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National Collegiate Athletic Association

National Collegiate Athletic Association
National College Athletic Association

Abbreviation Formation

NCAA February 3, 1906 (Intercollegiate Athletic Association) 1910 (NCAA) Association Indianapolis, Indiana United States of America 1,281 (schools, conferences or other associations) Myles Brand Executive Committee $5.64 Billion (2007-08 Budget)[1] (administrative) (sports)

Legal status Headquarters Region served Membership President Main organ Budget Website

than most national college sports bodies in other countries. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all.[3] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).


The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often read "N-C-Double-A" or more rarely,"N-C-2-A") is a voluntary association of about 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States (and, potentially, Canadian universities as well).[2] Its headquarters are located in Indianapolis, Indiana, and it is currently under the leadership of president Myles Brand. The NCAA is the largest collegiate athletic organization in the world, and because of the great popularity of college sports among spectators in the United States, it is far more prominent

Current NCAA headquarters office in Indianapolis, Indiana. Its predecessor, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS), was established on March 31, 1906 to set rules for amateur sports in the United States. When then-president Theodore Roosevelt’s own son, Ted, broke his collar bone playing football at Harvard, Roosevelt became aware of the growing number of serious injuries and deaths occurring in collegiate football. He


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brought the presidents of the three major Ivy League universities, Harvard, Yale and Princeton to several meetings at the White House in October, 1905, to discuss steps to make college athletics safer. [4]The IAAUS was created as one of the outcomes of those meetings. The IAAUS became the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women’s athletics. Instead an organization named the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women governed women’s collegiate sports in the United States. By 1982 however, all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women’s athletics and most members of the AIAW joined the NCAA. The NCAA was headquartered in the Kansas City metropolitan area from 1951 until 1999 when it moved from its last Kansas City area location at Overland Park, Kansas to a four-story, 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[5] During its days in Kansas City, Municipal Auditorium hosted nine Final Four basketball tournaments -- the most of any venue.

National Collegiate Athletic Association
antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract.

The NCAA’s legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools. These may be broken down further into sub-committees. Legislation is then passed on to the Management Council, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff itself provides support, acting as guides, liaison, research and public and media relations. The current NCAA president is Myles Brand, former president of Indiana University. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include basketball, baseball (men), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track & field, swimming & diving, and wrestling (men’s). The NCAA is not the only collegiate athletic organization in the United States. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is another collegiate athletic organization. The Canadian equivalent to NCAA is the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS).

Football television controversy
By the 1980s, televised college football was a significant source of income for the NCAA. If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated US$73.6 million for the Association and its members. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA’s football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan—-protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions and creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment—-combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated

Presidents of NCAA (called executive director until 1998)
• • • • Walter Byers 1951–1988 Dick Schultz 1988–1993 Cedric Dempsey 1993–2002 Myles Brand 2003–present

Division History

The NCAA holds, or has held in the past, championship tournaments in the following sports: • Baseball • Basketball • Football[6] • Men’s Outdoor


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Years 1906-1955 1956-1972 Division None

National Collegiate Athletic Association

NCAA University Division (Major College), NCAA College Division (Small College) NCAA Division I-A, NCAA Division I-AA (football only)

1973-present NCAA Division I, Division II, Division III 1978-2006 2006-present Football Bowl Subdivision, Football Championship Subdivision (football only) • Women’s Indoor Track and Field • Men’s Lacrosse • Women’s Lacrosse • Men’s Volleyball • Women’s Volleyball • Men’s Water Polo • Women’s Water Polo • Wrestling

Presently, UCLA, Stanford and Southern California have the most NCAA championships; UCLA holds the most, winning a combined NCAA National Championship trophies, 104 team championships in men’s and worings, watches won by UCLA teams men’s sports, with Stanford coming in second with 95 followed by Southern California with • Men’s • Division Track and85.[7] • Division I (FCS) Field The NCAA currently awards 87 national I • Division • Women’s championships yearly; 44 women’s, 40 men’s, • Division II Outdoor and three coed championships where men II • Division Track andand women compete together (Fencing, Rifle, • Division III Field and Skiing). For every NCAA sanctioned III • Men’s Golf • Rifle sport other than Division I FBS football, the • Women’s • Division • Rowing NCAA awards wooden trophies with gold, sil• Division I (women’s ver, and bronze plating for the first, second, I • Division only) and third place teams respectively; similar to • Division II • Skiing the Olympics. In the case of the NCAA basII • Division • Softball ketball tournaments, both semifinalists who • Division III • Men’s did not make the championship game receive III • Women’s Soccer bronze plated trophies for third place (prior • Bowling Golf • Women’s to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" (women’s • Men’s Soccer game to determine third place). Similar only) Gymnastics • Men’s trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in • Boxing • Women’s Swimming the NCAA football tournaments (which are (Discontinued) Gymnastics and conducted in Division I FCS and both lower • Men’s Cross • Men’s Ice Diving divisions), which have never had a thirdCountry Hockey • Women’s place game. Winning teams maintain per• Women’s • Women’s Swimming manent possession of these trophies unless it Cross Country Ice Hockey and is later found that they were won via serious • Fencing • Men’s Diving rules violations. Starting with the 2001 sea• Field Hockey Indoor • Men’s son, and later in 2008, the trophies were givTrack and Tennis en an extensive facelift. Starting in the 2007 Field • Women’s basketball season, teams that make the Final Tennis Four in the Division I tournament receive


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bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold plated for the winner and silver plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men’s and women’s basketball receive a very elaborate trophy sponsored by Siemens with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Football Bowl Subdivision
The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament for Division I FBS football, which has caused controversy. In the past, the "national championship" went to teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll. Currently, the Bowl Championship Series—an association of the conferences who compete in Division I FBS and four bowl games—has arranged to place the top two teams (based on a formula blending human polls, computer rankings, and, in some years, other factors) into a national title game. The winner of the BCS title game must be ranked first in the final Coaches’ Poll and receives the ADT Trophy; since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not say NCAA as all other college sports national championship trophies do. The AP and other organizations are still free to name as national champions other teams than the one that won the BCS championship.

NCAA 2006 championship banners hang inside the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis • • • • • • • • • Horizon League Great West Conference NCAA Independents Ivy League Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC) Mid-American Conference (MAC) # Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) Missouri Valley Conference (MVC or The Valley) Mountain Pacific Sports Federation (MPSF) Mountain West Conference (MWC) # Northeast Conference (NEC) Ohio Valley Conference (OVC) Pacific-10 Conference (Pac-10)* Patriot League Southeastern Conference (SEC)* Southern Conference (SoCon) Southland Conference Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) Sun Belt Conference (SBC) # The Summit League (The Summit) (Formerly the Mid-Continent Conference) United Basketball Conference (UBC) West Coast Conference (WCC) Western Athletic Conference (WAC) #

Division I conferences
• • • • • • • • • • • • America East Conference Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC)* Atlantic Sun Conference Atlantic 10 Conference (A-10) Big East Conference* Big Sky Conference Big South Conference Big Ten Conference (Big Ten) * Big West Conference Big 12 Conference (Big 12) * Colonial Athletic Association (CAA) Conference USA (C-USA) #

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •


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Conferences with automatic entry to the Bowl Championship Series are denoted with an asterisk (*). Conferences within the Football Bowl Subdivision but not the BCS are denoted with a pound sign (#).

National Collegiate Athletic Association
distinguished herself throughout her collegiate careers in academics, athletics, service and leadership. The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA’s highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA. Theodore Roosevelt Award (NCAA), the highest honor that the NCAA confers on an individual. Today’s Top VIII Award, honoring eight outstanding senior student-athletes. Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes. Walter Byers Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.


Division I FCS football-only conferences
• Missouri Valley Football Conference • Pioneer Football League


• • •

Division I hockey-only conferences
• Atlantic Hockey • Central Collegiate Hockey Association (CCHA) • College Hockey America • ECAC Hockey • Hockey East • Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA)

The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS College Sports Network, ESPN, and ESPN Plus for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website[9], ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships and CBS to 67. The following are the most prominent championships and rightsholders: • CBS: Men’s basketball (NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament and NCAA Men’s Division II Basketball Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women’s division I) • ESPN: Women’s basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men’s division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (division I for both sexes) Westwood One has exclusive radio rights to the men’s and women’s basketball Final Fours to the men’s College World Series (baseball). DirecTV has an exclusive package expanding CBS’ coverage of the men’s basketball tournament. Video games based on popular NCAA sports such as football and basketball are licensed by Electronic Arts. Most NCAA events are also available online either through its own site (as in March Madness on Demand) or from On or about March 1, 2008, the NCAA launched its revamped website with the address, changed from The site offers streamlined navigation and a quick reference to many popular links at the bottom of each page.

Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents
• • • • • International University Sports Federation Australian University Sport British Universities & Colleges Sport Canadian Interuniversity Sport National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines) (NCAA) and University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP) for Philippines (among other leagues)

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards,[8] including: • NCAA Award of Valor, not given every year, selection is based on heroic action occurring in the academic year. • NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honors an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics. • NCAA Inspiration Award, not given every year, selection is based on inspirational action. • NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship. • NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honors a senior student-athletes who has


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On March 16, 2009, the NCAA announced a partnership with with Replay Photos and the Associated Press to create the NCAA Photo Store website with the address The site updates photos from NCAA events as they are taken and makes them immediately available for sale. The site offers pictures of all 88 NCAA Championships across all three divisions.[10]

National Collegiate Athletic Association
recovered. This has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where it has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College’s men’s soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College’s men’s tennis team in 2005. Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause order" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[11] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order usually has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order. Currently, Dave Bliss, former basketball coach at Baylor University, has the longest show cause order. As a result of his involvement in serious rules violations, Bliss is effectively banned from coaching at the major college level until the 2015-16 season. The NCAA also has the power to declare players ineligible. In extreme cases, a player can be banned from competing for any NCAA member school. The only known instance where this has happened was in 1989, when Kentucky Wildcats basketball player Eric Manuel was banned after the NCAA ruled he had cheated on a college entrance exam.

Rules violations
Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA’s legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership. Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA’s investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions. Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee’s findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty. Institutions violating the probationary period may be subject to being banned from participating in the sport in question for up to two years, a penalty known as the "Death Penalty". This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University’s football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never

Division I-A institutions on probation
The following Division I-A institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[12]


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Institution Ball State University Brigham Young University California State University, Fresno Florida International University Sport(s)

National Collegiate Athletic Association
Expiry 15 October 2009 22 June 2010 10 March 2011 25 April 2010

Football, Men’s Tennis, Women’s Softball

Baylor University Football, Men’s Basketball Men’s Volleyball Men’s Basketball

Baseball, Football, Men’s Basketball, Men’s Cross Country, Men’s Soccer, Men’s Track (Indoor), Men’s Track (Outdoor), Women’s Golf, Women’s Soccer, Women’s Softball, Women’s Swimming, Women’s Tennis, Women’s Volleyball Men’s Basketball

5 May 2012

Indiana University, Bloomington Middle Tennessee State University Purdue University Temple University Texas Christian University University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

24 November 2011 21 May 2010

Women’s Volleyball

Women’s Basketball Men’s Tennis Men’s Tennis Men’s Track (Indoor), Men’s Track (Outdoor)

21 August 2009 9 May 2009 26 February 2010 24 October 2010

University of Col- Football orado, Boulder University of Kansas University of New Mexico University of Oklahoma Football, Men’s Basketball Football Football

20 June 2009 11 October 2009 19 August 2011 23 May 2010

Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include: • Several people, notably including former Sports Illustrated columnist Rick Reilly, have criticized the NCAA for its inflexibility[13] • Student-athletes at universities with major athletic programs often have low graduation rates.[14]

See also
• • • • • • • • NCAA Hall of Champions List of NCAA Division I Institutions List of Division I Athletic Directors List of NCAA Division II Institutions List of NCAA Division III Institutions NAIA List of NAIA Institutions List of college athletic programs by U.S. State • AIAW Championships


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• College football • College basketball • NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship • List of college athletic conferences • Academic Progress Rate • NACDA Director’s Cup • NJCAA • Canadian Interuniversity Sport • Canadian Colleges Athletic Association

National Collegiate Athletic Association
Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) [7] UCLA Women’s Tennis Claims First-Ever NCAA Championship - Zalameda named tournament’s most outstanding player in 4-0 win over No. 8 Cal [8] NCAA Awards Webpage (accessed 2006-11-07) [9] NCAA Broadcast Information [10] NCAA Photo Store News Release [11] NCAA News Release; Baylor University, Former Basketball Coaches Penalized for Multiple Violations of NCAA Rules [1] [12] | NCAA Member Institutions on Probation (accessed 2008-10-05) [13] - SI Writers - Rick Reilly - SI’s Rick Reilly: Corrupting Our Utes Wednesday August 06, 2003 09:53 AM [14] NCAA graduation rates (accessed 2007-03-16)

[1] resources/file/eba3f949c8a9427/ 2006-07_budget.pdf?MOD=AJPERES [2] - NCAA Basketball - Pilot program paves way for Canadian schools in DII - Monday January 14, 2008 2:24PM [3] "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. [4] The NCAA’s First Century In The Arena [5] NCAA HEADQUARTERS IN INDIANAPOLIS TO OPEN JULY 26 - July 15, 1999 [6] The NCAA does not sponsor a championship tournament for the

External links
• • • • NCAA NCAA NCAA NCAA administrative website student information website sports Classification

Retrieved from "" Categories: Intercollegiate athletics in the United States, Sports organisations, Sports governing bodies of the United States, Organizations established in 1906, Sports in Indianapolis, Indiana, Organizations based in Indianapolis, Indiana This page was last modified on 14 May 2009, at 20:24 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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