Toronto__ON by zzzmarcus

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City of Toronto Martha Hall Findlay Michael Ignatieff Jim Karygiannis Jack Layton Derek Lee John McKay Dan McTeague Maria Minna Peggy Nash Rob Oliphant Bob Rae Yasmin Ratansi Judy Sgro Mario Silva Michelle Simson Alan Tonks Joe Volpe Borys Wrzesnewskyj List of MPPs Bas Balkissoon Lorenzo Berardinetti Margarett Best Laurel Broten Michael Bryant Donna Cansfield David Caplan Mike Colle Paul Ferreira Cheri DiNovo Brad Duguid Monte Kwinter Rosario Marchese Gerry Phillips Michael Prue Shafiq Qaadri Tony Ruprecht Mario Sergio George Smitherman Peter Tabuns Kathleen Wynne David Zimmer 630 km2 (243.2 sq mi) 1,749 km2 (675.3 sq mi) 7,125 km2 (2,751 sq mi) 76 m (249 ft)


Coat of arms

Nickname(s): T.O., T-Dot, Hogtown, The Queen City, The Big Smoke, Toronto the Good Motto: Diversity Our Strength - MPPs

Location of Toronto and its census metropolitan area in the province of Ontario

Coordinates: 43°39′9.01″N 79°23′0.81″W / 43.6525028°N 79.3835583°W / 43.6525028; -79.3835583Coordinates: 43°39′9.01″N 79°23′0.81″W / 43.6525028°N 79.3835583°W / 43.6525028; -79.3835583 Country Province Districts Canada Ontario East York, Etobicoke, North York, Old Toronto, Scarborough, York August 27, 1793 March 6, 1834 January 1, 1998 David Miller Toronto City Council List of MPs Carolyn Bennett John Cannis Olivia Chow Roy Cullen Ken Dryden Area [1][2] - City - Urban - Metro Elevation

Established Incorporated Amalgamated Government - Mayor - Council - MPs

Population (2006)[1][2] 2,503,281 - City 3,972/km2 (10,287.4/ - Density sq mi) 4,753,120 - Urban 5,739,274 - Metro Torontonian - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4)


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Postal code span Area code(s) NTS Map GNBC Code Website M (416) and (647) 030M11 FEUZB


When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Huron tribes, who by then had displaced the Iroquois tribes that had occupied the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water".[17] It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.[18] During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the unsettled lands north of Lake Ontario. In 1787, the British negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of New Credit, thereby securing more than a quarter million acres (1000 km²) of land in the Toronto area.[19] In 1793 Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe chose the town to replace Newark as the capital of Upper Canada,[20] believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans.[21] Fort York was constructed at the entrance of the town’s natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town’s settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street (in the Corktown-St. Lawrence area). In 1813 as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town’s capture and plunder by American forces.[22] The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of Fort York and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. The sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the war. York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. The population of only 9,000 included escaped African American

Toronto (pronounced /təˈrɒntoʊ/, colloquially [ˈtɹɑnoʊ] or [təˈɹɑnoʊ]) is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. With over 2.5 million residents, it is the fifth most populous municipality in North America. Toronto is at the heart of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and is part of a densely populated region in Southern Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe, which is home to 8.1 million residents and has approximately 25% of Canada’s population.[3][4][5] The census metropolitan area (CMA) had a population of 5,113,149,[1] and the Greater Toronto Area had a population of 5,555,912 in the 2006 Census.[4] As Canada’s economic capital, Toronto is considered a global city[6] and is one of the top financial centres in the world.[7][8] Toronto’s leading economic sectors include finance, business services, telecommunications, aerospace, transportation, media, arts, film, television production, publishing, software production, medical research, education, tourism and sports industries.[9][10] The Toronto Stock Exchange, the world’s seventh largest, is headquartered in the city, along with a majority of Canada’s corporations. Toronto’s population is cosmopolitan and international,[11] reflecting its role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada.[12] Toronto is one of the world’s most diverse cities by percentage of nonnative-born residents, as about 49% of the population were born outside of [11][12][13] Because of the city’s low Canada. crime rates, clean environment, high standard of living, and friendlier attitudes to diversity, Toronto is consistently rated as one of the world’s most livable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit[14] and the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.[15] In addition, Toronto was ranked as the most expensive Canadian city in which to live in 2006.[16] Residents of Toronto are called Torontonians.


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Map of Toronto, 1894 slaves fleeing Black Codes in some states.[23] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada in 1834. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto, and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. The city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century, as a major destination for immigrants to Canada. The first significant population influx occurred with the Great Irish Famine brought a large number of Irish to the city, some of them transient and most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant and long lasting influence over Toronto society. Subway construction on Yonge Street, 1949 1849–1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856-1858 after which Quebec became capital until 1866 (one year before Confederation); since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa.[24] As it had been for Upper Canada from 1793, Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867, the seat of government located at the Ontario Legislature located at Queen’s Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown. In the 19th century an extensive sewage system was built, and streets became illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before which enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular spirits) centre in North America, the Gooderham and Worts Distillery operations became the world’s largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District, the harbour allowed for sure access of grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in Northern Timber for

Toronto Harbour, 1919. Union Station can be seen under construction. Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada first from


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export and imported Pennsylvania coal, industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years. Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.[25] In 1954 the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto.[26] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the old, i.e. pre-1954 City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was dissolved by the Provincial Government in the face of vigorous opposition from the smaller component municipalities and all six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, where David Miller is the current Mayor.

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire had cost more than $10 million in damage, led to more stringent fire safety laws, and the expansion of the city’s fire department. In 1954, a halfcentury later, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage.[27] The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type slums, such as "the Ward" which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country’s finances. Despite its fast paced growth, by the 1920s Toronto’s population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal. However, by 1934 the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country. Following the Second World War refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese jobseekers arrived. So too did construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Following elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto’s population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada’s most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and other western Canadian cities.[28] The city celebrated its 175th anniversary on March 6, 2009, since its in inception as the City of Toronto in 1834.

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904.


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360-degree panorama of Toronto, Canada, as seen from the CN Tower. The Toronto Islands and the Toronto City Centre Airport are visible in Lake Ontario on the left side of the image.

The Scarborough Bluffs Harbour. The harbour was naturally created by sediment build-up from lake currents that created the Toronto Islands. The many creeks and rivers cutting from north toward the lake created large tracts of densely forested ravines, and provide ideal sites for parks and recreational trails. However, the ravines also interfere with the city’s grid plan, and this results in major thoroughfares such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue terminating on one side of ravines and continuing on the other side. Other thoroughfares such as the Prince Edward Viaduct are required to span above the ravines. These deep ravines prove useful for draining the city’s vast storm sewer system during heavy rains, but some sections, particularly near the Don River are prone to sudden, heavy floods. Storage tanks at waste treatment facilities will often receive too much river discharge causing them to overflow, allowing untreated sewage to escape into Lake Ontario closing local beaches for swimming. During the last ice age, the lower part of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Today, a series of escarpments mark the lake’s former boundary, known as the Iroquois Shoreline. The escarpments are

A simulated-colour image of Toronto taken by NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite from 1985. Yonge Street can clearly be seen bisecting the city just right of centre in the image. The other prominent road, running east-west, is Highway 401. Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi),[29] with a maximum north-south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) and a maximum east-west distance of 43 km (27 mi). It has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend some distance out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour immediately south of the downtown core.[30] The city’s borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River to the east.

The city is intersected by two rivers and numerous tributaries: the Humber River in the west end and the Don River east of downtown at opposite ends of the Toronto


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most prominent from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek, where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. Other observable sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from Caledonia to Spadina Road; the Casa Loma grounds sit above this escarpment. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not remarkably hilly, but elevation differences range from 75 metres (246 ft) above-sea-level at the Lake Ontario shore to 270 m (886 ft) ASL near the York University grounds in the city’s north end. Much of the current lakeshore land area fronting the Toronto Harbour is artificial landfill filled during the late 19th century. Until then the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back further inland than today. Much of the adjacent Portlands are also fill. The Toronto Islands were a natural landspit until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel later used by shipping interests to access the docks.

makes for warmer nights all year around and is not as cold throughout the winter than surrounding areas (particularly north of the city), however it can be noticeably cooler on many spring/early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze. Other lowscale maritime effects on the climate include lake effect snow, fog and delaying of springand fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag.

Early Winter scene at the intersection of Dundas Street and University Avenue Toronto winters sometimes feature short cold snaps where maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill. Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain can disrupt work and travel schedules, accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. However, mild stretches with temperatures in the 5 to 12 °C (40 to 54 °F) range and infrequently higher also occur in most winters melting accumulated snow. Summer in Toronto is characterized by long stretches of humid weather. Usually in the range from 23 °C (73 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F), daytime temperatures occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity making it feel oppressive during these brief periods of hot weather. Spring and Autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought-like conditions are rare. The average yearly precipitation is 83 cm (33 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 133 cm (52 in). Toronto


Late spring scene in High Park, in Toronto’s west end Toronto’s climate is moderate for Canada owing to its southerly location within the country. It has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with warm, humid summers and cold winters. The city experiences four distinct seasons with considerable variance in day to day temperature, particularly during the colder weather season. Owing to urbanization and proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low diurnal temperature range (day-night temperature difference). In general, the denser urban scape


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
experiences an average of 2,038 sunshine hours or 44% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 27% in December to 59% in July.[31]

has said "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place — a big mix of periods and styles."[33] Toronto buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the mid-1800s, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the 2000s. Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower. At a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft, 5 in) it was the world’s tallest[34] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by the Burj Dubai, but it is still the tallest tower in the western hemisphere surpassing Chicago’s Sears Tower by 110 metres in height. It is an important telecommunications hub, and a centre of tourism in Toronto.


Downtown Toronto as seen at night.

See also: List of tallest buildings in Toronto, Doors Open Toronto, and List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto

Art Gallery of Ontario Toronto is a city of high-rises, having over 2,000 buildings over 90 metres (300 ft) in height, second only to New York City (which has over 5,000 such buildings) in North America.[35] Most of these buildings are residential (either rental or condominium), whereas the Central business district contains the taller commercial office towers. There has been recent media attention given for the need to retrofit many of these buildings, which were constructed beginning in the 1950s as residential apartment blocks to accommodate a quickly growing population. In contrast, Toronto has also begun to experience an architectural overhaul within the past five years. The Royal Ontario Museum, the Gardiner Museum, the Art Gallery of Ontario, and the Ontario College of Art and Design are just some of the many public art buildings that have undergone massive renovations.[36] The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown, is North America’s largest and best preserved collection of Victorian era industrial architecture. It has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood. Modern glass and

The CN Tower viewed from Rogers Centre (originally called SkyDome) According to knowledgeable Toronto residents, and architects who have designed buildings in the city, such as Will Alsop, Toronto has no single, dominant architectural style. Lawrence Richards, a member of the faculty of architecture at the University of Toronto,


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steel highrises have begun to transform the majority of the downtown area as the condominium market has exploded and triggered widespread construction throughout the city’s centre. Trump International Hotel and Tower, Ritz-Carlton, Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts are just some of the many high rise luxury condominium-hotel projects currently under construction in the downtown core.

neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, North York, Old Toronto, Scarborough, and York.

See also: List of neighbourhoods in Toronto and History of neighbourhoods in Toronto

Map of Toronto with major traffic routes The Old City of Toronto covers the area generally known as Downtown. It is the historic core of Toronto and remains the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the largest cluster of skyscrapers in Canada, including the First Canadian Place, Toronto Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. Old Toronto is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. These neighbourhoods generally feature upscale homes, luxury condominiums and high-end retail. At the same time, the downtown core vicinity includes neighbourhoods with a high proportion of recent immigrants and low-income families living in social housing and rental high-rises, such as St. James Town, Regent Park, Moss Park, Alexandra Park and Parkdale. East and west of Downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as vibrant communities of artists with studio lofts, with an increasing proportion of middle and upper class professionals that mix with the working poor or those on some form of government assistance. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two Chinatowns, the popular Greektown area, the

Aerial view of downtown Toronto. The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core. Victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. Wychwood Park is historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto’s earliest planned communities. The Wychwood Park neighbourhood was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. The Casa Loma neighbourhood is named after Casa Loma, a storybook castle built in 1911 complete with stunning gardens, multiple turrets, massive stables, an elevator, secret passages, and bowling alleys. Spadina House is a 19th century manor that is now a museum. The City of Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by six separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger


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trendy Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India along with others.

the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest "planned communities" was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s.[37] Phased development mixing single-detached housing with higher density apartment blocks became more popular as a suburban model of development. To some this model has been copied in other GTA municipalities surrounding Toronto, albeit with less population density. Over the last few decades, the North York Centre that runs along Yonge Street and the Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business centres outside the downtown core. High-rise development in these areas have given North York and Scarborough distinguishable skylines of their own and a more downtown feel with high-density transit corridors serving them.

Row houses in Old Toronto; some of the houses shown have the distinctive bay-andgable design, common in many parts of Old Toronto. The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These are mature and traditionally working class areas, primarily consisting of post-World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood-Vaughan mainly consist of high-rise apartments which are home to many new immigrant families. Recently, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically diverse and have undergone gentrification, as a result of increasing population and a housing boom during the late 1990s and 2000s. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area’s housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled. The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York (north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the advent of Metro Government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York,


The Distillery District. In the earlier industrial era of Toronto, industry became concentrated along the Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth. The Distillery District contains the largest and best-preserved collection of Victorian industrial architecture in North America. Once the largest alcohol processing centre in North America, related structures along the Harbour include the Canada Malting Co. grain processing towers and the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Although production of spirits has declined over the decades, Toronto still has a robust and growing microbreweryindustry. The District is a national heritage site, it was listed by National Geographic magazine as a "top pick" in Canada for travellers.


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Similar areas that still retain their post-industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/Mount Dennis and Junction areas have a sense of grit to them, as they still contain factories, meat packing facilities and railyards close to medium density residential. Beginning in the late 19th century as Toronto sprawled out, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts. Over time, pockets of insutrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses have mostly moved to the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions; but also within the current city: Etobicoke (concentrated around Pearson Airport), North York, and Scarborough. Many of Toronto’s former industrial sites close to (or Downtown) have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront and Liberty Village, large-scale development is underway in the West Don Lands. The still mostly vacated Port Lands remain largely undeveloped, apart from a power plant, a shipping container facility and out-ofcommission industrial facilities. There are future plans for development, including residential areas under the guidance of Waterfront Toronto.

Toronto has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. A group called the Toronto Public Space Committee was formed to protect the city’s public spaces. Nathan Phillips Square is the city’s main square in downtown, and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge-Dundas Square, a newer square not far from City Hall, has also gained attention in recent years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. Other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the revitalized Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York.

HTO Park, Toronto’s first artificial urban beach There are many large downtown parks, which include Grange Park, Moss Park, Allan Gardens, Queen’s Park, Riverdale Park, Trinity Bellwoods Park, Christie Pits, and the Leslie Street Spit, which is Tommy Thompson Park on weekends. The Toronto Islands have several acres of park space, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guildwood Park, and Rouge Park. An almost hidden park is the compact Cloud Gardens,[38] which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse in downtown Toronto. Both squares and parks are associated with rinks or pools for public ice-skating. Nathan Phillips Square is currently undergoing a major redesign by PLANT Architect Inc., Shore Tilbe Irwin & Partners, Peter Lindsay Schaudt Landscape Architecture Inc., and Adrian Blackwell (winners of the International Design Competition in 2006/ 2007). West 8, a Dutch architecture firm,

Public spaces
See also: List of Toronto parks

Yonge-Dundas Square, one of the busiest squares in the city


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won the Central Waterfront Innovative Design Competition in 2006 to redesign the central part of the Toronto waterfront.[39][40] In 1999, Downsview Park initiated an international design competition to realise its vision of creating Canada’s first national urban park. In May 2000, the winning park design was announced: "TREE CITY", by the team of Bruce Mau Design, Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Oleson Worland Architect and Inside/Outside.

Shakespeare production in Toronto’s High Park called "Dream in High Park". Canada’s Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with of a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street.

See also: Recreation in Toronto and Annual events in Toronto

Exhibition Place from the CNE Ferris Wheel, 2008 Toronto is a major scene for theatre and other performing arts, with more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and the Canadian Stage Company. Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the Toronto Centre for the Arts, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts (originally the "O’Keefe Centre" and formerly the "Hummingbird Centre"). Ontario Place features the world’s first permanent IMAX movie theatre, the Cinesphere,[41] as well as the Molson Amphitheatre, an open-air venue for large-scale music concerts. Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor

The Royal Alexandra Theatre The Distillery District is a pedestrian village containing boutiques, art galleries, restaurants, artist studios and small breweries, including the well-known Mill Street Brewery. A new theatre in the district, the Young Centre for the Performing Arts, is the home of the Soulpepper Theatre Company and the drama productions of nearby George Brown College. The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Many movie releases are screened in Toronto before wider release in North America. The Toronto International Film Festival is one of the most important annual events for the international film industry. Europe’s largest film studio, Pinewood Studios Group of London, is scheduled to open a major new film studio complex in west-end Toronto, with five sound stages, with the first two to open by fall 2008. Toronto’s Caribana festival takes place from mid-July to early August of every


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summer, and is one of North America’s largest street festivals.[42] Primarily based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city’s Caribbean community celebrated Canada’s Centennial year. Forty years later, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto’s Lake Shore Boulevard annually. Tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates about $300 million in revenue. Pride Week in Toronto takes place in late June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the world. One of the largest events in the city, it attracts more than one million people from around the world. Toronto is a major centre for gay and lesbian culture and entertainment, and the gay village is located in the Church and Wellesley area of Downtown.

metres (1,815 ft). To the surprise of its creators, the tower held the world record for over 30 years.[43] The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is a major museum for world culture and natural history. The Toronto Zoo, one of the largest in the world,[44][45] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum’s collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The Ontario Science Centre always has new hands-on activities and science displays particularly appealing to children, and the Bata Shoe Museum features many unique exhibitions focussed on footwear. The centrally located Textile Museum possesses another niche collection of great quality and interest. The Don Valley Brick Works is a former industrial site, which opened in 1889, and has recently been restored as a park and heritage site. The Canadian National Exhibition is held annually at Exhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the world. It is Canada’s largest annual fair and the fifth largest in North America, with an average attendance of 1.25 million.[46] The Yorkville neighbourhood is one of Toronto’s most elegant shopping and dining areas. On many occasions, celebrities from all over North America can be spotted in the area, especially during the Toronto International Film Festival. The Toronto Eaton Centre is one of North America’s top shopping destinations, and Toronto’s most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually.[47] Greektown on the Danforth, is another one of the major attractions of Toronto which boasts one of the highest concentrations of restaurants per kilometre in the world. It is also home to the annual "Taste of the Danforth" festival which attracts over one million people in 2 1/2 days.[48] Toronto is also home to Canada’s most famous "castle" - Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame.

See also: Buildings and structures in Toronto

Toronto Eaton Centre is the busiest shopping mall in the City of Toronto. Toronto’s most prominent landmark is the CN Tower, which stood as the tallest freestanding land structure in the world at 553


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National Lacrosse League team. They are one of the league’s most successful franchises, winning five Champion’s Cup titles in seven years in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and are currently second all-time in the number of Champion’s Cups won. Both the Raptors and the Rock share the Air Canada Centre with the Maple Leafs.


The Hockey Hall of Fame, housed in a former bank erected in 1885, is located at the intersection of Front Street and Yonge Street in Downtown Toronto. Toronto is the only Canadian city with representation in seven major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League, Major League Soccer, and Major League Lacrosse. The city’s major sports venues include the Air Canada Centre, Rogers Centre (formerly known as SkyDome), Ricoh Coliseum, and BMO Field. Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the National Hockey League’s Original Six clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city has a rich history of hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs’ 13 Stanley Cup titles (second all-time), the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael’s College School-based Ontario Hockey League teams combined have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League also play in Toronto at Ricoh Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. They are one of only two teams who are in the same market as their NHL affiliate (the other is the Philadelphia Phantoms, the AHL affiliate of the Philadelphia Flyers). Toronto is currently home to the only National Basketball Association franchise outside the United States. The Toronto Raptors entered the league in 1995, and have since earned five playoff spots in 14 seasons. The Raptors won the Atlantic Division title in the 2006–07 season, led by star player Chris Bosh. The Toronto Rock are the city’s

Toronto Blue Jays host the Detroit Tigers in MLB action. The city is represented in the Canadian Football League by the Toronto Argonauts, who have won a league-leading 15 Grey Cup titles. Toronto played host to the 95th Grey Cup in 2007, the first held in the city since 1992. The city is also home to Major League Baseball’s Toronto Blue Jays, who have won two World Series titles and are currently the only Major League Baseball team in Canada. Both teams play their home games at the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core. Toronto is home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season football game that puts a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. Beginning in 2007, the game is played at the Rogers Centre annually in January. In addition, the city has hosted several National Football League exhibition games; Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2012. In addition to team sports, the city annually hosted Champ Car’s Molson Indy Toronto at Exhibition Place from 1986 to 2007. The race will be revived in 2009 as the Honda Indy Toronto, part of the IndyCar Series schedule. Both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale.


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Club Toronto Argonauts Toronto Maple Leafs Toronto Maple Leafs Toronto Blue Jays Toronto Raptors Toronto Rock Toronto Xtreme Toronto Marlies Toronto FC Toronto Nationals League Sport CFL NHL IBL MLB NBA NLL RCSL AHL MLS MLL Football Ice hockey Baseball Baseball Basketball Venue Rogers Centre Air Canada Centre Christie Pits Rogers Centre Air Canada Centre

Established Championships 1873 1917 1969 1977 1995 1998 1999 2005 2007 2009 15 13 8 2 0 5 0 0 0 0

Box lacrosse Air Canada Centre Rugby union Fletcher’s Fields Ice hockey Soccer Field Lacrosse Ricoh Coliseum BMO Field BMO Field

Panoramic view of Rogers Centre during an Argonauts game

Toronto is Canada’s largest media market,[51] and the fourth largest media centre in North America (behind New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago), with four conventional dailies and two free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 5.5 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the prominent daily city newspapers, while the national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are also headquartered in the city. Toronto contains the headquarters of the major Englishlanguage Canadian television networks, including the English-language branch of the national public broadcaster Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the largest private broadcaster CTV, and the flagship stations of Citytv and Global. Canada’s premier sports television networks are also based in Toronto, including The Sports Network (TSN), Rogers Sportsnet and The Score. MuchMusic and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city. The bulk of Canada’s periodical publishing industry is centred in Toronto including magazines such as Maclean’s, Chatelaine,

BMO Field immediately after Danny Dichio scored the first goal in Toronto FC history. Historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club (est. 1836), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club (est. 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (est. pre-1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (est. 1872), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (est. 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (est. 1924). Toronto was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. The Canadian Olympic Committee is currently considering a Toronto bid for the 2020 or 2024 Summer Olympics.[49] Toronto is officially a candidate city to host the 2015 Pan American Games, it was announced by the 2015 Pan Am Games Bid Committee on October 2, 2008.[50]


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Flare, Canadian Living, Canadian Business, and Toronto Life.

Although much of the region’s manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be an important wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city’s strategic position along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor and its extensive road and rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean.


Toronto population by year, within present boundaries Year City Honest Ed’s discount store Toronto is a major international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street, in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world’s seventh-largest stock exchange by market capitalization.[52] All of the Big Five banks of Canada are headquartered in Toronto, as are a majority of Canada’s corporations.[9] 1861 65,085 1901 238,080 1951 1,117,470 1971 2,089,728 1976 2,124,295 1981 2,137,380 1986 2,192,721 CMA 193,844[53] 440,000[53] 1,262,000[53] GTA — — —

2,628,045[54] — 2,803,101[55] — 2,998,947[56] — 3,733,085[57] —

1991 2,275,771[58] 3,893,933[59] 4,235,756[58] 1996 2,385,421[60] 4,263,759[60] 4,628,883[61] 2001 2,481,494[1] 2006 2,503,281[1] 4,682,897[1] 5,113,149[1] 5,081,826[62] 5,555,912[63]

The Skywalk after hours. The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunications, information technology and film production industries; it is home to Thomson Corporation, CTVglobemedia, Rogers Communications, and Celestica. Other prominent Canadian corporations in Toronto include Four Seasons Hotels, the Hudson’s Bay Company and Manulife Financial.

The last complete census by Statistics Canada estimated there were 2,503,281 people residing in Toronto in June 2006,[1] making it the largest city in Canada,[64] and the fifth most populous municipality in North America.[65] The city’s population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, and 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006. Persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 13.6%. The median age was 36.9 years. Foreign-born people made up 49.9% of the population.[66] As of 2006, 46.9% of the residents of the city proper belong to a visible minority group,[67] and visible minorities are projected to comprise a majority in Toronto by 2017.[68] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest percentage of foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. Statistics Canada’s 2006 figures


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Shrine Peace Memorial shot during the 2005 Canadian National Exhibition. 31.1% of the city’s population is Catholic, followed by Protestant (21.1%), Christian Orthodox at (4.8%), Coptic Orthodox (0.2%),[69] and other Christians (3.9%). Other religions in the city are Islam (6.7%), Hinduism (4.8%), Judaism (4.2%), Buddhism (2.7%), Sikhism (0.9%), and other Eastern Religions (0.2%). 18.7% of the population professes no religion.[70] While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers, including French, Italian, Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Tagalog, and Hindi.[71] Chinese and Italian are the second and third most widely spoken languages at work.[72][73] As a result, the city’s 9-1-1 emergency services are equipped to respond in over 150 languages.[74]

A monument in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto. indicate that Toronto has surpassed Miami in this year.[66] While Miami’s foreign-born population consists mostly of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto’s immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world.[66] In 2006, people of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups in Toronto, 52.6%,[67] mostly of British, Irish, Italian, and French origins, while the five largest visible minority groups in Toronto are South Asian/Indo-Caribbean (12.0%), Chinese (11.4%), Black/Afro-Caribbean (8.4%), Filipino (4.1%) and Latin American (2.6%).[67] Aboriginal peoples, who are not considered visible minorities, formed 0.5% of the population.[67] This diversity is reflected in Toronto’s ethnic neighbourhoods which include Little Italy, The Junction, Little Jamaica, Little India, Chinatown, Koreatown, Greektown, Portugal Village, Corso Italia, Kensington Market, and Bloor West Village. Christianity is the largest religious group in Toronto. The 2001 Census reports that

Further information: Politics of Toronto and Public services in Toronto Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor-council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The Mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographical wards throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. (Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.) At the start of the 2007 term, the city council will have seven standing committees, each consisting of a chair, a vice-chair and


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and 11% on capital financing and non-programme expenditures.[78]

See also: Crime in Canada and Gun politics in Canada The low crime rate[79] in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America.[80][81] In 1999, the homicide rate for Toronto was 1.9 per 100,000 people,[82] compared to Atlanta (34.5), Boston (5.5), New York City (7.3), Vancouver (2.8), and Washington, D.C. (45.5). For robbery rates, Toronto also ranks low, with 115.1 robberies per 100,000, compared to Dallas (583.7), Los Angeles (397.9), Montreal (193.9), New York City (287.9), and Washington, D.C. (670.6). Toronto has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada.[79] The overall crime rate in general was an average of 48 incidents per 100,000, compared to Cincinnati (326), Los Angeles (283), New York City (195.2), and Vancouver (239). However, many in the city, especially the local media, have concerns regarding gun violence, gangs, and racial profiling by Toronto Police against minorities.[80] Toronto recorded its largest number of homicides in 1991 with 89, a rate of 3.9 per 100,000.[82][83] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because there was a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total (65% – similar to the average in U.S. cities).[81][84] The total number of homicides dropped to 69 in 2006, that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total.[85] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of them involved guns. Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a result, the Ontario government came up with an anti-gun strategy.[86]

Toronto City Hall four other councillors. The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council.[75] An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, in addition to the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board. There are about 40 subcommittees, advisory committees and round tables within the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[76] Additionally, the city has four community councils that make recommendations on local matters to the city council, but possess no final authority. Each city councillor serves as a member on a community council. Toronto had an operating budget of C$7.6 billion in 2006.[77] The city receives funding from the Government of Ontario in addition to tax revenues and user fees, spending 36% on provincially mandated programmes, 53% on major municipal purposes such as the Toronto Public Library and the Toronto Zoo,

Toronto is home to a number of post-secondary academic institutions. The University of Toronto, established in 1827, is the oldest university in Ontario and a leading public


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language schools. There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools, such as Branksome Hall, Greenwood College School, Upper Canada College, Crescent School, Toronto French School, University of Toronto Schools, Bayview Glen School, Havergal College, Bishop Strachan School, and St. Michael’s College School. The Toronto Public Library is the largest public library system in Canada, consisting of 99 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.[87]

University College at University of Toronto research institution. It is a worldwide leader in biomedical research and houses North America’s third-largest university library system, after that of Harvard University and Yale University. York University, located in the north end of Toronto, houses the largest law library in the Commonwealth of Nations. The city is also home to Ryerson University, Ontario College of Art & Design, and the University of Guelph-Humber. There are four diploma-granting colleges in Toronto, Seneca College, Humber College, Centennial College and George Brown College. The city is also home to a satellite campus of the francophone Collège Boréal. In nearby Oshawa, usually considered part of the Greater Toronto Area, are Durham College and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology, while Halton Region is home to Sheridan College and a campus of the University of Toronto. The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes The Glenn Gould School, is a noted school of music located downtown. The Canadian Film Centre is a film, television and new media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison. Tyndale University College and Seminary is a transdenominational Christian post-secondary institution and Canada’s largest seminary. The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) operates 558 public schools. Of these, 451 are elementary and 102 are secondary (high) schools. This makes the TDSB the largest school board in Canada. Additionally, the Toronto Catholic District School Board manages the city’s publicly funded Roman Catholic schools, while the Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud manages public and Roman Catholic French-

Health and medicine

Hospital for Sick Children See also: List of hospitals in Toronto and XVI International AIDS Conference, 2006 Toronto is home to at least 20 public hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael’s Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Hospital, as well as the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.


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Toronto’s Discovery District[88] is centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a 2.5 square kilometre (620 acre) research park that is fully integrated into Toronto’s downtown core. It is also home to the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),[89] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).[90]

Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory. There are a number of expressways and highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is one of the busiest highways in the world.[92][93] The square grid of major city streets was laid out by the concession road system.


The Union Station of Toronto.

Sister cities
Partnership Cities • Chicago, United States The CLRV streetcar, is seen here in downtown Toronto. • • • • • Chongqing, China Eilat, Israel Frankfurt, Germany Milan, Italy Friendship Cities • • • • • • Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Kiev, Ukraine Quito, Ecuador Sagamihara, Japan Volgograd, Russia[95] Warsaw, Poland

The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is the third largest public transit system in North America after the New York City Transit Authority, and the Mexico City Metro.[25] The TTC provides public transit within the City of Toronto. The backbone of its public transport network is the subway system. The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars. The Government of Ontario also operates an extensive rail and bus transit system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. As of January 2009, GO Transit carries over 205,000 passengers every weekday on its seven train lines and extensive bus system.[91] Canada’s busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city’s western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service is also offered from the Toronto City Centre Airport, on the Toronto Islands. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto/Downsview Airport, near the city’s north end, is owned by de

Rostov on Don, Russia • Tehran, Iran[94] • São Paulo, Brazil[94]

• Fulford, Robert (1995). Accidental city: the transformation of Toronto. Toronto: Macfarlane, Walter & Ross. ISBN 0-921912-91-9; ISBN 1-55199-010-5 (paperback). • Rayburn, Alan (2001). Naming Canada: stories about Canadian place names. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 2nd ed. (ISBN 0-8020-8293-9). • Phillips, Robert; Bram, Leon & Dickey, Norma (1971). Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Inc.. Volume 23, ISBN 0-8343-0025-7.


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• Careless, J.M.S.. "Toronto". The Canadian are taken from "Population and dwelling Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of counts, for Canada, provinces and Canada. territories, and census divisions, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data". index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008050. Statistics Canada. 2007-03-13. Retrieved on 2005-12-03. • "Toronto". Statistics Canada. 2002. 2001 census06/data/popdwell/ Community Profiles.. Statistics Canada Table.cfm?T=702&PR=35&SR=1&S=3&O=D. Catalogue no. 93F0053XIE.. 2003. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. [4] ^ The fact that these municipalities form CP01/Details/ the GTA is stated in "Ontario Population Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=3520005&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=t Projections Update, 2005-2031 Ontario Retrieved on 2005-12-03. and Its 49 Census Divisions". Ministry of • "Toronto’s Economic Profile". City of Finance, Government of Ontario. April Toronto. 2006. economic_profile/index.htm. Retrieved on economy/demographics/projections/ 2006-05-30. 2007/. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. "The • "Ultimate Inline Skating Guide to Toronto Greater Toronto Area (GTA), comprising v1.5" (Google Earth). 2007. the City of Toronto and the regional municipalities of Durham, Halton, Peel ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&msa=0&output=nl&msid=105047441964785653381.0000011358da39f6cf7dd. and York, ..." Retrieved on 2007-07-07. [5] "Portrait of the Canadian Population in • The novel "In the Skin of a Lion" by 2006: Subprovincial population Michael Ondaatje depicts Toronto in the dynamics, Greater Golden Horseshoe". 1920s, giving prominence to the Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of construction of Toronto landmarks, such Population. 2007-03-13. as the Prince Edward Viaduct and the R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, and census06/analysis/popdwell/ focusing on the lives of the immigrant subprov4.cfm#ggh. Retrieved on workers. 2007-03-13. [6] "What makes a global city?", (2007) [7] "[1]", Toronto Star (2004). Retrieved on Notes 2007-07-08. [1] ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for [8] "Toronto (#10)", "World’s Most Canada, census metropolitan areas, Economically Powerful Cities." Forbes census agglomerations and census (2008). Retrieved on 2008-10-31. subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and [9] ^ City of Toronto (2007) - Toronto 2001 censuses - 100% data". Statistics economic overview, Key industry clusters Canada, 2006 Census of Population. and A Diversified Economy. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. 2007-03-01. english/census06/data/popdwell/ [10] ICF Consulting (February 2000). Table.cfm?T=702&PR=35&S=0&O=A&RPP=25. "Toronto Competes". Retrieved on 2007-03-19. [2] ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for business_publications/tocompetes.htm. urban areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses Retrieved on 2007-03-01. 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 [11] ^ Flew, Janine; Humphries, Lynn ; Press, Census of Population. 2007-03-13. Limelight ; McPhee, Margaret (2004). The Children’s Visual World Atlas. census06/data/popdwell/ Sydney, Australia: Fog City Press. p. 76. Table.cfm?T=801&PR=0&SR=1&S=3&O=D. ISBN 1 740893 17 4. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. [12] ^ Citizenship and Immigration Canada [3] Total population of the Greater Toronto (September 2006). "Canada-OntarioArea comprises the regional Toronto Memorandum of Understanding municipalities of Durham (561,258), on Immigration and Settlement Halton (439,256), Peel (1,159,405) and (electronic version)". Archived from the York (892,712). These population figures original on 2008-08-25.


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Toronto [25] ^ Toronto transit chief says searches 20070311043934/ unlikely (2005). Retrieved on english/policy/fed-prov/can-ont-toronto2007-02-03. mou.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-01. [26] Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto [13] "City of Toronto, Ontario". Act, Government of Ontario (2000). Retrieved Retrieved on 2006-12-29. on 2007-07-06. [27] SOS! Canadian Disasters Library and [14] "Vancouver is ’best city to live’". CNN. Archives Canada (2006). Retrieved on 2005-10-05. 2008-12-19. WORLD/europe/10/04/eui.survey/ [28] Westward ho? The shifting geography of index.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-05. corporate power in Canada, Journal of [15] Mercer Human Resource Consulting Canadian Studies (2002). Retrieved on (2006). "Mercer 2006 Quality of Living 2007-01-14. Survey" (PDF). [29] Population statistics and land area, Statistics Canada (2001). Retrieved on attachment.dyn?idContent=1216315&filePath=/ 2006-12-05. attachments/English/ [30] "Getting Here". Visiting Toronto. City of QOL_Survey2006_table.pdf. Retrieved on Toronto. 2007-03-05. attractions/getting_here.htm. Retrieved [16] Beauchesne, Eric (June 24, 2006). on 2008-02-14. "Toronto pegged as priciest place to live [31] Canadian climate normals for 1971 to in Canada". CanWest News Service. 2000, Environment Canada (2004). Retrieved on 2006-12-17. news/ [32] "Environment Canada Average data story.html?id=245b1dc8-1b43-46cbrecorded over a 30 year span from 1971 bd84-6e78ab8a5afb&k=54140. to 2000." (in English & Francais). Retrieved on 2007-03-05. Environment Canada. [17] "The real story of how Toronto got its name". Natural Resources Canada climate_normals/ (2005). results_e.html?Province=ALL&StationName=toronto education/toronto_e.php. Retrieved on Retrieved on Jan 17 2009. 2006-12-08. [33] "Toronto Architecture". [18] Fort Rouillé, Jarvis Collegiate Institute (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-08. article_feature~listing_id~95.htm. [19] Natives and newcomers, 1600-1793, City [34] Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in of Toronto (2006). Retrieved on height, CTV Television Network (2007). 2006-12-08. Retrieved on 2007-09-13. [20] "History of Ontario’s Legislative [35] Emporis list of cities by high rise Buildings". Government of Ontario. building.!ut/p/ [36] Toronto’s Cultural Renaissance, City of .cmd/cs/.ce/7_0_A/.s/7_0_252/_s.7_0_A/ Toronto (2005). Retrieved on 7_0_252/_l/en?docid=004690. Retrieved 2007-11-09. on 2007-07-13. [37] "Plan town of 45,000 on Don Mills farms; [21] "Welcome to the birthplace of Toronto". Will cost $200,000,000," Paul L. Fox, Friends of Fort York (2006). Toronto Star, March 12, 1953, p. 3. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 2006-12-08. [38] "Urban Design: Cloud Garden Park". Lost [22] "Battle of York". Streams, Toronto, Web site. users/hsbaker/york.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. cloudgrdnpk.htm. Retrieved on [23] Black history at the City of Toronto 2009-03-27. Archives, City of Toronto (2009). [39] "West 8 Wins Waterfront Corp. Design Retrieved on 2009-03-13. Competition". City of Toronto: News [24] Canada Provinces releases. 2006-06-02.


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[64] "Toronto Quick Facts". Government of archive/December2006/06/c4652.html. Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs Retrieved on 2007-03-18. and International Trade, Investment, [76] "Directory of committees, task forces and Science & Technology Branch. round tables". City of Toronto. our-regions/ontario/toronto.aspx. directory.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. [77] "2006 City Budget". City of Toronto. [65] "City of Toronto: Toronto Overview". City 2006. of Toronto. 2007. budget2006/index.htm. Retrieved on invest-in-toronto/tor_overview.htm. 2007-03-18. Retrieved on 2009-03-23. [78] "2006 Operating Budget" (PDF). City of [66] ^ Francine Kopun; Nicholas Keung Toronto. 2006. (2007-12-05). "A city of unmatched budget2006/pdf/ diversity". Toronto Star. 2006operatingbackgrounder_revised.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. article/282694. Retrieved on [79] ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily 2008-10-07. (2006-07-21). "Crime statistics". [67] ^ "2006 Community Profile for Toronto: Ethnicities". Statistics Canada. 2006. 050721/d050721a.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-05. census06/data/profiles/community/ [80] ^ Torontoisms - Crime and Safety Details/ [81] ^ Despite rise, police say T.O. Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=3520005&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText= murder rate ’low’ Retrieved on 2008-07-15. [82] ^ [68] Canada’s visible minority population in Statsrevjan102003FINAL.PDF 2017, Statistics Canada (2005). [83] Double murder occurred on Retrieved on 2006-12-05. Christmas Day: police [69] Religion (95A), Age Groups (7A) and Sex [84] CTV Toronto - Toronto sets a new record (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, for gun-related carnage - CTV News, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas Shows and Sports - Canadian Television and Census Agglomerations, 1991 and [85] "Gun crime in Metro Vancouver highest 2001 Censuses - 20% Sample Data, per capita in Canada". Statistics Canada (2001). [70] Community Highlights for Toronto, news/ Statistics Canada (2001). Retrieved on story.html?k=19079&id=4b651ab1-e729-44a9-86d32006-12-05. [86] Ministry of the Attorney General [71] Various Languages Spoken - Toronto Backgrounder CMA, Statistics Canada (2001). [87] "Toronto Public Library contributes 63 Retrieved on 2007-01-02. millionth record" OCLC (2006-02-03). [72] Language used at work by mother Retrieved on 2007-07-08. tongue in Toronto CMA, Statistics [88] Toronto Discovery District FAQ, Toronto Canada (2001). Retrieved on 2006-12-05. Discovery District (2006). Retrieved on [73] Language used at work by mother 2006-12-05. tongue (City of Toronto), Statistics [89] Medical and Related Sciences Centre, Canada (2001). Retrieved on 2006-12-05. Medical and Related Sciences Centre [74] "City of Toronto: Emergency Services (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-05. 9-1-1 = EMERGENCY in any language". [90] McLaughlin Centre for Molecular City of Toronto. Medicine (MCMM), McLaughlin Centre emerg/911.htm. Retrieved on for Molecular Medicine (2006). Retrieved 2007-01-05. on 2006-12-05. [75] "City Council names Speaker and [91] "GO by the numbers". members to Standing Committees, Agencies, Boards and Commissions". aboutgo/ CNW Group. 2006-12-06. whatisgo.htm#GObythenumbers. Retrieved on 2009-01-19.


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[92] "Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401". Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 2002-08-06. ontario/GPOE/2002/08/06/ c0057.html?lmatch=&lang=_e.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. "Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario’s transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto." [93] Brian Gray (2004-04-10). "GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401 North America’s Busiest Freeway". Toronto Sun, transcribed at Urban Planet. forums/index.php?showtopic=3459.

Retrieved on 2007-03-18. "The "phenomenal" number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto makes it the busiest freeway in the world..." [94] ^ Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation [95] Friendship cities of Vologorad

External links
•, The official City of Toronto Web site • Tourism Toronto, by the Toronto Convention & Visitors Association • Wikitravel Toronto, travel guide at Wikitravel

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