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					     Scissor Lifts
the Safety of Going Up
    On level at a time




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             What is a Hazard?
• A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or
  damage

• RISK is a measure of the probability of a
  hazard-related incident occurring and the
  severity of harm or damage



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            Recognized Hazards
• Gravity-Falls from elevation
        Falling objects
• Slopes-Upset
       Rollover
       Unstable surfaces
• Water- Drowning



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            Recognized Hazards
• Walking/working surfaces-
  tripping, slipping

• Mechanical hazards-
  Rotation, reciprocation, shearing,
  vibration, pinch points, hydraulics,
  pneumatics, entanglement


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             Recognized Hazards
• Stored energy- springs, pneumatics
  hydraulics, capacitors
• Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage,
  sparks, arcs
• Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic




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          Design for Safety (DFS)
• Identify the hazard(s)

• Assess the Risk

• Propose design features to eliminate the risk
  or reduce it to an acceptable level



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MAINTENANCE LIFT TO ACCESS
    ATRIUM LIGHTING1




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           Type: Scissor/Vertical


A scissor/vertical lift has a platform that
  CANNOT be positioned completely
  beyond the base and is used to position
  personnel, necessary tools, and
  materials at elevated work locations.
  Scissor/vertical aerial work platforms are
  power operated (motorized) with
  primary functions controlled from the
  platform.
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Type: Boom Supported
    A boom supported aerial work
      platform has a platform that can be
      positioned completely beyond the
      base and is used to position
      personnel, necessary tools and
      materials at elevated work
      locations. Boom supported aerial
      work platforms are power operated
      (motorized) with primary functions
      controlled from the platform.
      Examples: Boomlifts, Aerial lift,
      Man-lifts, Aerial Platforms,
      Articulated Booms, and Cherry
      Picker.
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       Type: Straight Mast Booms
 Seventy-five percent of all boomlifts are of
  the straight mast boomlift type, with a
  normal load capacity of 500 lbs to 1000 lbs.
  These lifts can be powered by gasoline,
  propane, gas/propane, or diesel engines.
  There are primarily used for: painting,
  rough-in construction, electrical
  installations, piping installations, sand
  blasting operations, building maintenance,
  and any other applications where workers
  and their tools need to get up in the air to
  perform their work. It is also referred to as
  telescopic boomlifts.


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Type: Articulated Boomlift


 Articulated boomlifts provide the ease to get "up
   and over" obstacles so as to place personnel and
   their tools at specific work locations. The load
   capacities range from 300 lbs to 1000 lbs (UNC's
   articulated boomlift ranges from 500 lbs to 1000
   lbs). Standard platform widths range from 4', 5',
   or 6' (University's is 8'). It can be powered by
   gas, gas/propane, diesel, or electric DC motors.
   Primary use involves industrial equipment
   maintenance, construction applications,
   warehousing and inventory storage, cleaning,
   etc.
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     Employer’s Responsibilities
The employer is required to:
• provide every employee with training;
• maintain the boomlift in a safe operating
  condition;
• purchase boomlifts that conform to ANSI and
  CSA standards.



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 Boomlift Operator’s Responsibilities

The boomlift operator is:
 Directly responsible for the safe operation of
   the lift at all times.
Required to complete a pre-shift inspection of
  the lift and immediately report any problems.
To ensure all personnel on the platform are
  wearing safety gear, as required, at all times.
Required to complete a workplace inspection
  prior to lift operation in order to check the work
  area for possible hazards and immediately report
  any problems.
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              Required Features
Each Boomlift is required to have the following features:
Upper and lower controls
Platform that includes guard rail w/toeboard
A load capacity plate
Passive (automatic) brake which will hold the unit on
  any slope it is capable of climbing
An operator's manual
Emergency stop devices, located at the upper and
  lower control stations, which stop all powered
  functions that affect platform movement

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              Parts Overview
It is imperative to know the correct parts of a
   boomlift. This is very crucial when reporting
   problems.




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Steering Wheels and Axle
            The steering control for the
              boomlift is located at the
              upper controls. Always make
              certain you re-orient your
              platform position relative to
              the base. This means the
              steer and drive functions will
              operate in reverse when the
              unit's platform is not
              extended over the drive
              wheels.

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                                  Tires
There are three possible types of tires for the boomlift.
 Pneumatic – tires filled with compressed air
 Liquid Filled – tires filled with some kind of liquid
    compound instead of air
 Monofilled – tires which are filled with a liquid compound
    that solidifies into a solid over time, usually from one to
    three days. The tires will not go flat, they are much heavier
    than air filled tires and add to the counter weight system of
    the boomlift.
If the tires have to be replaced, it must match the original in
    type, tread design, and filling. Any variation could cause
    loss of traction or loss of counterbalance which could
    result in loss of control of the boomlift.

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          Counterweight System
The counterweight system includes the counterweight itself,
  the turntable assembly (which includes all parts for the
  motor), the structural components (which make up the
  base frame), plus the tires and wheels.
The center of gravity of the counterweight system is utilized
  to counterbalance the center of gravity created by the load
  of the elevating assembly and platform assembly plus the
  workmen, their tools and equipment.
Simply put, the purpose of the counterweight assembly is to
  keep the boomlift in the upright position when the unit is
  operated according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Remember: all aerial work platforms are generally intended
  to be used on a flat level surface!

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          Lower (Emergency) Controls
The lower (emergency) controls must be accessible from the ground
level. It is located on or near the base frame of the unit.
Review the operator's manual to identify the exact location. All of
these controls will be of the type that automatically returns to the
"off" or "neutral" position when released if they are used to control
any movement of the lift. IMPORTANT NOTE: Lower controls can
override the upper controls.


 The Lower controls should only be used during the following conditions:
  During pre-shift checkout of functions from the lower controls.
  To override the upper controls to gain access in the event of an
   emergency. (upper controls will not work)
  Only after you have been given permission to operate a function by the
   operator.
  To override the upper controls to gain access in the event of an
   emergency. (upper controls will not work)
  By a qualified mechanic during the process of performing necessary
   repairs and/or maintenance on the boomlift.
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            Platform Overview
The platform section on the boomlift is equipped
  with many safety features such as guardrails
  (which will be covered under the fall protection
  section). Let's go over a few details concerning
  the platform.




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                Platform Section
The upper control station is located on the platform
  section. It is where all of the functional controls for the
  boomlift can be activated. During practical training,
  the controls will be reviewed in detail.




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        Platform Section, Con’t.
On the platform section is a deadman safety
 control footswitch. In order to activate any of the
 boomlift upper controls, the deadman safety
 control footswitch must be continually activated
 before the upper controls will function.




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        Platform Section, Con’t.
Always consult the load chart indicators prior to
  your loading the platform to make sure you are
  operating the boomlift within its safe operating
  limits.




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       Platform Section, Con’t.
Whenever a worker is on
 the platform section,
 he/she is to remain on
 the inside of the platform
 with their feet firmly
 planted as per
 manufacturer's
 instructions.

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      Identify the Boomlift Parts
It is very important to know the correct part names
   of a boomlift. Click on the numbers to check your
   answers.




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  Operating Procedures Overview
The following sections are important to
  understand before operating a boomlift.
• Center of Gravity
• Fulcrum Point
• Rated Work Load, or Load Capacity Rating
• Center of Gravity
• Sideslope & Grade
We will review each item in more detail.

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               Center of Gravity
The center of gravity of an object is the point about
  which all forces of gravity are equal. As the boomlift is
  operated, the center of gravity on a boomlift changes
  position. Changes occur when the platform is moved in
  or out, up or down, forwards or backwards, and
  rotating left or right. Any inclined (sloping or graded)
  surface also affects the combined center of gravity.




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Fulcrum Point
       The Boomlift works on the
         simple principle of loads
         balanced over a set of two
         wheels, the fulcrum.
         Depending on which set of
         tires the operator platform is
         set over, they become the
         fulcrum. The fulcrum point
         changes as the platform is
         elevating and swinging into
         position.

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Fulcrum Point on Articulated Booms



        As you raise, lower, extend, swing, or
          activate any boom function the fulcrum
          point, as well as the center of gravity
          changes as the platform changes its
          position. Sometimes this change is little
          and sometimes the change is a lot. The
          important issue for you to understand
          and always keep in mind as you operate
          the boomlift, is that all of the inter-
          related boomlift forces are always
          changing. Alberta Canada
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        Fulcrum Point Example
Another example of the change in fulcrum point.




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     Rated Work Load or Load Capacity
                 Rating
 LOAD CAPACITY – is a specific load carried at a specific distance
 from the fulcrum wheels and spread evenly over the operator
 platform.
 UNRESTRICTED LOAD CAPACITY – is the maximum allowable
 weight load allowed in and spread evenly, over the operator
 platform.

Maximum allowable weight load includes personnel, their tools and
   their materials.
As long as you are (1) within the unrestricted load capacity limits, (2)
   are operating on level ground that will support the units weight
   and (3) you employ any necessary safety devices you can operate
   the lift at any height safely.
Unrestricted rated work load capacity decals will always be located at
   each entrance into the platform and at the operator control
   stations. You should always verify these decals are in place during
   your pre-shift inspection.
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              Multiple Ratings
Some boomlifts have multiple ratings. On the PLATFORM
  ELEVATING ASSEMBLY, the multiple rating chart will
  show the alternative configurations of elevating
  assembly retracted versus extended; and elevated
  versus lowered.
ALTERNATIVE RATED WORK LOADS: when the rated
  work load of the varying configuration depends on the
  location of the platform in relation to the base, the
  manufacturer shall display the appropriate related
  work load of the configuration of the operator at the
  control station.

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                 Sideslope and Grade
Boomlifts are generally intended to be used on a flat level surface. The Owner's
   Manual will tell you the limits which will affect the operation of your unit.
Driving on a 15% grade to get to the worksite is acceptable but the boomlift should
   be operated on a flat level surface. When traveling over a long distance it is
   advisable to lock the turntable (if the boomlift is equipped with one, the
   University's is not equipped with this device), keep the boom mast retracted and
   keep the operator platform at or below the horizontal position with the ground.
   Do not drive the boomlift on grades or sideslopes exceeding those specified on
   caution placards or indicated in the Operator's Manual.




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Safe Operating Practices Overview
The operation of any boomlift is subject to
  certain hazards that can only be protected
  against by the intelligence, care, and common
  sense of the operator.




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           Overhead Hazards
• ASSUME all electrical parts and wiring are
  ENGERGIZED unless known otherwise.
• Avoid contact with 0 to 300V
• Over 300V to 50KV the Minimum Safe
  Approach Distance is 10 feet. The distance
  increases as the voltage increases.
• Trees


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                        Voltage Chart



    VOLTAGE RANGE                      MINIMUM SAFE APPROACH DISTANCE
     (Phase to Phase)                     (Feet)                            (Meters)
0 to 300V                                              AVOID CONTACT
Over 300V to 50KV         10                                        3.05
Over 50KV to 200KV        15                                        4.60
Over 200KV to 350KV       20                                        6.10
Over 350KV to 500KV       25                                        7.62
Over 500KV to 750KV       35                                        10.67


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                  Operating Practices Dos
   Do limit travel speed according to conditions of ground surface, congestion of the worksite,
    visibility, slope, grade, location of personnel, or any other factors causing hazards of collision
    or injury to personnel.
   Do maintain a clear view of the path of travel when elevated.
   Do maintain a safe distance from overhead obstacles when elevated.
   Do maintain a safe distance from obstacles, debris, drop-offs, holes, depressions, ramps, and
    other possible hazards when elevated.
   Do shutdown and cease operation of the lift in the case of any suspected malfunction(s) of
    the unit, or of any potentially hazardous conditions(s), or hazardous (environment) location(s)
    which may be encountered. Report the potential problem(s) to the appropriate people and
    make sure any problem(s) have been corrected before proceeding.
   Do ensure the outriggers, stabilizers, extendible axles, or other stability enhancing safety
    devices are used as required by the manufacturer of the lift.
   Do make sure all personnel maintain a firm footing on the platform floor while working from
    the platform and wear appropriate PPE.
   Do use special precautions when other equipment and/or vehicles are present. Warnings such
    as, but not limited to, flags, roped-off areas, flashing lights, and barricades shall be used.
   Do take care to prevent rope, electric cords and hoses from becoming entangled in the
    boomlift.
   Do cease operations if the platform or elevating assembly becomes caught, snagged or
    otherwise prevented from normal motion by an adjacent structure or other obstacles such
    that control reversal does not free the platform. All personnel shall be removed from the
    platform before attempts are made to free the platform using ground controls.




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       Operating Practices Don’ts
 Don't stunt drive or horseplay.
 Don't use planks, ladders or any other device on the
  boomlift platform to achieve any additional height or
  reach.
 Don't alter or disable any interlock or other safety device.
 Don't position the boomlift against another object to
  "steady" the platform. Don't use the boomlift as a crane.
 Don't operate the boomlift from a position on trucks,
  trailers, railway cars, floating vessels, scaffold, or similar
  equipment unless the application is approved in writing by
  the manufacturer.
 Don't alter or modify the boomlift unless you have written
  permission to do so by the manufacturer.


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      Remember When Refueling
Here are a few things to remember when refueling the
  boomlift:
Never fill the fuel tank of a lift with the engine running.
Never smoke or have the lift near an open flame when
  filling the fuel tank.
Be sure to use the correct type and grade of fuel.
Never mistakenly put fuel into the hydraulic tank.
Ground the fuel funnel or nozzle against the filler neck
  to prevent sparks.
Be sure to replace the fuel tank cap.

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  Fall Protection: When and Why
Fall protection is required due to the potential
  for being bounced out of lift or from climbing
  out of the basket. A harness is required to be
  worn when on the platform you must be and
  be tied off at all times. Remember to inspect
  the harness prior to use!




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      Tie-Off Points on Platform
Safety lanyard tie-off ring is usually located in
  the area close to the operator control station.
  There are 3 on the University's lift.




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Guardrails on the Platform Section
Guardrails are another type of fall
 protection. Guardrails are not to be used
 as a ladder, by standing on them in order
 to gain greater height.
The purpose of the toeboards is to keep
 loose debris, tools or materials from falling
 off of the platform to the ground.
It is the operator's responsibility to make
 sure all personnel in the platform are
 wearing fall protection devices and that
 their lanyards are securely fastened to the
 tie-off ring.
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          Scissor Lifts

• Falls
    1/5 of deaths involved ejections, after being struck by object
    Cause of fall unknown in 3/5 of deaths
    Other causes included removal of chains, standing on or
     leaning over railings
  Tipovers
    Caused almost 1/3 of scissor lift deaths
    Mostly while elevated over 15 feet
    1/4 of tipovers occurred where lift hit a hole or curb while
     moving
  Electrocutions
    1/2 involved overhead power lines

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          Renting an Aerial Lift


•   Get maintenance history of aerial lift
•   Get operator’s manual and maintenance manual (if separate)
•   Ensure a detailed maintenance check is done before rental
•   Make sure operator controls are easily accessible and properly
    marked




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         Operator Training


• Training must be done by a qualified person experienced
  with the particular lift model
• Training must include:
    Nature of electrical, fall, and other hazards involved in operating
     lift
    Precautions for dealing with hazards
    Rated load capacity for the lift (including workers, tools,
     materials, bucket liner, etc.)
    Manufacturer requirements, as outlined in operator manual
    Demonstration of skill and knowledge in actual operation of the
     aerial lift
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       Maintenance Requirements
• Training of mechanics should be done by qualified person
  experienced with lift model
• Maintenance should include:
      Knowledge of manufacturer’s maintenance requirements
      Frequent inspections of aerial lift by qualified mechanic
      At least annual detailed inspections by qualified mechanic
• Insulated aerial lifts have special electrical test requirements
• De-energize and lockout/tagout aerial lift before conducting
  maintenance and repairs



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       Before Operating Aerial Lifts

• Do not modify aerial lift without written permission
• Check safety devices, operating controls before each use
• Check area in which aerial lift will be used for:
      Level surface (Do not exceed manufacturer slope recommendations)
      Holes, drop-offs, bumps, debris, etc.
      Overhead obstructions and overhead power lines
      Stable surface
      Other hazards
• Set outriggers, brakes, wheel chocks

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       Preventing Electrocutions

• Non-electrical workers must stay at least 10 feet away from
  overhead power lines.
• Electrical workers must de-energize/insulate power lines or
  use proper PPE/equipment.
• Use insulated buckets near overhead power lines
• Regularly check insulation on buckets




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       Preventing Tip-Overs

• Do not exceed manufacturer rated load capacity limits
• Do not travel to job location with lift in elevated position.
• Set up proper work zone protection when working near
  traffic
• Positioning of lifts
      Do not drive near drop-offs or holes.
      Do not raise platform on uneven or soft surfaces.
      Do not drive onto uneven or soft surfaces when elevated.
      Do not raise platform on slope or drive onto slope when elevated.
      Do not raise platform in windy or gusty conditions.
• Avoid excessive horizontal forces when working on
  elevated scissor lifts
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                        Fall Protection

• OSHA regulates aerial lifts as scaffolds
      1926.453 Aerial Lifts only applies to bucket trucks
      Fall protection is required (full body harness with lanyard or body belt
       with 2-foot lanyard as restraint device)
      OSHA does not require harnesses and lanyards on other boom lifts and
       scissor lifts if there are guardrails
• Fall arrest systems (harness plus lanyard to stop a fall)
      Can tip over some boom lifts and scissor lifts due to fall stopping force
 Fall restraint systems intended to prevent falls are preferred
      e.g. Full body harness plus lanyard designed for size of lift platform
• Always close entrance chains or doors
• Stand on floor of bucket or lift platform
                       P lean over guardrails
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      O H & S-Required Inspection
O H & S requires that boomlifts be inspected.
 Boomlift Pre-Shift Inspection Report
  At the start up
  When the boomlift is out of your sight
 Workplace Pre-Shift Inspection Report
  Before you move the boomlift into the area
  At the start of work
  Anytime you are away from the lift
 Copies must be kept on file
 New sheet for each time checked
These reports will be gone over in detail during the Practical
  Training portion.

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