Carolina

Charleston, South Carolina
City of Charleston — City —

Location of Charleston, South Carolina. The corner of King St. and Market St. in Charleston

Coordinates: 32°47′00″N 79°56′00″W / 32.783333°N 79.93333 / 32.783333; -79.933333 Country State Counties Government - Mayor Area - City - Land Seal - Water Elevation United States South Carolina Charleston, Berkeley Joseph P. Riley, Jr. 178.1 sq mi (376.5 km2) 147.0 sq mi (361.2 km2) 17.1 sq mi (44.3 km2) 20 ft (4 m) 126,567 (est.) 996.5/sq mi (384.7/km2) 720,695 EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) 843

Population (2008) - City Nickname(s): "The Holy City", "The Palmetto City", Carolopolis - Density (Latin), "Chucktown" - Metro Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, Time zone customs, and rights) - Summer (DST) Area code(s)
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45-13330[1] 1221516{{GProxy-Connection: keep-ali Cache-Control: max-age=0 3}} http://www.charlestoncity.info/

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Charleston is a city in Charleston County in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It is the largest city and county seat of Charleston County.[2] The city was founded as Charlestown or Charles Towne, Carolina in 1670, and moved to its present location (Oyster Point) from a location on the west bank of

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the Ashley River in 1680; it adopted its present name in 1783. In 1690, Charleston was the fifth largest city in North America,[3] and remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census.[4] Charleston is known as The Holy City due to the prominence of churches on the low-rise cityscape, particularly the numerous steeples which dot the city’s skyline, and for the fact that it was one of the few cities in the original thirteen colonies to provide religious tolerance to the French Huguenot Church.[5] In fact, it is still the only city in the U.S. with such a church.[6] Charleston was also one of the first colonial cities to allow Jews to practice their faith without restriction. Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim, founded in 1749, is the fourth oldest Jewish congregation in the continental United States.[7] Brith Sholom Beth Israel is the oldest Orthodox synagogue in the South, founded by Ashkenazi (German and central European) Jews in the mid 19th century.[8] The population was estimated to be 118,492 in 2007, making it the second most populous city in South Carolina closely behind the state capital Columbia.[9] Current trends put Charleston as the fastest growing central city in South Carolina. The city of Charleston is located just south of the mid-point of South Carolina’s coastline, at the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. Charleston’s name is derived from Charles Towne, named after King Charles II of England. America’s most-published etiquette expert, Marjabelle Young Stewart, has recognized the city since 1995 as the "bestmannered" city in the U.S,[10] a claim lent credibility by the fact that it has the first established Livability Court in the country.

Charleston, South Carolina

Homes along The Battery. Ashley River, a few miles northwest of the present city. It was soon chosen by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, one of the Lords Proprietors, to become a "great port towne", a destiny which the city fulfilled. By 1680, the settlement had grown, joined by others from England, Barbados, and Virginia, and relocated to its current peninsular location. The capital of the Carolina colony, Charleston was the center for further expansion and the southernmost point of English settlement during the late 1600s. The settlement was often subject to attack from sea and from land. Periodic assaults from Spain and France, who still contested England’s claims to the region, were combined with resistance from Native Americans, as well as pirate raids. Charleston’s colonists erected a fortification wall around the small settlement to aid in its defense. Two buildings remain from the Walled City, the Powder Magazine, where the city’s supply of gunpowder was stored, and the Pink House, believed to have been an old colonial tavern.[11] A 1680 plan for the new settlement, the Grand Modell, laid out "the model of an exact regular town," and the future for the growing community. Land surrounding the intersection of Meeting and Broad Streets was set aside for a Civic Square. Over time it became known as the Four Corners of the Law, referring to the various arms of governmental and religious law presiding over the square and the growing city. St. Michael’s Episcopal Church, Charleston’s oldest and most noted church, was built on the southeast corner in 1752. The following year the Capitol of the colony was erected across the square. Because of its prominent position within the city and its elegant architecture, the building

History
Early colonization
After Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland (1630-1685) was restored to the British throne following Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate, he granted the chartered Carolina territory to eight of his loyal friends, known as the Lords Proprietors, in 1663. It took seven years before the Lords could arrange for settlement, the first being that of Charles Town. The community was established by English settlers in 1670 on the west bank of the

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signaled to Charleston’s citizens and visitors its importance within the British colonies. Provincial court met on the ground floor, the Commons House of Assembly and the Royal Governor’s Council Chamber met on the second floor.

Charleston, South Carolina
interests, setting the stage for several generations of conflicts between the Upcountry and the Charleston elite.

Major Atlantic port
By the mid-18th century Charleston had become a bustling trade center, the hub of the Atlantic trade for the southern colonies, and the wealthiest and largest city south of Philadelphia. By 1770 it was the fourth largest port in the colonies, after only Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, with a population of 11,000, slightly more than half of that slaves. Rice and indigo had been successfully cultivated by slave-owning planters in the surrounding coastal low-country. Those and naval stores were exported in an extremely profitable shipping industry. It was the cultural and economic center of the South.

Ethnic and religious diversity
While the earliest settlers primarily came from England, colonial Charleston was also home to a mixture of ethnic and religious groups. In colonial times, Boston, Massachusetts, and Charleston were sister cities, and people of means spent summers in Boston and winters in Charleston. There was a great deal of trade with Bermuda and the Caribbean, and some people came to live in Charleston from these areas. French, Scottish, Irish, and Germans migrated to the developing seacoast town, representing numerous Protestant denominations, as well as Roman Catholicism and Judaism. Sephardic Jews migrated to the city in such numbers that Charleston eventually was home to, by the beginning of the 19th century and until about 1830, the largest and wealthiest Jewish community in North America[12][13] The Jewish Coming Street Cemetery, first established in 1762, attests to their long-standing presence in the community. The first Anglican church, St. Philip’s Episcopal Church, was built in 1682, although later destroyed by fire and relocated to its current location. Slaves also comprised a major portion of the population, and were active in the city’s religious community. Free black Charlestonians and slaves helped establish the Old Bethel United Methodist Church in 1797, and the congregation of the Emanuel A.M.E. Church stems from a religious group organized solely by African Americans, free and slave, in 1791. It is the oldest A.M.E. church in the south, and the second oldest A.M.E. church in the country. The first American museum opened to the public on January 12, 1773 in Charleston. From the mid-18th century a large amount of immigration was taking place in the upcountry of the Carolinas, some of it coming from abroad through Charleston, but also much of it a southward movement from Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, until the upcountry population was larger than the coastal population. The Upcountry people were viewed by Charlestonians as being unpolished in many ways, and had different

American Revolution
As the relationship between the colonists and England deteriorated, Charleston became a focal point in the ensuing American Revolution. In protest of the Tea Act of 1773, which embodied the concept of taxation without representation, Charlestonians confiscated tea and stored it in the Exchange and Custom House. Representatives from all over the colony came to the Exchange in 1774 to elect delegates to the Continental Congress, the group responsible for drafting the Declaration of Independence; and South Carolina declared its independence from the crown on the steps of the Exchange. Soon, the church steeples of Charleston, especially St. Michael’s, became targets for British warships causing rebel forces to paint the steeples black to blend with the night sky. It was twice the target of British attacks. At every stage the British strategy assumed a large base of Loyalist supporters who would rally to the King given some military support. On June 28, 1776 General Henry Henry Clinton with 2000 men and a naval squadron tried to seize Charleston, hoping for a simultaneous Loyalist uprising in South Carolina. It seemed a cheap way of waging the war but it failed as the naval force was defeated by the Continental Army, specifically the 2nd South Carolina Regiment at Fort Moultrie under the command of William Moultrie. When the fleet fired cannonballs, the explosives failed to penetrate the fort’s unfinished, yet thick palmetto log walls. Additionally, no

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local Loyalists attacked the town from behind as the British had hoped. The loyalists were too poorly organized to be effective, but as late as 1780 senior officials in London, misled by Loyalist exiles, placed their confidence in their rising. Clinton returned in 1780 with 14,000 soldiers. American General Benjamin Lincoln was trapped and surrendered his entire 5400 men force after a long fight, and the Siege of Charleston was the greatest American defeat of the war (see Henry Clinton "Commander in Chief" section for more). Several Americans escaped the carnage, and joined up with several militias, including those of Francis Marion, the ’Swampfox,’ and Andrew Pickens. These militias used Hit-and-run tactics. Eventually, Clinton returned to New York, leaving Charles Cornwallis with 8000 Redcoats to rally Loyalists, build forts across the state, and demand oaths of allegiance to the King. Many of these forts were taken over by the outnumbered guerrilla militias. The British retained control of the city until December 1782. After the British left the city’s name was officially changed to Charleston in 1783.

Charleston, South Carolina
Street Theatre, known as one of the oldest active theaters built for stage performance in the United States.[14] Benevolent societies were formed by several different ethnic groups: the South Carolina Society, founded by French Huguenots in 1737; the German Friendly Society, founded in 1766; and the Hibernian Society, founded by Irish immigrants in 1801. The Charleston Library Society was established in 1748 by some wealthy Charlestonians who wished to keep up with the scientific and philosophical issues of the day. This group also helped establish the College of Charleston in 1770, the oldest college in South Carolina and the 13th oldest in the United States. Charleston became more prosperous in the plantation-dominated economy of the post-Revolutionary years. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 revolutionized this crop’s production, and it quickly became South Carolina’s major export. Cotton plantations relied heavily on slave labor. Slaves were also the primary labor force within the city, working as domestics, artisans, market workers or laborers. Many black Charlestonians spoke Gullah, a language based on African American structures which combined African, French, German, Jamaican, English, Bahamian and Dutch words. In 1807 the Charleston Market was founded. It soon became a hub for the African-American community, with many slaves and free people of color staffing stalls. By 1820 Charleston’s population had grown to 23,000, with a black majority. When a massive slave revolt planned by Denmark Vesey, a free black, was discovered in 1822, such hysteria ensued amidst white Charlestonians and Carolinians that the activities of free blacks and slaves were severely restricted. Hundreds of blacks, free and slave, and some white supporters involved in the planned uprising were held in the Old Jail. It also was the impetus for the construction of a new State Arsenal in Charleston. Recently, research published by historian Michael P. Johnson of Johns Hopkins University has cast doubt on the veracity of the accounts detailing Vesey’s aborted slave revolt. As Charleston’s government, society and industry grew, commercial institutions were established to support the community’s aspirations. The Bank of South Carolina, the second oldest building constructed as a bank in the nation, was established here in 1798.

Commerce and Expansion
By 1788, Carolinians were meeting at the Capitol building for the Constitutional Ratification Convention, and while there was support for the Federal Government, division arose over the location of the new State Capital. A suspicious fire broke out in the Capitol building during the Convention, after which the delegates removed to the Exchange and decreed Columbia the new state capital. By 1792, the Capitol had been rebuilt and became the Charleston County Courthouse. Upon its completion, the city possessed all the public buildings necessary to be transformed from a colonial capital to the center of the antebellum South. The grandeur and number of buildings erected in the following century reflect the optimism, pride, and civic destiny that many Charlestonians felt for their community. As Charleston grew, so did the community’s cultural and social opportunities, especially for the elite merchants and planters. The first theater building in America was built in Charleston in 1736, but was later replaced by the 19th-century Planter’s Hotel where wealthy planters stayed during Charleston’s horse-racing season (now the Dock

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Branches of the First and Second Bank of the United States were also located in Charleston in 1800 and 1817. While the First Bank was converted to City Hall by 1818, the Second Bank proved to be a vital part of the community as it was the only bank in the city equipped to handle the international transactions so crucial to the export trade. By 1840, the Market Hall and Sheds, where fresh meat and produce were brought daily, became the commercial hub of the city. The slave trade also depended on the port of Charleston, where ships could be unloaded and the slaves sold at markets. Contrary to popular belief, slaves were never traded at the Market Hall areas.

Charleston, South Carolina
divisiveness resulted in a split in the Democratic Party, and the election of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate.

American Civil War and Reconstruction
American Civil War

Pre-Civil War Political Changes
In the first half of the 19th century, South Carolinians became more devoted to the idea that state’s rights were superior to the Federal government’s authority. Buildings such as the Marine Hospital ignited controversy over the degree in which the Federal government should be involved in South Carolina’s government, society, and commerce. During this period over 90 percent of Federal funding was generated from import duties, collected by custom houses such as the one in Charleston. In 1832 South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state could in effect repeal a Federal law, directed against the most recent tariff acts. Soon Federal soldiers were dispensed to Charleston’s forts and began to collect tariffs by force. A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over state’s rights would continue to escalate in the coming decades. Charleston remained one of the busiest port cities in the country, and the construction of a new, larger United States Custom House began in 1849, but its construction was interrupted by the events of the Civil War. Prior to the 1860 election, the National Democratic Convention convened in Charleston. Hibernian Hall served as the headquarters for the delegates supporting Stephen A. Douglas, who it was hoped would bridge the gap between the northern and southern delegates on the issue of extending slavery to the territories. The convention disintegrated when delegates were unable to summon a two-thirds majority for any candidate. This The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings, Charleston A shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. 1865. On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina General Assembly made the state the first to ever secede from the Union. On January 9, 1861, Citadel cadets fired the first shots of the American Civil War when they opened fire on the Union ship Star of the West entering Charleston’s harbor. On April 12, 1861, shore batteries under the command of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter in the harbor. After a 34-hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Officers and Cadets from The Citadel were assigned to various Confederate batteries during the bombardment of Fort Sumter. Although The Citadel continued to operate as an academy during the Civil War, cadets were made a part of the South Carolina military department along with the cadets from the Arsenal Academy in Columbia, to form the Battalion of State Cadets. Cadets from both institutions continued to aid the Confederate army by helping drill recruits, manufacture ammunition, protect arms depots, and guard Union prisoners. In December 1864 Citadel and Arsenal Cadets were ordered to join Confederate forces at Tullifinny Creek, South Carolina where they engaged in pitched battles with advancing units of General W. T. Sherman’s army, suffering eight casualties.

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Charleston, South Carolina

Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865. In all, The Citadel Corps of Cadets earned eight battle streamers and one service streamer for its service to South Carolina during the War. The city under siege took control of Fort Sumter, became the center for blockade running, and was the site of the first successful submarine warfare on February 17, 1864 when the H.L. Hunley made a daring night attack on the USS Housatonic.[15] In 1865, Union troops moved into the city, and took control of many sites, such as the United States Arsenal, which the Confederate army had seized at the outbreak of the war. The War department also confiscated the grounds and buildings of the Citadel Military Academy, which was used as a federal garrison for over 17 years, until its return to the state and reopening as a military college in 1882 under the direction of Lawrence E. Marichak.

King Street circa 1910-1920 by the war. Porter Military Academy later joined with Gaud School and is now a K-12 prep school, Porter-Gaud School. The William Enston Homes, a planned community for the city’s aged and infirmed, was built in 1889. J. Taylor Pearson, a freed slave, designed the Homes, and passed peacefully in them after years as the maintenance manager post-reconstruction. An elaborate public building, the United States Post Office and Courthouse, was completed in 1896 and signaled renewed life in the heart of the city. On August 31, 1886, Charleston was nearly destroyed by an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale. Major damage was reported as far away as Tybee Island, Georgia (over 60 miles away) and structural damage was reported several hundred miles from Charleston (including central Alabama, central Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southern Virginia, and western West Virginia). It was felt as far away as Boston to the north, Chicago and Milwaukee to the northwest, as far west as New Orleans, as far south as Cuba, and as far east as Bermuda. It damaged 2,000 buildings in Charleston and caused $6 million worth of damage ($133 million(2006 USD)), while in the whole city the buildings were only valued at approximately $24 million($531 million(2006 USD).

Reconstruction
After the defeat of the Confederacy, Federal forces remained in Charleston during the city’s reconstruction. The war had shattered the prosperity of the antebellum city. Freed slaves were faced with poverty and discrimination. Industries slowly brought the city and its inhabitants back to a renewed vitality and growth in population. As the city’s commerce improved, Charlestonians also worked to restore their community institutions. In 1867 Charleston’s first free secondary school for blacks was established, the Avery Institute. General William T. Sherman lent his support to the conversion of the United States Arsenal into the Porter Military Academy, an educational facility for former soldiers and boys left orphaned or destitute

Modern-day
Charleston is a major tourist destination, with a considerable number of luxury hotels, hotel chains, inns, and bed and breakfasts and a large number of award-winning restaurants and quality shopping. The city is well-known for its streets lined with grand live oaks draped with Spanish moss, and the

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Charleston, South Carolina

Daughters of the Confederacy Building, near Charleston’s downtown open market. aerospace industry is beginning to establish itself with the joint venture plant of Vought and Alenia Aeronautica, where two of the five sections of the Boeing 787 fuselage are fabricated and assembled. Charleston is also an important art destination, named a top 25 arts destination by AmericanStyle magazine.[17] Charleston is the primary medical center for the eastern portion of the state. The city has several major hospitals located in the downtown area alone: Medical University of South Carolina Medical Center (MUSC), Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, and Roper Hospital. MUSC is the state’s first school of medicine, the largest medical university in the state, and the sixth oldest continually operating school of medicine in the United States. The downtown medical district is experiencing rapid growth of biotechnology and medical research industries coupled with substantial expansions of all the major hospitals. Additionally, more expansions are planned or underway at several other major hospitals located in other portions of the city and the metropolitan area: Bon Secours-St Francis Xavier Hospital, Trident Medical Center, and East Cooper Regional Medical Center. Hurricane Hugo hit Charleston in 1989, and though the worst damage was in nearby McClellanville, the storm damaged threequarters of the homes in Charleston’s historic district. The hurricane caused over $2.8 billion in damage. In 1993, a squadron of the C-17 Globemaster III aircraft was established at the Charleston Air Force base.

Confederate Memorial at White Point Gardens.

Rainbow Row ubiquity of the Cabbage Palmetto, which is the state tree of South Carolina. Along the waterfront in an area known as Rainbow Row are many beautiful and historic pastelcolored homes. The city is also an important port, boasting the second largest container seaport on the East Coast and the fourth largest container seaport in North America.[16] Charleston is becoming a prime location for information technology jobs and corporations, most notably Blackbaud, Modulant, CSS, Benefitfocus, and Google. The

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The Medical University of South Carolina is the largest employer in the city limits.

Charleston, South Carolina
Fire Department. One station lost all but one of its firefighters.

Government
Charleston has a strong mayor-council government, with the mayor acting as the chief administrator and the executive officer of the municipality. The mayor also presides over city council meetings and has a vote, the same as other council members. The council has twelve members who are elected from one of twelve districts.

Police Department
The City of Charleston Police Department, with a total of 382 sworn officers, 137 civilians and 27 reserve police officers, is South Carolina’s largest police department. Their procedures on cracking down on drug use and gang violence in the city are used as models to other cities to do the same. According to the final 2005 FBI Crime Reports, Charleston crime level is worse than the national average in almost every major category.[21] Greg Mullen, the former Deputy Chief of Police in the City of Virginia Beach, Virginia, serves as the current police chief. The former Charleston police chief was Reuben Greenberg who resigned August 12, 2005). Greenberg was credited with creating a polite police force that kept police brutality well in check even as it developed a visible presence in community policing and a significant reductions in crime rates.[22]

Emergency services
City of Charleston Fire Department

EMS
Emergency medical services for the City of Charleston are provided by Charleston County Emergency Medical Services (CCEMS) & Berkeley County Emergency Medical Services (BCEMS). The city is served by both Charleston & Berkeley counties EMS and 911 services since the city is part of both counties.

Fire department station houses for Engines 2 and 3 of the Charleston Fire Department. The City of Charleston Fire Department consists of 237 firefighters in 19 companies located throughout the city.[18] The department operates on a 24/48 schedule, and had a Class 1 ISO rating until late 2008, when ISO officially lowered it to Class 3.[19] Russell (Rusty) Thomas served as Fire Chief until June 2008, and was succeeded by Chief Thomas Carr in November 2008. June 2007 Warehouse Tragedy In an unprecedented tragedy for the City of Charleston Fire Department, 9 firefighters were killed on June 18, 2007 in a furniture warehouse fire "Sofa Super Store", while searching for possible trapped occupants and attempting to extinguish the blaze.[20] It was the greatest single loss of firefighters in the United States since 343 firefighters were lost in the collapse of the World Trade Center which resulted from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the greatest loss of firefighters in the history of the Charleston

Crime
The following table shows Charleston’s crime rate in 6 crimes that Morgan Quitno uses for their calculation for "America’s most dangerous cities" ranking, in comparison to the national average. The statistics provided are not for the actual amount of crimes committed, but how many crimes committed Per Capita.[23] Since 1999, the overall crime rate of Charleston has begun to decline. The total crime index rate for 1999 was 597.1 crimes committed per 100,000 civilians. the United States Average is 320.9 (Per Capita). Charleston had a total crime index rate of 430.9 per 100,000 residents for the year of 2007. According to the Congressional Quarterly Press ’2008 City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan America, Charleston, South Carolina ranks as the 124th most dangerous

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Crime Murder Rape Robbery Assault Burglary Automobile Theft Charleston, South Carolina (2007) 12.8 50.3 244.1 515.6 676.5 1253.8

Charleston, South Carolina
National Average 6.9 32.2 195.4 340.1 814.5 391.3

city larger than 75,000 inhabitants.[24][25] However, the entire Charleston-North Charleston Statistical Metropolitan Area had a much higher overall crime rate ranking at #21.[26]

Major Highways
• • • • • • • • • • • • • U.S. Route 17 U.S. Route 52 Spur U.S. Route 78 Interstate 26 (Eastern Terminus is in Charleston) I-526 Business SC 7 - Sam Rittenberg Boulevard SC 30 - James Island Expressway SC 61 - St. Andrews Boulevard/Ashley River Road SC 41 SC 171 - Old Towne Road SC 517 - Clyde Moultrie Dangerfield Highway (Isle of Palms Connector)

Infrastructure and economy
Transportation
Airport

Charleston is served by Charleston International Airport (IATA: CHS, ICAO: KCHS), which is the busiest passenger airport in the state of South Carolina. The airport shares runways with the adjacent Charleston Air Force Base.

Interstates and highways
Interstate 26 enters the city from the north-northwest, and connects the city to its airport, Interstate 95, and Columbia, South Carolina. It ends at the Septima Clark Expressway downtown, which travels across two-thirds of the peninsula before merging into the Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge. The bridge and Septima Clark Expressway are part of U.S. Highway 17, which travels east-west through the cities of Charleston and Mount Pleasant. Interstate 526, or the Mark Clark Expressway, forms a half-circle around the city. U.S. Highway 52 is Meeting Street and its spur is Morrison Drive, which becomes East Bay Street after leaving the Eastside. This highway merges with King Street in the city’s Neck area (Industrial District) to form Rivers Avenue. U.S. Highway 78 is King Street in the downtown area, eventually merging with Meeting Street to form Rivers Avenue.

Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge
The Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge across the Cooper River (South Carolina) opened on July 16, 2005, and is the largest cable-stayed bridge in the Americas. The bridge links Mount Pleasant with downtown Charleston, and has eight lanes and a 12-foot lane shared by pedestrians and bicycles. It replaced the Grace Memorial Bridge (built in 1929) and the Silas N. Pearman Bridge (built in 1966). They were considered two of the more dangerous bridges in America and were demolished after the Ravenel Bridge opened.

Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority
The city is also served by a bus system, operated by the Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority (CARTA). The majority of the urban area is served by regional fixed route buses which are also equipped

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Charleston, South Carolina

The new Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge, constructed in 2005, is the longest cable-stayed bridge in the Western Hemisphere.

Columbus Street Terminal viewed from the southwest. A new terminal is being built on the former Naval Station grounds to accommodate the growing needs of the port.

Geography and Climate
The logo of CARTA with bike racks as part of the system’s Rack & Ride program. CARTA offers connectivity to historic downtown attractions and accommodations with DASH (Downtown Area Shuttle) trolley buses, and it offers curbside pickup for disabled passengers with its Tel-ARide buses. Rural parts of the city and metropolitan area are served by a different bus system, operated by Berkeley-Charleston-Dorchester Rural Transportation Management Association (BCD-RTMA).

Port
The Port of Charleston consists of five terminals. Three are on the Harbor and the other two are on the Cooper River just north of Charleston’s bustling harbor. The port is ranked number one in customer satisfaction across North America by supply chain executives.[27] Port activity, behind tourism, is the leading source of Charleston’s revenue. Piers • Columbus Street Terminal • Union Pier Terminal • North Charleston Terminal • Wando Terminal • Veterans Terminal Map showing the major rivers of Charleston and the Charleston Harbor watershed. The city proper consists of six distinct areas: the Peninsula/Downtown, West Ashley, Johns Island, James Island, Daniel Island, and the Cainhoy Peninsula.

Coordinates
Charleston is located at 32°47′N 79°56′W / 32.78°N 79.93°W / 32.78; -79.93.[28]

Topography
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 347.5 square

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Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures Month Rec High °F Norm High °F Norm Low °F Rec Low °F Precip (in) Jan 83 60 40 10 Feb 87 62 42 17 Mar Apr 90 69 46 22 95 76 52 29 May Jun 98 83 61 44 103 88 68 53 Jul 103 90 73 65

Charleston, South Carolina

Aug Sep 103 89 72 56 102 85 67 42

Oct 94 77 55 36

Nov 88 70 46 27

Dec 83 62 41 16

4.08 3.08 4

2.77 3.67

5.92 6.13 6.91 5.98 3.09 2.66 3.24

Source: USTravelWeather.com[31] kilometers (134.2 sq mi). 251.2 km2 (97.0 sq mi) of it is land and 44.3 km2 (17.1 sq mi) (15%) of it is water. The old city is located on a peninsula at the point where, as Charlestonians say, "The Ashley and the Cooper Rivers come together to form the Atlantic Ocean." The entire peninsula is very low, some of it is landfill material, and as such, it frequently floods during heavy rains, storm surges and unusually high tides. The city limits have expanded across the Ashley River from the peninsula encompassing the majority of West Ashley as well as James Island and some of Johns Island. The city limits also have expanded across the Cooper River encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, and Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. The tidal rivers (Wando, Cooper, Stono, and Ashley) are evidence of a submergent or drowned coastline. In other words, the original rivers had a lower base line, but as the ocean rose or the land sank, the landform was changed. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor, and the rivers are deep, affording a good location for a port. The rising of the ocean may be due to melting of glacial ice during the end of the ice age. In recent decades, the urban area of the city has become elongated along Interstate 26, while being fairly short from east to west. Today areas with a population density of over 1,000 people per square mile extends continuously from the tip of the peninsula out to the Summerville area. season; almost half of the annual rainfall occurs during the summer months in the form of thundershowers. Fall remains relatively warm through November. Winter is short and mild, and is characterized by occasional rain. Snow flurries seldom occur. The highest temperature recorded (inside city limits at the Customs House on E. Bay St.) was 104 °F (40 °C), on June 2, 1985, and the lowest temperature recorded was 10 °F (−12 °C) on January 21, 1985.[29] Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurricanes hitting the area - most notably Hurricane Hugo in 1989 (a Category 4 storm). Charleston was hit by a large tornado in 1761, which temporarily emptied the Ashley River, and sank five offshore warships.[30]

Metropolitan area
The Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of three counties: Charleston, Berkeley, and Dorchester. As of 2006, it was estimated that the metropolitan area had a total population of about 603,178 people.[32] North Charleston is nearly as populated as the city of Charleston and ranks as the third largest city in the state; Mount Pleasant and Summerville are the next largest cities. These cities combined with other incorporated and unincorporated areas surrounding the city of Charleston form the Charleston-North Charleston Urban Area with a population of 423,410 as of 2000. This population is slightly larger than Columbia’s urban area, making Charleston’s urban area the largest in the state. The metropolitan area also includes a separate and much smaller urban area within Berkeley County, Moncks Corner (2000 pop.: 9,123). The traditional parish system persisted until the Reconstruction, when counties were imposed. Nevertheless, traditional parishes still exist in various capacities, mainly as

Climate
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with mild winters, hot, humid summers, and significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest

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public service districts. The city of Charleston proper, which was originally defined by the limits of the Parish of St. Philip & St. Michael. It now also includes parts of St. James’ Parish, St. George’s Parish, St. Andrew’s Parish, and St. John’s Parish, although the last two are mostly still incorporated rural parishes.

Charleston, South Carolina
dialects, Charlestonian speakers inglide long mid vowels, such as the raising for /ay/ and /aw/. Some attribute these unique features of Charleston’s speech to its early settlement by the French Huguenots and Sephardic Jews, both of which played influential parts in Charleston’s development and history. However, given Charleston’s high concentration of African-Americans that spoke the Gullah language, the speech patterns were more influenced by the dialect of the Gullah African-American community. Today, the Gullah language and dialect is still spoken among African-American locals. However, rapid development, especially on the surrounding sea islands, is slowly diminishing its prominence. Two important works which shed light on Charleston’s early dialect are "Charleston Provincialisms" and "The Huguenot Element in Charleston’s Provincialisms," both written by Sylvester Primer. Further scholarship is needed on the influence of Sephardic Jews to the speech patterns of Charleston.

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 16,359 — 1790 24,711 — 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 24,780 30,289 29,261 42,985 40,522 48,956 49,984 54,955 55,807 58,833 67,957 62,265 71,275 70,174 60,288 66,945 69,779 80,414 96,650 0.3% 22.2% −3.4% 46.9% −5.7% 20.8% 2.1% 9.9% 1.6% 5.4% 15.5% −8.4% 14.5% −1.5% −14.1% 11.0% 4.2% 15.2% 20.2%

Religion

Est. 2008 121,569 25.8% The racial/Ethnic makeup of Charleston is 65.2% White Americans, 31.6% Black Americans, 1.6% Asian Americans, and 2.4% Hispanics or Latino (who may be of any race)[33]

French Protestant (Huguenot) Church The city has long been noted for its numerous churches and denominations. It is the seat of both the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston and the Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina. The city is home to one of two remaining Huguenot churches in America, the only one that is still a Protestant congregation.[34] The city is home to many well known churches, cathedrals, and synagogues. The churchtower spotted skyline is one of the reasons for the city’s nickname, "The Holy City." Historically, Charleston was one of the most religiously tolerant cities in the New World. Recently, the conservative

Culture
Charleston is well-known across the United States and beyond for its unique culture, which blends traditional southern American, English, French, and West African elements.

Dialect
Charleston’s unique but vanishing dialect has long been noted in the South and elsewhere, for the singular attributes it possesses. Alone among the various regional Southern

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Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston annually hosts Spoleto Festival USA, a 17-day art festival featuring over 100 performances by individual artists in a variety of disciplines. Other notable festivals include the Cooper River Bridge Run and the MOJA Arts Festival.

Museums and historical attractions

The Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist (Roman Catholic) Episcopal diocese of South Carolina, headquartered in Charleston, has been one of the key players in potential schism of the Anglican Church. Charleston is home to the only African-American Seventh Day Baptist Church congregation in the Seventh Day Baptist General Conference of the United States and Canada. The First Baptist Church of Charleston is the oldest Baptist church in the South and the first Southern Baptist Church in existence. It is also used as a private K-12 school. Charleston also has a large and historic Jewish population. The American branch of the Reform Jewish movement was founded in Charleston at Synagogue Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim. It is the fourth oldest Jewish congregation in the continental United States (after New York, Newport and Savannah).

Gibbes Art Gallery As an old colonial city, Charleston has a wide variety of museums and historical attractions. The Old Exchange and Customs House in downtown Charleston, finished in 1771, is arguably the third most important Colonial building in the nation (behind Faneuil Hall in Boston, Massachusetts and Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). The building features a dungeon which held various signers of the Declaration of Independence, and also hosted events for George Washington in 1791, and the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1788. It has also served as a U.S. post office, the first Confederate post office, and was used by the United States Coast Guard. Not far from the Old Exchange is the Fireproof Building housing the South Carolina Historical Society. A National Historic Landmark it was constructed in 1827. The building was originally called the Charleston District Record Building and is believed to be the oldest building of fireproof construction in the United States. It is characteristic of the work of Robert Mills, the first native-born American to be trained as an architect, and a Charleston native. Mills worked with other important early American architects such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Latrobe, and he was responsible for the Washington

Annual cultural events and fairs

Charleston Place on King Street

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Monument and many public buildings throughout the State and nation. The Fireproof Building was constructed in a simple Greek Doric style, consisting primarily of solid masonry, with window sashes and shutters of iron. Inside, an oval hall contains a cantilevered stone staircase lit by a cupola. Currently the building is the headquarters for the South Carolina Historical Society. Located at 100 Meeting St., the archives are open Monday-Friday 9am to 4pm. There is a small fee for non-members. (843-723-3225 or http://www.southcarolinahistoricalsociety.org/.) Not far from Charleston is the location of Fort Moultrie, which was instrumental in delivering a critical defeat to the British in the American Revolutionary War, and Fort Sumter, the reputed site of the "first shot" of the American Civil War. Patriot’s Point, located across the river in nearby Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, is also home to the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown as well as several other naval vessels. There are also several former plantations in the area, including Boone Hall Plantation, Drayton Hall, Magnolia Plantation, and Middleton Place. The Charleston Tea Plantation is located just south of the city on Wadmalaw Island, and is a true working tea farm. Charleston’s premier art museum is the Gibbes Museum of Art, one of the country’s oldest art organizations and home to over 10,000 works of fine art. Also the Charleston Museum was the first Museum in the Americas. Other attractions include the South Carolina Aquarium, the Audubon Swamp Garden, Cypress Gardens, and Charles Towne Landing which is also the original settlement area of Charles Towne and the birthplace of what is now considered modern Charleston.

Charleston, South Carolina
• The South Carolina Stingrays are an ice hockey team that play in the ECHL and are an affiliate of the Washington Capitals. The Stingrays play at the North Charleston Coliseum. • The Charleston Outlaws RFC is a Rugby Union Football Club founded in 1973. The Club is in good standing with the Palmetto Rugby Union, USA Rugby South, and USARFU. The club competes for honors in Men’s Division II against the Cape Fear, Columbia, Greenville, and Charlotte "B" clubs. The club also hosts a Rugby Sevens tournament during Memorial Day weekend. Other notable sports venues in the Charleston area include Family Circle Magazine Stadium (home of the WTA Tour affiliated professional tennis tournament for women, the Family Circle Cup) and Johnson Hagood Stadium (home of the The Citadel Bulldogs football team). Construction of the Palmetto Bowl was expected to begin in 2006 or 2007, but due to an NCAA boycott on sporting events being held in the state due to a Confederate flag issue, and a lack of funds, the plan to build a 35,000 seat stadium was scrapped. However, Johnson Hagood Stadium is almost finished with a major renovation, and the new West Stands will open up for the Sertoma Football Classic, a local high school football exhibition, in mid August 2007. The entire stadium will be finished in 2008. The College of Charleston has completed the Carolina First Center which seats 5,700 people for the school’s basketball & volleyball teams. Nearby Kiawah Island Golf Resort’s Ocean Course hosted the 1991 Ryder Cup matches, the 2007 Senior PGA Championship and is scheduled to host the 2012 PGA Championship. The National Football League’s (NFL) Carolina Panthers, whom play their home games at Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte, North Carolina, are considered the regional professional football home team of both South and North Carolina.

Sports
Charleston is home to a number of professional, minor league, and amateur sports teams: • The Charleston Battery, a professional soccer team, plays in the USL First Division. The Charleston Battery play at Blackbaud Stadium. • The Charleston RiverDogs, a Minor League Baseball team, play in the South Atlantic League, and are an affiliate of the New York Yankees. The RiverDogs play at Joseph P. Riley, Jr. Park.

Charleston in fiction
See also: List of television shows and movies in Charleston, South Carolina Several books have been written which utilize Charleston as a setting. In addition,

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Citadel alumnus and novelist Pat Conroy often writes about Charleston. In the summer of 2007, the pilot episode for an upcoming mini series, "El Cid", was filmed on The Citadel campus and in surrounding Charleston. Directed and produced by 2004 Citadel graduate Nicholaos Collins, the series is a dramatization based on the lives of Citadel Cadets and the rigors of cadet life. The show also stars and was co-produced by notable Charlestonian and 2004 Citadel Alumnus Yanni Bohren. The Gullah opera Porgy and Bess is set in Charleston. Clive Barker’s novel, Galilee, takes place partly in Charleston, as does Josephine Humphreys’s 1987 novel Rich in Love. In Harry Turtledove’s Timeline-191 alternate history series about a Confederacy that won the Civil War, Charleston suffers an airstrike from an American aircraft carrier in the summer of 1941, in response to the Confederate invasion of Ohio. By the last year of the war in 1945, the Union army drops its second atomic bomb on Charleston, vaporizing the city, in revenge for its secession in 1861. Rafael Sabatini’s novel, The Carolinian, takes place mostly in Charles Town between the years 1775-9. The 1991 bestseller Scarlett, sequel to Gone with the Wind, was partially set in Charleston, where Scarlett goes in the hope of getting her husband back. Rhett Butler, in both the original and in the sequel, is originally from Charleston. In fact, Alexandra Ripley, the author of Scarlett, derived inspiration from the city for her novel Charleston and its sequel On Leaving Charleston. The movie The Notebook was almost entirely filmed in and around Charleston. Charleston was also destroyed by a nuclear explosion in the 1983 made-for-television film Special Bulletin, which was presented as a realistic news broadcast of a terrorist event. Several portions of The Patriot were filmed on the College of Charleston campus. Also, several portions of O, Cold Mountain, and The In Crowd, were filmed in Charleston and on the former campus of Bishop England High School. The miniseries North and South starring Patrick Swayze was also filmed in and around Charleston. Currently, the Lifetime television series Army Wives is filming in Charleston for its

Charleston, South Carolina
second season. Most of the filming has been done at the old Navy base.

Cities and towns near Charleston
• Town of Awendaw • City of Folly Beach • City of Hanahan • City of Isle of Palms • Town of James Island • Town of Mount Pleasant • City of North Charleston • Town of Sullivan’s Island • Town of Summerville • City of Goose Creek • Town of Moncks Corner • Town of Hollywood • Town of Jamestown • Town of Ridgeville • Town of St. George • Town of Rockville • Town of Meggett • Town of McClellanville • Town of St. Stephen • Town of Bonneau

Other unincorporated areas
• • • • • • Johns Island Wadmalaw Island Morris Island Edisto Island Dewee’s Island Yonges Island

Squares in Downtown Charleston

SC State Arsenal (Old Citadel), adjacent to Marion Square • Court House Square

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• Liberty Square • Marion Square • Market Square • Washington Square • Wragg Square Liberty Square is located at what is known as the Aquarium Wharf and is a gathering area for tourists at the South Carolina Aquarium and the Fort Sumter Visitors Center. Marion Square is the largest of downtown’s squares, annually becoming the finishline area for the Cooper River Bridge Run every first weekend of April; the park functions as a gathering area for finishing walkers and runners as well as hosting the run’s outdoor festival.

Charleston, South Carolina

Major Shopping Complexes
The retail sector of Charleston County has seen skyrocketing growth. The major shopping areas are in West Ashley, Mount Pleasant, Summerville, North Charleston, and the downtown peninula. • Northwoods Mall • Citadel Mall • Tanger Outlet Center • Mount Pleasant Towne Centre • King Street Shopping District

Parks in Charleston
• Brittlebank Park & Fishing Pier • Cannon Park • Charles Towne Landing (state historic site) [2] • Concord Park • Corrine Jones Playground • Etwin Park • Hampton Park (Large park near the Citadel) • Harmon Park • Hazel Parker Park • Joseph P. Riley, Jr. Park (Home of the Charleston RiverDogs) • Hester Park • • • • • • • • • • • Mall Park Martin Park Mary Utsey Park McMahon Playground Mitchell Park Moultrie Park Parkshore Park Sunrise Park Waterfront Park West Ashley Park White Point Gardens or "Battery Park"

Schools, colleges, and universities
See also: List of schools in Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is served by the Charleston County School District, which is divided into eight Districts. These eight districts educate approximately 48,500 students from kindergarten through 12th grade, and contain 42 elementary schools, 13 middle schools, 8 high schools, 12 magnet schools, and 4 charter schools. Charleston County School District also contains the seventh best high school in the United States, the Academic Magnet high school located in the City of North Charleston. Charleston is also served by the Berkeley County School District in northern portions of the city, such as the Cainhoy Industrial District, Cainhoy Historical District, and Daniel Island. Charleston is also served by a large number of private schools, including Porter-Gaud School, Ashley Hall, First Baptist, Trident Academy, Charleston Day, Trinity Montessori Christian School and Mason Preparatory School. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston Office of Education also operates out of the city and has a large amount of parochial schools and Bishop England High School a diocesian high school within the city. Public institutions of higher education in Charleston include the College of Charleston (the nation’s thirteenth oldest university) and The Citadel (the state’s military college). The city is also home to Charleston Southern University (affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention), and Springfield College. The city is home to a law school, the

Charleston County Parks and Recreation Commission
• • • • • • • James Island County Park Folly Beach County Park Folly Beach Fishing Pier Palmetto Island County Park Caw Caw Interpretive Center Wannamaker County Park Wisniewski Park

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Charleston School of Law, as well as a medical school, the Medical University of South Carolina. Charleston is also home to the Roper Hospital School of Practical Nursing and Trident Technical College, and branches of Webster University are also located in the city. Graduate degrees from South Carolina’s top public universities are available in Charleston through the Lowcountry Graduate Center. Charleston is also the location for the only college in the country that offers bachelors degrees in the building arts, The American College of the Building Arts. The newest school to come to Charleston is The Art Institute of Charleston located downtown on North Market Street.

Charleston, South Carolina
• 315 Airlift Wing (Air Force Reserves)

Media serving Charleston
Charleston is the nation’s 99th largest Designated market area (DMA), with 307,610 households and 0.269% of the U.S. TV population.

Print and online media
• The local daily newspaper in Charleston is The Post and Courier. • Other newspapers include the Charleston City Paper, The College of Charleston’s George Street Observer, the Charleston Mercury, The Chronicle (weekly), the The Charleston Regional Business Journal, James Island Journal, Fort Moultrie News, The Summerville Journal Scene, West Of and the Island Eye News. • The official newspaper of the Diocese of Charleston is The Catholic Miscellany which is distriduted state wide on a weekly basis. • A local online-only paper is TheDigitel. • There are two major magazines "Charleston Magazine" and "Garden & Gun Magazine". • Visitor Magazine to Charleston Traveler of Charleston • Charleston Web Portal [3]

Armed Forces located in Charleston, South Carolina
Navy
• • • • • Naval Weapon Station Charleston Naval Nuclear Power School Naval Nuclear Power Training Unit Navy Consolidated Brig Navy Space and Naval Warfare Center Atlantic

Coast Guard
• Coast Guard Sector Charleston • Maritime Law Enforcement Academy • Southeast Regional Fisheries Training Center • Electronics Systems Support Detachment (ESD) Charleston • Vessel Boarding and Search Team (VBST) Charleston • USCGC Gallatin (WHEC-721) • USCGC Oak (WLB-211) • USCGC Yellowfin (WPB-87319)

Major network television affiliates
• • • • • WCBD-TV 2 (NBC) WCIV-TV 4 (ABC) WCSC-TV 5 (CBS) WITV-TV 7 (PBS) WHDC-TV 12 (Independent) • WCBD DT2-TV 14 (CW) • WLCN-TV 18 (Independent) • WAZS-TV 22 (Azteca America) • WTAT-TV 24 (Fox) • WMMP-TV 36 (MyTV) • WJNI-LP 42 (America One) • WCHD-TV 49

Army
South Carolina Army National Guard

State Military
South Carolina State Guard 3BDE HHC (Mount Pleasant) 5th/6th BN (North Charleston)

Radio
AM
• 690 WOKV - News-Talk from Jacksonville, Fla. • 810 WQIZ - EWTN Catholic Radio • 910 WTMZ - ESPN Sports Radio ("910 The Team")

Air Force
• 437 Airlift Wing

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• 950 WJKB - Classic Country, NASCAR racing ("AM 950 Classic Hit Country") • 980 WAZS [50’s and 60’s Oldies] ("Rocket 980") • 1250 WTMA - News/Talk ("News-Talk 1250") • 1340 WQSC - Beach Music ("The Boardwalk") • 1390 WXTC - Gospel ("Heaven 1390") • 1450 WQNT - News/Sports Fox Sports Radio - ("CNN 1450") • 1480 WZJY - Urban Talk

Charleston, South Carolina

Notes
[1] "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [2] "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/ Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/ cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [3] "Charleston Time Line". http://www.scottishritecalifornia.org/ charleston_time_line.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-09. [4] "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1840". http://www.census.gov/ population/documentation/twps0027/ tab07.txt. [5] "History of the Huguenot Society". http://www.huguenotsociety.org/ history.htm. [6] "French Huguenot Church in South Carolina Tourism webpage". http://www.discoversouthcarolina.com/ products/3407.aspx. [7] "Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim". http://www.kkbe.org/. [8] "Brith Sholom Beth Israel". http://www.bs-bi.com/. [9] "Century V City of Charleston Population Estimates" (PDF). http://www.charlestoncity.info/shared/ docs/0/2007_population_estimates.pdf. [10] "Charleston best-mannered city", CNN.com, January 17, 2004. Accessed May 9, 2007. [11] "Chalmers Street," Charleston County Public Library. Retrieved June 11, 2007. [12] "A ’portion of the People’," Harvard Magazine, January - February 2003. Retrieved June 11, 2007. [13] "The Jews of South Carolina," NPR.org, March 25, 2002. Retrieved June 11, 2007. [14] Mould, David R., and Missy Loewe. Historic Gravestone Art of Charleston, South Carolina, 1695-1802. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2006., p251) [15] "H. L. Hunley, Confederate Submarine," Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved June 13, 2007. [16] North American Container Traffic (2005), Port Ranking by TEUs as

FM
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 91.5 WKCL - Contemporary Christian 92.5 WIHB - Top 40 93.3 WWWZ - R&B and Hip-Hop 94.3 WSCC - News/Talk 95.1 WSSX - Current Top 50 Hits 96.9 WIWF - Country 98.1 WYBB - Hard Rock 98.9 WAZS - Regional Mexican 99.7 WXST - Urban AC / Classic R&B-Soul 100.5 WALC - Contemporary Christian 100.9 WAYX - Contemporary Christian Music 101.7 WAVF - Adult/Variety Hits 102.5 WXLY - Oldies 103.5 WEZL - Country 104.5 WRFQ - Classic Rock 105.5 WCOO - Triple A Rock 106.3 WJNI - Gospel 107.3 WMGL - Urban AC/ Classic R&BSoul

Sister cities
Charleston has two sister cities, one international and one domestic:[35] • • Spoleto (Umbria, Italy) Savannah, Georgia

See also
• List of people from Charleston, South Carolina • List of radio stations in Charleston • List of television shows and movies in Charleston, South Carolina • History of the Jews in Charleston, South Carolina • College of Charleston

References
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charleston, South Carolina

reported by the American Association of cb07-51tbl2.pdf+charleston+metropolitan+area+60 Port Authorities. a. Retrieved on 2007-07-09. [17] http://www.americanstyle.com/ME2/ [33] http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/ dirmod.asp?sid=&type=gen&mod=Core+Pages&gid=D4BC7638393C45F5B69956570EB94649 smadb/smadb-06.pdf [18] "Investigation examining Charleston [34] "Huguenot Links". The Huguenot Society firefighters’ handling of deadly blaze," of America. KSLA News 12. Retrieved June 21, 2007. http://www.huguenotsocietyofamerica.org/ [19] "Fire department overview," City of links.php. Retrieved on 2008-09-12. Charleston Official Website. Retrieved [35] Sister cities designated by Sister Cities June 20, 2007. International. [20] Bruce Smith, "Nine Charleston Firefighters Perish in Blaze," Associated Bibliography Press article at Firehouse.com, June 19, General 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007. • Borick, Carl P. A Gallant Defense: The [21] ""2005 FBI Crime Reports"". Siege of Charleston, 1780. U. of South Charlestonsc.areaconnect.com. Carolina Press, 2003. 332 pp. http://charlestonsc.areaconnect.com/ • Bull, Kinloch, Jr. The Oligarchs in Colonial crime1.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-25. and Revolutionary Charleston: Lieutenant [22] Michael Ledeen, "Hail to the Chief," Governor William Bull II and His Family. National Review Online, August 18, U. of South Carolina Press, 1991. 415 pp. 2005. Retrieved June 18, 2007. • Clarke, Peter. A Free Church in a Free [23] "Charleston, South Carolina (SC) Society. The Ecclesiology of John England, Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, Bishop of Charleston, 1820-1842, a travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, Nineteenth Century Missionary Bishop in move, moving, houses news, sex the Southern United States. Charleston, offenders". City-data.com. S.C.: Bagpipe, 1982. 561 pp. http://www.city-data.com/city/ • Coker, P. C., III. Charleston’s Maritime Charleston-South-Carolina.html. Heritage, 1670-1865: An Illustrated Retrieved on 2009-02-25. History. Charleston, S.C.: Coker-Craft, [24] http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/ 1987. 314 pp. CityCrime2008_Rank_Rev.pdf • Doyle, Don H. New Men, New Cities, New [25] "CQ Press: City Crime Rankings 2008". South: Atlanta, Nashville, Charleston, Os.cqpress.com. http://os.cqpress.com/ Mobile, 1860-1910. U. of North Carolina citycrime2008/citycrime2008.htm. Press, 1990. 369 pp. Retrieved on 2009-02-25. • Fraser, Walter J., Jr. Charleston! [26] http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/ Charleston! The History of a Southern MetroCrime2008_Rank_Rev.pdf City. U. of South Carolina, 1990. 542 pp. [27] Charleston ranks #1 in Customer the standard scholarly history Service • Gillespie, Joanna Bowen. The Life and [28] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". Times of Martha Laurens Ramsay, United States Census Bureau. 1759-1811. U. of South Carolina Press, 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/ 2001. 315 pp. www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved • Hagy, James William. This Happy Land: on 2008-01-31. The Jews of Colonial and Antebellum [29] Maximum and minimum temperatures Charleston. U. of Alabama Press, 1993. from Yahoo! Weather 450 pp. [30] Lane, F.W. The Elements Rage (David & • Jaher, Frederic Cople. The Urban Charles 1966), p. 49 Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, [31] [1] New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los [32] "Population Estimates for the 100 Most Angeles. U. of Illinois Press, 1982. 777 pp. Populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas • McInnis, Maurie D. The Politics of Taste in Based on July 1, 2006 Population Antebellum Charleston. U. of North Estimates". http://209.85.165.104/ Carolina Press, 2005. 395 pp. search?q=cache:6GtNR2OjFQEJ:www.census.gov/ • Pease, William H. and Pease, Jane H. The Press-Release/www/releases/archives/ Web of Progress: Private Values and

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Public Styles in Boston and Charleston, 1828-1843. Oxford U. Press, 1985. 352 pp. Pease, Jane H. and Pease, William H. A Family of Women: The Carolina Petigrus in Peace and War. U. of North Carolina Press, 1999. 328 pp. Pease, Jane H. and Pease, William H. Ladies, Women, and Wenches: Choice and Constraint in Antebellum Charleston and Boston. U. of North Carolina Press, 1990. 218 pp. Phelps, W. Chris. The Bombardment of Charleston, 1863-1865. Gretna, La.: Pelican, 2002. 175 pp. Rosen, Robert N. Confederate Charleston: An Illustrated History of the City and the People during the Civil War. U. of South Carolina Press, 1994. 181 pp. Rosen, Robert. A Short History of Charleston. University of South Carolina Press, (1997). ISBN 1-57003-197-5, scholarly survey Spence, E. Lee. Spence’s Guide to South Carolina: diving, 639 shipwrecks (1520-1813), saltwater sport fishing, recreational shrimping, crabbing, oystering, clamming, saltwater aquarium, 136 campgrounds, 281 boat landings (Nelson Southern Printing, Sullivan’s Island, S.C.: Spence, ©1976) OCLC: 2846435 Spence, E. Lee. Treasures of the Confederate Coast: the "real Rhett Butler" & Other Revelations (Narwhal Press, Charleston/Miami, ©1995)[ISBN 1886391017] [ISBN 1886391009], OCLC: 32431590

Charleston, South Carolina
• McNeil, Jim. Charleston’s Navy Yard: A Picture History. Charleston, S.C.: Coker Craft, 1985. 217 pp. • O’Brien, Michael and Moltke-Hansen, David, ed. Intellectual Life in Antebellum Charleston. U. of Tennessee Press, 1986. 468 pp. • Poston, Jonathan H. The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City’s Architecture. U. of South Carolina Press, 1997. 717 pp. • Severens, Kenneth. Charleston: Antebellum Architecture and Civic Destiny. U. of Tennessee Press, 1988. 315 pp. • Stephens, Lester D. Science, Race, and Religion in the American South: John Bachman and the Charleston Circle of Naturalists, 1815-1895. U. of North Carolina Press, 2000. 338 pp. • Waddell, Gene. Charleston Architecture: 1670-1860. 2 vol. Charleston, S.C.: Wyrick, 2003. 992 pp. • Weyeneth, Robert R. Historic Preservation for a Living City: Historic Charleston Foundation, 1947-1997. (Historic Charleston Foundation Studies in History and Culture series.) U. of South Carolina Press, 2000. 256 pp. • Yuhl, Stephanie E. A Golden Haze of Memory: The Making of Historic Charleston. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005. 285 pp. • Zola, Gary Phillip. Isaac Harby of Charleston, 1788-1828: Jewish Reformer and Intellectual. U. of Alabama Press, 1994. 284 pp.

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Art, Architecture, Literature, Science
• Cothran, James R. Gardens of Historic Charleston. U. of South Carolina Press, 1995. 177 pp. • Greene, Harlan. Mr. Skylark: John Bennett and the Charleston Renaissance. U. of Georgia Press, 2001. 372 pp. • Hutchisson, James M. and Greene, Harlan, ed. Renaissance in Charleston: Art and Life in the Carolina Low Country, 1900-1940. U. of Georgia Press, 2003. 259 pp. • Hutchisson, James M. DuBose Heyward: A Charleston Gentleman and the World of Porgy and Bess. U. Press of Mississippi, 2000. 225 pp.

Race
• Bellows, Barbara L. Benevolence among Slaveholders: Assisting the Poor in Charleston, 1670-1860. Louisiana State U. Press, 1993. 217 pp. • Drago, Edmund L. Initiative, Paternalism, and Race Relations: Charleston’s Avery Normal Institute. U. of Georgia Press, 1990. 402 pp. • Egerton, Douglas R. He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey. Madison House, 1999. 248 pp. online review • Greene, Harlan; Hutchins, Harry S., Jr.; and Hutchins, Brian E. Slave Badges and the Slave-Hire System in Charleston, South Carolina, 1783-1865. McFarland, 2004. 194 pp.

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• Jenkins, Wilbert L. Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post-Civil War Charleston. Indiana U. Press, 1998. 256 pp. • Johnson, Michael P. and Roark, James L. No Chariot Let Down: Charleston’s Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War. U. of North Carolina Press, 1984. 174 pp. • Kennedy, Cynthia M. Braided Relations, Entwined Lives: The Women of Charleston’s Urban Slave Society. Indiana U. Press, 2005. 311 pp. • Powers, Bernard E., Jr. Black Charlestonians: A Social History,

Charleston, South Carolina
1822-1885. U. of Arkansas Press, 1994. 377 pp.

External links
• City of Charleston Official Website • Charleston Convention & Visitors Bureau • Charleston, South Carolina at the Open Directory Project • Charleston Regional Development Alliance • Charleston (South Carolina) travel guide from Wikitravel • ‹The template WikiMapia is being considered for deletion.› • Charleston at WikiMapia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charleston,_South_Carolina" Categories: Settlements established in 1670, Berkeley County, South Carolina, Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Cities in South Carolina, Former United States state capitals, Port settlements in the United States, United States colonial and territorial capitals, County seats in South Carolina, Regions of South Carolina, Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville metropolitan area, Former British colonies This page was last modified on 23 May 2009, at 02:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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