Document Sample
Arborist_Catalog Powered By Docstoc
					                              THE STRONGEST NAME IN ROPE


                                     The strongest name in Rope
                                        That’s not just a catchy slogan.

                                samson engineers are constantly developing new

                               combinations of fibers, coatings and constructions

                                 to provide the arborist industry with products

                                           that outperform all others.
                                                                                 climbing lines ........................................ 4
                                                                                 Samson Climbing Lines ................................ 5
                                                                                 ArborMaster®................................................. 6
                                                                                 Velocity ......................................................... 7
                                                                                 True-Blue ...................................................... 8
                                                                                 Arbor-Plex..................................................... 9
                                                                                 Tenex (Single End)/Tech-12 ....................... 10
                                                                                 Climbing Accessories ..................................11
                                                                                 Climbing Systems ....................................... 12
                                                                                 Climbing Hitches and Terminations ............ 13

                                                                                 Rigging lines ........................................ 14
                                                                                 Samson Rigging Lines................................ 15
                                                                                 Tenex TEC .................................................. 16
                                                                                 Rope Tools.................................................. 17
                                                                                 Stable Braid ................................................ 18
                                                                                 Arbor-Plex................................................... 19
                                                                                 Pro-Master .................................................. 20
                                                                                 Tree-Master ................................................ 21

                                                                                 ADDiTiOnAl ResOURces...................... 22
                                                                                 Technical Information.................................. 22
                                                                                 Rope Life Factors ....................................... 24
                                                                                 Inspection and Retirement.......................... 25
                                                                                 Rope Handling ............................................ 27
Whether you’re climbing or rigging, the arborist’s worksite is a      Samson application engineers work together with the most
tough place for rope. Running through crotches and against bark       advanced research and development organization in the
is abrasive on any rope. Supporting and controlling descending        industry, leading in the development of lighter, stronger, longer
loads while providing reasonable working life and a margin of         lasting ropes for high performance applications. Samson has
security is critical. Samson’s proven performance provides the        pioneered the use of new synthetic fibers, unique constructions
safety, security and durability professional arborists rely on        and innovative coatings to produce a steady stream of major
day in and day out.                                                   new product introductions.
For over 125 years, Samson has led the way in developing high         A commitment to the arborist industry…
performance cordage products to meet the most demanding               Samson’s commitment to the arborist goes beyond producing
applications in the world. All Samson ropes carry the legacy of our   the widest variety of products specifically engineered for
experience in industries as diverse as commercial and recreational    the industry. We are committed to supporting industry
marine, safety and rescue, utilities, even the space program.         association programs like those sponsored by the TCIA
We’ve built an organization offering unprecedented levels of          and ISA and training by ArborMaster® Training, Inc.
engineering support, technical expertise, superior customer           Samson also holds a seat on the ANSI Z133
service and aftermarket support to global customers.                  accredited standards committee. This
great products tailored to the application…                           commitment helps us understand the
Samson is the only major international cordage company                unique needs of the professional arborist,
that has a staff of dedicated application engineers. Their job        while informing and educating our users
is to understand the unique circumstances of a customer’s             in the safe and effective use of our
application, suggest current products that will fulfill the           products. From products proven
requirements, or assist in the development of new products            to perform in the workplace, to
to meet the customer’s needs. It is this dedication to problem        our commitment to the profes-
solving and new product development that is at the heart              sional development of the
of the Samson Advantage.                                              industry, it’s all part of the
                                                                      Samson Advantage.

climbing lines
                 saMson cliMBing lines

                   Working with arborists on solutions
                   to real-world problems.
                   climbing lines have come a long way from the
                   three-strand manila that was prevalent in the early
                   seventies. it was during that time that samson was
                   asked to develop a new synthetic line to replace
                   the manila climbing lines in use by arborists. We
                   consulted with professional arborists, universities,
                   and distributors. After fourteen months and seven
                   design evaluations, Arbor-Plex emerged as the first
                   synthetic braided rope designed specifically as a
                   climbing line for the arborist. With industry acceptance
                   of Arbor-Plex, samson saw the demand for a higher
                   strength, lower stretch climbing line that would allow
                   good visual recognition. True-blue was developed
                   in response to that demand. Tree-master followed for
                   those traditionalists who preferred a three strand, but    tHe saMson aDVantage

                   wanted the increased strength and lower stretch of         Samson is committed to meeting the
                   modern synthetics.                                         challenges of the arborist Industry and
                                                                              assuring the highest quality climbing lines
                                                                              available. We are ISO 9001 certified and
                   Samson continues to listen to the                          our climbing lines meet or exceed ANSI
                   professional arborist...                                   Standard Z133. It is our commitment to
                                                                              product development, compliance to industry
                   Today, the acceptance of modern climbing techniques        standards and constant innovation that
                   and systems has inspired the development of a              keeps us ahead of our competition. That’s
                   braided rope construction with maximum flexibility         part of the Samson Advantage, and it’s
                                                                              available in every product we make.
                   while maintaining a firm round shape during use.
                   Arbormaster® designed with the help of Arbormaster®
                   Training, fills that need with a climbing line available
                   in three color combinations for maximum visibility.
                   The latest member of the samson family of climbing
                   lines is Velocity, a unique, lighter weight double braid
                   climbing line, designed with “sure grip” technology to
                   come out of the bag with the feel of a well broken-in
                   rope. shortly after its introduction, Velocity was used
                   to set new World’s records for both men and women
                   in the secured footlock climbing event at the isA’s
                   28th international Tree climbing championships.

                                                                                                      saMson cliMBing lines

                                                                                                                                                                                     climbing lines
                                                                                                                                                         Premium 16-strand
                                                                                                                                                         braided polyester
                                                                                                                                                         construction with a
                                                                                                                                                         uniquely stabilized
                                                                                                                                                         nylon core.
                                                                                               RED, BLACK, WHITE

                                                                                               BLUE STREAK

                                                                                               GOLD STREAK

                                                                                                                                                         Premium 24-strand
                                                                                                                                                         braided polyester
                                                                                                                                                         our lightest
                                                                                                                                                         climbing line.


                                                                                                                                                         12-strand braided 100%
                                                                                                                                                         polyester construction.
                                                                                                                                                         Each strand consists
                                                                                                                                                         of blue fiber plied over
                                                                                                                                                         white fiber to assist
                                                                                                                                                         detection of cover wear.

                                                                                                                                                        12-strand braided
                                                                                                                                                        construction of
                                                                                                                                                        plied polyester and
                                                                                                                                                        polyolefin fibers.

                                                                                                                        aVerage strengtH / WorKing loaD
                                                                                                        aVerage                  WorKing                    WeigHt Per
                                                                          ProDuct                       strengtH                  loaD                    100 ft.  [100m]

                                                                          ArborMaster (1/2")         8,100 lbs. [3,700Kg]      810 lbs. [370Kg]          7.7 lbs.       [11.5Kg]
                                                                          Velocity (7/16")           6,000 lbs. [2,700Kg]      600 lbs. [270Kg]          5.6 lbs.        [8.3Kg]
                                                                          True-Blue (1/2")           7,300 lbs. [3,300Kg]      730 lbs. [330Kg]          8.8 lbs.       [13.1Kg]
                                                                          Arbor-Plex (1/2")          6,000 lbs. [2,700Kg]      600 lbs. [270Kg]          6.8 lbs.       [10.1Kg]
                                                                                                                            Strengths and working loads are for new, unused ropes.

                                                                                                         elastic elongation* (% OF bReAKing sTengTH)
                                                                            PRODUcT                          10%                         20%                        30%
                                           iMPortant note
                                                                            ArborMaster                      2.50%                      3.70%                       5.10%
CLIMBING LINES USED fOR LOWERING OPERATIONS:                                Velocity                         2.10%                      3.20%                       4.10%
Lines designated for climbing should nOT be used as rigging lines,          True-Blue                        2.60%                      3.00%                       4.00%
come-along ropes or bull ropes. Although some individual products
                                                                            Arbor-Plex                       3.00%                      3.30%                       4.20%
are effective both for climbing and rigging, a particular piece of rope
should never be used for climbing once it has been designated for                                                                     *Based on rope stablized from 200D2
rigging operations.

climbing lines
                 arborMaster ®
                                 16-STRAND BRAIDED POLYESTER CONSTRUCTION WITH
                                 STABILIZED NYLON CORE
                                 World-class champion climbers and professionals at ArborMaster® Training worked
                                 closely with Samson engineers to develop the ultimate climbing line: ArborMaster® .
                                 With your life and livelihood on the line, you can rely on ArborMaster to perform
                                 smoothly. You have the assurance that some of the best arborists in the business
                                 have designed this product with you and your needs in mind and they rely on it
                                 themselves.Your equipment and tools should minimize climber fatigue, not
                                 contribute to it.
                                 This is why ArborMaster is built to a
                                 full 1/2" diameter. ArborMaster is a                   Features
                                 premium quality 16-stand line offering
                                                                                       n	 Maximum firmness for all climbing
                                 a smooth, durable surface to optimize
                                 footlock climbing. ArborMaster can be                    techniques
                                                                                       n	 High visibilty in trees
                                 spliced both ends, right out of the bag
                                 (No milking.) (Not all 16-strand climbing             n	 low stretch

                                 lines are built this way.) This allows you            n	 Full size 1/2" diameter makes for an
                                 to alternate the working end of the rope                 easy grip
                                 right from the start, which maximizes                 n	 excellent knot-heat reistance
                                 the service life of the rope. Made from               n	 Available in spliced units
                                 specially treated polyester with a stabilized         n	 no milking
                                 nylon core, ArborMaster is available in               n	 Maintains excellent service flexibility
                                 three, high-contrast color combinations:              n	 spliceable at both ends
                                 red/black/white, Blue Streak, Gold Streak.

                                 Progressive arborists use eye splices
                                 whenever possible and arborMaster ,
                                 with virtually no core cover slippage,
                                 can be spliced at both ends.

                                                                                       elastic elongation
                                                                                               		10%	                        20%	                      30%
                                                                                               2.5%                          3.7%                      5.1%
                                                                                               After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                 siZe          WeigHt Per         aVerage strengtH                                      WorKing loaD
                                                 [DiaMeter]    100 Ft / [100M]   unsPliceD               sPliceD               unsPliceD               sPliceD

                                                 1/2"              7.7 lbs.       8,100 lbs.            6,500 lbs.                 810 lbs.            650 lbs.
                                                 [12mm]           [11.5Kg]        [3,700Kg]             [2,900Kg]                  [370Kg]             [290Kg]

                                                                                       stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs
                                                                                       5' Polybag ...................................... Spliced

                                                                                       120' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced

                                                                                       150' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced

                                                                                       200' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced

                                                                                       600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced
                                   5" eye splice standard on spliced product
                                   allows girth hitching to the carabiner.
                                   girth hitch helps to ensure line stays on
                                                                                                                               Product code: 348
                                   carabiners spine avoiding side loading.                                                     Product code: 347 (ce)
                                                                                                                               Unspliced only


                                                                                                                                                               climbing line
     Velocity is an 11mm (7/16" diameter) premium grade climbing line designed to offer tree care
     professionals quick and easy access to the tops of trees. Arborist’s who prefer that “broken in”
     feeling will appreciate Samson's proprietary “Sure Grip” technology which gives Velocity that
     broken-in feeling the first time it is used. The light weight and firm construction offers the arborist
     exceptional footlocking capabilities, quick access, excellent knot holding ability and a spliced
     strength of 6,000 lbs.


n	 11mm size (7/16" diameter)
n	 “sure grip” technology
n	 lightweight –
   Quicker climbing
   Less fatigue
   Quick access
   Throws higher with greater accuracy
n	 excellent knot holding ability
n	 Works well with hardware
n	 exceptional access line
n	 great for footlocking

                                                                                                         Frank chipps, after setting a new
                                                                                                     world foot locking record on Velocity.

                                  elastic elongation
     		 0%	                        20%	                         30%	
     	2.1%                         3.2%                         4.1%
     After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

siZe                WeigHt Per                        aVerage          WorKing loaD
[DiaMeter]          100 Ft / [100M]            strengtH sPliceD           sPliceD

7/16"                     5.6 lbs.                     6,000 lbs.         600 lbs.
[11mm]                    [8.3Kg]                      [2700Kg]           [270Kg]

              stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs
5' Polybag ...................................... Spliced

120' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced

150' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced

200' Polybag .................................. Spliced/Unspliced
                                                                            samson’s standard factory splice is a
600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced               tight eye that ensures that your line will
                                                                            stay on the spine of the carabiner and not
                                                                            side load.

 Product code: 349
 Product code: 351 (ce)
 Unspliced only

                 true-Blue / true-White
                                     12-STRAND BRAIDED 100% POLYESTER CONSTRUCTION –
climbing lines

                                     Each	strand	of	True-Blue	consists	of	blue	fiber	plied	over	white		
                                     fiber	to	assist	detection	of	cover	wear
                                     True-Blue is an all polyester climbing rope with high strength, low stretch, excellent
                                     abrasion resistance and a long service life. It’s got a great feel with good flexibility and
                                     knot holding abilities. The single braid construction eliminates the need for milking and
                                     stays firm and round in use. True-Blue can also be used for light duty rigging applications.
                                     True-Blue braided climbing line is a unique combination of solution dyed blue polyester
                                     fiber wrapped over white polyester in a Samson 12-Strand braid. The result is permanent
                                     color that won’t fade or run, with high visibility in trees. Available by special order in white.


                                                                                           n	 100% polyester
                                                                                           n	 low stretch, high strength
                                                                                           n	 no milking necessary
                                                                                           n	 Stays firm and round in use
                                                                                           n	 Maintains excellent flexibility
                                                                                           n	 maximum service life
                                                                                           n	 single braid

                                                                                           n	 can also be used for light/medium
                                                                                              duty rigging operations

                                                                                                 elastic elongation
                                                                                                    		10%	                            20%	                               30%
                                                                                                    2.6%                             3.0%                            4.0%
                                                                                                     After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                                     siZe         WeigHt Per            aVerage strengtH                                WorKing loaD
                                                                     [DiaMeter]   100 Ft / [100M]                 unsPliceD                                  unsPliceD
                                                                     1/2"             8.8 lbs.                     7,300 lbs.                                  730 lbs.
                                                                     [12mm]         [13.1Kg]                       [3,300Kg]                                   [330Kg]

                                                                                             stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs
                                                                                                  120' Polybag ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                  150' Polybag ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                  600' Reel .................................................Unspliced

                                                                                                  2400' Drum ............................................ Unspliced

                                                                                                                       Product code: 342 (True-blue)
                                                                                                                       Product code: 344 (True-White)


                                                                                                                        climbing line
      The unique construction of Arbor-Plex wraps tough polyester jacket fibers around polyolefin
      center fibers creating a lightweight, high-strength rope with maximum resistance to wear
      and fiber fusing. Arbor-Plex uses a proprietary construction to tighten the braid and keep the
      rope round and firm for knot control and snag resistance. The outer polyester fibers utilize
      Samson’s Parallay fiber orientation to prolong rope life by minimizing the sawing action of
      fibers over rough surfaces. The signature green stripe assures that any twist in the line is
      easily detectable.
      Arbor-Plex was the first synthetic rope designed specifically for the arborist industry and
      remains one of the best values in climbing lines today.


n	 excellent wear and snag resistance
n	 excellent knot holding ability
n	 Works well when wet
n	 economical – good value
n	 single braid
n	 no twist stripe

                                        elastic elongation
       		10%	                           20%	                           30%
       3.0%                             3.3%                           4.2%
        After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

siZe                    WeigHt Per                   aVerage strengtH         WorKing loaD
[DiaMeter]              100 Ft / [100M]                        unsPliceD        unsPliceD

 1/2"                         6.8 lbs.                          6,000 lbs.        600 lbs.
 [12mm]                      [10.1Kg]                           [2,700Kg]         [270Kg]

                  stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs
     120' Polybag ............................................ Unspliced

     150' Polybag ............................................ Unspliced

     600' Reel .................................................. Unspliced

     2400' Drum ............................................... Unspliced

     Product code: 346

                           12-STRAND HIGH TENACITY POLYESTER WITH
climbing TAils

                           SAMTHANE COATING – SINGLE END                                                  n	 excellent snag and abrasion resistance
                           CONSTRUCTION                                                                   n	 easy to splice
                           Tenex is a twelve-strand, coated polyester, single                             n	 High strength to weight ratio
                           braid. It combines high strength with low stretch and                          n	 High strength per diameter
                           is highly abrasion resistant. These factors, combined
                           with being easy to splice, make Tenex the rope of
                                                                                                          color oPtions
                           choice for constructing today’s rope tools such as
                           eye and eye tails for progressive rigging and
                           climbing applications.
                           Tenex is offered in a single end per




                           carrier construction in sizes 3/8" diameter


                           through 7/8" diameter. Available in: white, red,
                           blue, green, orange, yellow or black.
                           See page 16 for Tenex-TEC.
                                                                          siZe                   WeigHt Per             aVerage strengtH                           WorKing loaD
                                                                          [DiaMeter]            100 Ft    [100M]                    sPliceD                                sPliceD

                                                                          3/8" [9mm]            4.2 lbs. [6.2Kg]             5800 lbs. [2600Kg]                        580 lbs. [260Kg]

                                                                          7/16" [11mm]          6.3 lbs. [9.4Kg]              9000lbs. [4100Kg]                        900 lbs. [410Kg]

                                                                         1/2" [12mm]            8.5 lbs. [12.6Kg]            11,800 lbs. [5400Kg]                      1,180 lbs. [540Kg]

                                                                          5/8" [16mm]          13.1 lbs. [19.5Kg]            17,100 lbs. [7800Kg]                      1,710 lbs. [780Kg]

                                                                         3/4" [18mm]           17.2 lbs. [25.6Kg] 22,400 lbs. [10,200Kg]                         2,240 lbs. [1,020 Kg]

                                                                         7/8" [22mm]           25.8 lbs. [38.4Kg] 32,600 lbs. [14,800Kg]                          3,260 lbs. [1,480Kg]

                                                                                                           elastic elongation
                                                                                                                    		10%	                        20%	                              30%
                                                                                                                    1.40%                       2.30%                               3.00%
                                                                                                                    After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                                                                           stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs
                                                                                                               600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                                                                       Product Code: 826

                           12-STRAND SINGLE BRAID Of TECHNORA                                             Features
                           fIBER WITH SAMTHANE COATING                                                    n	 samthane coating
                           Higher strength, lower stretch and better                                      n	 easy to splice
                           resistance to flex-fatique than products                                       n	 excellent heat resistance
                           constructed from other aramid fibers.                                          n	 strength comparable to wire
                           Excellent resistance to heat, when
                           used as a climbing tail. Available in four
                           colors: black, red, green or blue. Used             siZe           WeigHt Per              aVerage strengtH                                 WorKing loaD
                                                                               [DiaMeter]     100 Ft     [100M]                  sPliceD                                    sPliceD
                           for heat resistant climbing line tails.
                                                                         1/4" [6mm]           1.9 lbs.   [2.8Kg]          8,200 lbs. [3,700Kg]                         820 lbs. [370Kg]

                                                                        1/2" [12mm]           8.0 lbs. [11.9Kg] 33,000 lbs. [15,000Kg]                            3,300 lbs. [1,500Kg]

                                                       color oPtions                                       elastic elongation
                                                                                                                    		10%	                        20%	                              30%
                                                                                                                    0.63%                        0.96%                              1.20%
                                                                                                                    After 50 cycles at % of break strength.


                                                                                                           stanDarD PacKageD lengtHs

                                                                                                               600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                                    Product Code: 890 samthane coated

                                                                                            cliMBing accessories

 ZING-IT                                                                       ULTRA-TECH
 The first throwing line designed specifically for the professional            A unique, high strength double braid with an outer cover
 arborist. Samson’s Zing-It offers high strength, low stretch, and             of polyester fiber and an inner core of Technora® fiber.
 excellent abrasion resistance to enhance durability – all in a small          Well suited for numerous climbing and rigging applications.
 diameter, lightweight throwing line.                                          The core is extremely heat resistant so rope will not sever if
 Zing-It helps you achieve higher throws with lighter weights, greater         cover is burned. Available in four tracer colors: black, red,
 control due to its low stretch, and the ability to pull down “hangers” due    blue or green.
 to its high strength. The special coating reduces abrasion and allows
 Zing-It to glide easily over the roughest bark. Zing-It’s low coefficient
 of friction allows the throw bag to easily reach the ground on the first
 throw. Use for either hand or mechanical throwing with an 8–12 oz.
 throwing weight.

siZe           WeigHt     aVerage        stanDarD
[DiaMeter]    Per 100 Ft. strengtH PKg. lengtHs

 1.75 mm   .12 lbs.           400 lbs.    180 ft. tube
 1.75 mm   .12 lbs.           400 lbs.   1,000 ft. tube                       siZe            WeigHt Per             aVerage
                                                                              [DiaMeter]     100 Ft     [100M]       strengtH
 2.2 mm    .16 lbs.           580 lbs.    180 ft. tube
 2.2 mm    .16 lbs.           580 lbs.   1,000 ft. tube                       5/16” [8mm]     4.0 lbs. [6.0Kg]     7,800 lbs. [3,500Kg]
 Product Code: 811                                                            Product Code: 443

 AMSTEEL-BLUE                                                                 ACCESSORY CORDS
 A 12 strand construction of HMPE fiber                                       From tie-downs to pruning pole cords,
 utilizing our proprietary Samthane coating                                   accessory cords have hundreds of uses
 and parallay construction. AmSteel-Blue                                      on any job site. Samson's strength and
 yields the maximum in strength-to-weight                                     quality in multi-purpose accessory
 ratio and is stronger than wire rope                                         cords make Samson accessory
 constructions – yet it floats.                                               cords the “utility player” in the
                                                                              Samson arborist line up.

                                                                              siZe            WeigHt Per             aVerage
                                                                              [DiaMeter]     100 Ft     [100M]       strengtH
 siZe               WeigHt Per              aVerage                              2mm         0.2 lbs.   [0.3Kg]      230 lbs. [104Kg]
 [DiaMeter]        100 Ft      [100M]       strengtH
                                                                                 3mm         0.5 lbs.   [0.74Kg]     600 lbs. [270Kg]
 1/4” [6mm]        1.6 lbs.    [2.4Kg]    8,600 lbs. [3,900Kg]
                                                                                 4mm         0.8 lbs.   [1.2Kg]    1,000 lbs. [450Kg]
 5/16” [8mm]       2.7 lbs.    [4.0Kg]   13,700 lbs. [6,200Kg]
                                                                                 5mm         1.4 lbs.   [2.1Kg]    1,200 lbs. [540Kg]
 3/8” [9mm]        3.6 lbs.    [5.4Kg]   19,600 lbs. [8,900Kg]
                                                                                 6mm         1.8 lbs.   [2.7Kg]    2,200 lbs. [1,000Kg]
 7/16” [11mm]      4.2 lbs.    [6.2Kg]   23,900 lbs. [10,800Kg]
                                                                                 7mm         2.3 lbs.   [3.4Kg]    2,800 lbs. [1,300Kg]
 1/2” [12mm]       6.4 lbs.    [9.5Kg]   34,000 lbs. [15,400Kg]
                                                                                 8mm         3.0 lbs.   [4.5Kg]    3,500 lbs. [1,600Kg]
 Product Code: 872
                                                                                 9mm         3.8 lbs.   [5.7Kg]    4,300 lbs. [2,000Kg]
                                                                                 Product Code: 480 Unspliced

     cliMBing sYsteMs
     Two commonly used climbing systems are the traditional and the modern split-tail system. The differences
     between these two systems are illustrated below.

                                                           TRADITIONAL SYSTEM
                                                           The traditional climbing system
                                                           utilizes a climbing line dead-ended
                                                           to the saddle with a bowline leaving
                                                           a long tail. The tail is then attached
                                                           to the other part of the climbing line
                                                           by tying a climbing hitch. This
                                                           system is limited to a one eye tail
                                                           and the tail is the same rope as
                                                           the climbing line.

                                                           MODERN SPLIT-TAIL SYSTEM
                                                           Advances in technology have led to
                                                           new techniques that offer additional
                                                           benefits to the traditional system.
                                                           beneFiTs OF sePARATe TAil:

                                                           n   Ability to replace tail without
                                                               reducing length of climbing line.

                                                           n   Two attachment points on saddle
                                                               for more comfort and work

                                                           n   Easier to change tie-in point.

                                                           n   Allows you to use climbing line
                                                               as a second lanyard.

                                                           n   Helps make climbing line
                                                               more versatile.

                                                           n   Contrasting colors

                                                  cliMBing HitcHes anD terMinations

                       CLIMBING HITCHES
                       The advent of the modern split tail system introduced the use of one and two eye
                       climbing tails. Shown below are various popular hitches that are used for one and two
                       eye tails.

One eYe HiTcHes:

                            n	   Tautline Hitch     n	   Prusik Hitch           n	   blakes Hitch

TWO eYe HiTcHes:
Two eye tails or eye
and eye tails are
made from Single
End Tenex.

                            n	   Distel Hitch       n	   schwaebisch Hitch     n	    Valdótain Hitch

                       This system offers the climber the benefits of having both ends attached to the saddle
                       as well as a balanced hitch that can not roll out.

                       TERMINATION KNOTS


Here are three
popular termination
knots that can
be an effective
replacement for
a splice.              n	   Anchor                          n	   buntline                        n	    Triple Fisherman


                       n	   Velocity splice                 n	   Arbormaster girth Hitch


                 Rigging for tree removal is more complicated
                 than climbing and demands more experience                        Running Bowline
                 as well as an understanding of the effects on
                 the rope of the various knots and hitches used.
                 It is widely known that knots can significantly
                 reduce rope strength with a corresponding
                 reduction in the work load limit recommended
                 by a manufacturer. The rigging techniques
                                                                                        Half Hitch
                 and knots presented here are meant to give
                 a general overview of the basic principles of
                 rigging. Prior to beginning any tree work, it is
                 important to thoroughly examine the tree for
                 structural imperfection, faults or weaknesses
                 that could compromise safety. This text is not
                 a substitute for proper training.
                 One of the most potentially dangerous aspects
                 of rigging is “chunking out” large trunk
                 sections of wood that are rigged vertically                          Loopie Sling
                 upon themselves.
                 Safety, as always, is the primary concern. It
                 is important when rigging to minimize shock-                       Rigging Block
                 loads and manage friction efficiently. This is
                 easiest to achieve when using arborist grade
                                                                                    Lowering Line
                 rigging blocks in conjunction with appropriate
                 friction/lowering devices both of which have
                 been tested and rated.
                 Excessive shock loading must always be
                 considered when rigging. The rigging system
                 should be constructed to withstand the
                 maximum shock-load potential. Generally,
                 maximum shock loads are experienced in a
                 rigging system when the rigged piece is
                 “snubbed off” and not gradually decelerated.
                 Testing and research has shown that the block
                 and sling experience more than double the
                 shock load force than any other part of the
                 rigging system if the piece is “snubbed off,”
                 a situation to be avoided whenever possible.

              Running bowline with half hitch                                             Friction
            These knots are used in conjunction with one another to attach
            rigging lines to tree sections that are being rigged for removal.
            The Running Bowline is easily untied. It securely chokes the piece
            when steady pressure is applied.The Half Hitch increases safety
                                                                                    Whoopie Sling
            and provides stability and holding power.

              adjustable slings
            Loopies or Whoopie Slings are an excellent alternative to the
            traditional Timber Hitch as they can not come untied. The Timber
            Hitch can be used to attach a rigging block or a friction device to
            a tree as a lowering devise to lower or hoist limbs. This tendency
            for the hitch to come untied can be minimized by tucking for a
            minimum of 5 wraps, spreading out the tucks over as much of the
            circumference of the trunk as possible, and ensuring that the hitch
            is loaded “against the bight” whenever possible.

                                                                           saMson Rigging lines

aRboRist Rigging lines:                       Tenex-Tec
                                                                                                  12-strand sling construction of high tenacity
                                                                                                  polyester with Samthane™ coating.
Rigging is the use of ropes and
other equipment to take down trees
or remove limbs when free-falling             Stable Braid
                                                                                                  Double braid construction consisting of a
is not advisable. Rigging is the most                                                             braided polyester cover over a braided
                                                                                                  polyester core.
advanced aspect of tree work. Even
for veteran arborists, it is best to          Arbor-Plex
practice new techniques in open                                                                   12-strand braided construction of plied
areas where the risk of accidents                                                                 polyester and polyolefin fibers.
can be controlled and personal
safety can be ensured.                        Pro-Master
                                                                                                  3-strand, twisted construction of spun and
                                                                                                  filament polyester jacket fibers covering
The techniques and tools will vary                                                                polyolefin core fibers.
with each job site and an experienced
worker will take advantage of the             Tree-Master
many new blocks and lowering                                                                      3-strand, 4-stage twisted construction of
                                                                                                  100% polyester fiber.
devices to safely and efficiently
lower tree sections. Advances in
rope construction, as well as new                                                                 12-strand braided 100% polyester construction.
and better synthetic fibers, are                                                                  Each strand consists of blue fiber plied over
                                                                                                  white fiber to assist detection of cover wear.
making the job of rigging easier and
safer and the importance of using
reliable rigging ropes cannot be
overstated. Samson offers several         siZe / PRoduct                  aVeRage                 woRKing                       weight
types of rigging lines designed           [diaMeteR]                      stRength                 load                   100 ft.      [100m]

specifically for the Arborist industry.   3/8" tenex-tec [9mm]          6,100 lbs. [2,800Kg]     1,200 lbs. [550Kg]        4.3 lbs.      [6.4Kg]
Samson’s rigging lines offer the          1/2" tenex-tec [12mm]        13,100 lbs. [5,900Kg]    2,600 lbs. [1,200Kg]       10.0 lbs.    [14.9Kg]
best combination of strength, wear        5/8" tenex-tec [16mm]        18,800 lbs. [8,500Kg]    3,800 lbs. [1,700Kg]       14.8 lbs.    [22.0Kg]
resistance and elongation, available      3/4" tenex-tec [18mm]        24,800 lbs. [11,200Kg]   5,000 lbs. [2,200Kg]       19.2 lbs.    [28.5Kg]
to the tree care industry.                7/8" tenex-tec [22mm]        34,200 lbs. [15,500Kg]   6,800 lbs. [3,100Kg]       26.7 lbs.    [39.7Kg]
                                          1" tenex-tec [24mm]          44,500 lbs. [20,200Kg]   8,900 lbs. [4,000Kg]       34.7 lbs.    [51.6Kg]
                                          1/2" stable braid [12mm]     10,400 lbs. [4,700Kg]     2,100 lbs. [940Kg]        11.0 lbs.    [16.4Kg]
                                          9/16" stable braid [14mm]    13,300 lbs. [6,000Kg]    2,700 lbs. [1,200Kg]       14.0 lbs.    [20.8Kg]
                                          5/8" stable braid [16mm]     16,300 lbs. [7,400Kg]    3,300 lbs. [1,500Kg]       18.0 lbs.    [26.8Kg]
                                          3/4" stable braid [18mm]     20,400 lbs. [9,300Kg]    4,100 lbs. [1,900Kg]       27.1 lbs.    [40.3Kg]
                                          7/8" stable braid [22mm]     29,900 lbs. [13,600Kg]   6,000 lbs. [2,700Kg]       6.8 lbs.     [10.1Kg]
                                          1/2" arbor-Plex [12mm]        6,000 lbs. [2,700Kg]     1,200 lbs. [540Kg]        12.0 lbs.    [17.9Kg]
                                          5/8" arbor-Plex [16mm]        9,000 lbs. [4,100Kg]     1,800 lbs. [820Kg]        16.2 lbs.    [24.1Kg]
                                          3/4" arbor-Plex [18mm]       12,000 lbs. [5,400Kg]    2,400 lbs. [1,100Kg]       6.5 lbs.      [9.7Kg]
                                          1/2" Pro-master [12mm]        6,300 lbs. [2,900Kg]     1,300 lbs. [590Kg]        9.6 lbs.     [14.3Kg]
                                          5/8" Pro-master [16mm]        8,500 lbs. [3,900Kg]     1,700 lbs. [770Kg]        13.9 lbs.    [20.7Kg]
                                          3/4" Pro-master [18mm]       10,900 lbs. [4,900Kg]     2,200 lbs. [990Kg]        18.0 lbs.    [26.8Kg]
                                          7/8" Pro-master [22mm]       15,500 lbs. [7,000Kg]    3,100 lbs. [1,400Kg]       13.0 lbs.    [19.3Kg]
                                          5/8" tree-master [16mm]      12,900 lbs. [5,900Kg]    2,600 lbs. [1,200Kg]       18.5 lbs.    [27.5Kg]
                                          3/4" tree-master [18mm]      15,200 lbs. [6,900Kg]    3,000 lbs. [1,400Kg]       8.8 lbs.     [13.1Kg]

                                                                            elastic elongation* (% of bReaKing stRength)
                                                                              10%                20%               30%
                                          tenex-tec                             1.40%                 2.30%                       3.00%
                                          stable braid                          1.10%                 1.70%                       2.70%
                                          arbor-Plex                            3.00%                 3.30%                       4.20%
                                          Pro-master                            2.00%                 3.20%                       3.90%
                                          tree-master                           2.90%                 5.60%                       8.20%
                                          true-blue                             2.60%                 3.00%                       4.00%
                                          *Based on rope stablized from 200D2

               tenex-tec (sling construction)
                                        12-stRand high tenacity PolyesteR with samthane coating

                                        Two	end	sling	construction
                                        Tenex “Sling Construction” is a two end per carrier (TEC) twelve-strand Samthane coated,
                                        high tenacity polyester rope offering high strength coupled with low stretch and outstanding
                                        abrasion resistance. Its abrasion resistance and firmness is due to special Samthane coating
                                        which allows for easy splicing while enhancing wear life and snag resistance. A viable alter-
                                        native to using double braids when easy field splicing and economy are major considerations.


                                                                                                  n	     Excellent snag and abrasion resistance
                                                                                                  n	     Easy to splice
                                                                                                  n	     Easy to inspect for potential
                                                                                                         internal wear
                                                                                                  n	     Higher strength per diameter than
                                                                                                         double braid
                                                                                                  n	     Good gripping characteristics

                                                                                                  coloR oPtions





                                                                                                  elastic elongation
                                                                                                             	10%	                            20%	                          30%
                                                                                                             1.40%                            2.30%                         3.00%
                                                                                                             After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                                          siZe         weight PeR               aVeRage stRength                                   woRKing load
                                                                          [diaMeteR]   100 ft / [100M]                          sPliced                                 sPliced

                                                                            3/8"          4.3 lbs.                           6,100 lbs.                                1,200 lbs.
                                                                            [9mm]         [6.4Kg]                            [2,800Kg]                                 [550Kg]
                                                                            1/2"          10.0 lbs.                          13,100 lbs.                               2,600 lbs.
                                                                            [12mm]        [14.9Kg]                           [5,900Kg]                                 [1,200Kg]
                                                                            5/8"          14.8 lbs.                          18,800 lbs.                               3,800lbs.
                                                                            [16mm]        [22.0Kg]                           [8,500Kg]                                 [1,700Kg]
                                                                            3/4"          19.2 lbs.                          24,800 lbs.                               5,000 lbs.
                                                                            [18mm]        [28.5Kg]                           [11,200Kg]                                [2,200Kg]
                                                                            7/8"          26.7 lbs.                          34,200 lbs.                               6,800 lbs.
                                                                            [22mm]        [39.7Kg]                           [15,500Kg]                                [3,100Kg]
                                                                            1"            34.7 lbs.                          44,500 lbs.                               8,900 lbs.
                                                                            [24mm]        [51.6Kg]                           [20,200Kg]                                [4,000Kg]

                                                                                                  standaRd PacKaged lengths
                                                                                                                           600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                                                                       Product Code: 825

                                                                                                                                                                           ROPE TOOLS

                                                                                                                                                                                                      RIGGING LINE
        Adjustable, load rated two eye lifting slings. The sling has a permanent eye splice
        at one end, and an adjustable eye at the other end that allows it to adapt to loads
        of various sizes. The adjustment allows snug lifting control and minimizes the
        number of fixed length slings required. With three sizes to choose from, there is
        a Samson Whoopie Sling for any lifting job. Each is permanently tagged with its
        capacity, polybagged and shipped in a carton.

                                                                                                TREERIG SLING
                                       SPECS/WHOOPIE SLINGS                                     Also know as a “Dead Eye”, Samson TreeRig Slings are fabricated from Samthane
                                                                                                coated Stable Braid and Tenex-TEC spliced with an eye splice on one end. These
                                                            ADJUSTMENT          PERM.           slings are commonly used to lash a block in place to establish a false crotch.
       SIZE           COLOR            UNIT WEIGHT            LENGTH           EYE SIZE
                                                                                                Tie block with a cow hitch for best results.
  1/2" [12mm] blue                  1.2 lbs. [0.5Kg]        2.5 ft. to 4 ft.       5"
  5/8" [16mm]   red                 1.7 lbs. [0.8Kg]         3 ft. to 5 ft.        6"                                     TENEX TREERIG™ SLING (8" EYE)
  3/4" [18mm] orange                2.8 lbs. [1.3Kg]        3.5 ft. to 6 ft.       7"                 SIZE [DIAMETER]                  COLOR                     LENGTH
                                                                                                    1/2" [12mm]          blue                           10', 12', 15'
                                                                                                    5/8" [16mm]          red                            6', 8', 10', 12', 16', 20'
                          SLING ANGLE (FROM VERTICAL)
                                                                                                    3/4" [18mm]        orange                           8', 12', 15', 18', 20'
                            0°          15°        30°        45°        60°        75°
                                                                                                    7/8" [22mm]         green                           10', 14', 20'
 Load Angle Factor        1.000        .966      .866        .707       .500       .259
Strengths and working loads are for new, unused ropes with splices and no knots.                    1" [24mm]          yellow                           12', 16', 20'
                                                                                                Product Code: 690 (Tenex-TEC)

                                                RATED CAPACITIES*                                           STABLE BRAID TREERIG™ SLING (6" EYE)
   SINGLE LEG           CHOKER         * Rated capacities are for slings in vertical lift             SIZE [DIAMETER]                  COLOR                     LENGTH
                                       use and spliced in accordance with Samson
     2,200 lbs.        1,760 lbs.      factory procedure. For angles other than
                                                                                                    9/16" [14mm]        yellow                            6', 8', 10', 14', 20'
     3,200 lbs.        2,560 lbs.      vertical, multiply by the "Load Angle Factor"                5/8" [16mm]           red                             6', 8', 10', 14', 20'
                                       in the table shown to obtain the reduced
     4,200 lbs.        3,380 lbs.                                                                   3/4" [18mm]         orange                            6', 8', 10', 14', 20'
                                       rating based on the calculated sling lift angle.
                                                                                                    7/8" [22mm]          green                            6', 8', 10', 14', 20'
                                                                                                Product Code: 691 (Stable Braid)
                                                                                                PLEASE NOTE: Stable Braid and Tenex-TEC strengths and working loads (on pages
                                                                                                16 & 18) are for spliced rope. When used as a TreeRig Sling, additional bending and
                                                                                                knot usage may further reduce rope strength with a corresponding reduction in work
                                                                                                load limit. For safety considerations, the work load limit should not exceed 20% of
                                                                                                the rope strength.

    While these fabricated tools are not offered by Samson, professional arborists have found Tenex-TEC to be the
    perfect product for producing these rope tools.
                                                                    ENDLESS LOOP SLING                                                                                          SPIDER LEG BALANCER

    Sometimes called fixed                                                                                              A variation of the TreeRig sling with
    loop. Constructed using an                                                                                         an extra long eye spliced into one end.
    end-for-end splice. Commonly                                                                                       This would be used either singly or with
    used for a re-direct, a foot                                                                                       multiple spider balancers, in conjunction
    hold or other useful applications.                                                                                 with a rigging line, to balance pieces being
                                                                                                                       lowered to the ground. It is recommended
                                                                                                                       that the spider balancer be sized 1/8"
                                                                                                                       smaller than the rigging line.

                                                                                            LOOPIE                                                                           TENEX EYE AND EYE TAIL

    An adjustable loop sling. Generally                                                                               The Eye and Eye Tail is a spliced section
    used in rigging applications and                                                                                  of cordage that is employed to form the
    constructed using an end-for-end                                                                                  climbing hitch in a split tail climbing system.
    splice. It is important to note that                                                                              It has small eyes on both ends and is used
    when the sling is “choked” the                                                                                    primarily for climbing hitches such as the
    attachment point for the sling is                                                                                 Val de Tain, Distel and Schwabisch.
    through the center of the buried part.

               stable braid
                              doUble bRaid constRUction consisting of a bRaided

                              PolyesteR coveR oveR a bRaided PolyesteR coRe
                              Stable Braid is an all polyester double braid rope with high strength, low stretch, snag
                              resistance and excellent durability. Bright Samthane coating improves visibility and
                              enhances resistance to abrasion and snagging.


                                                                                  n	 Low stretch
                                                                                  n	 Excellent abrasion resistance
                                                                                  n	 High strength-to-weight ratio
                                                                                  n	 Flexible and easy to handle
                                                                                  n	 Minimal UV degradation
                                                                                  n	 Torque-free
                                                                                  n	 Spliceable

                                                                                     coloR oPtions



                                                                                     elastic elongation               Red

                                                                                        	 10%	                         20%	                            30%
                                                                                        1.10%                        1.70%                           2.70%
                                                                                        After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                         siZe         weight PeR             aVeRage stRength                           woRKing load
                                                         [diaMeteR]   100 ft / [100M]                 sPliced                                   sPliced

                                                           1/2"           8.2 lbs.                   10,400 lbs.                                2,100 lbs.
                                                           [12mm]        [12.2Kg]                     [4,700Kg]                                  [940Kg]
                                                           9/16"         11.0 lbs.                   13,300 lbs.                                2,700 lbs.
                                                           [14mm]        [16.4Kg]                     [6,000Kg]                                 [1,200Kg]
                                                           5/8"          14.0 lbs.                   16,300 lbs.                                3,300 lbs.
                                                           [16mm]        [20.8Kg]                     [7,400Kg]                                 [1,500Kg]
                                                           3/4"          18.0 lbs.                   20,400 lbs.                                4,100 lbs.
                                                           [18mm]        [26.8Kg]                     [9,300Kg]                                 [1,900Kg]
                                                           7/8"          27.1 lbs.                   29,900 lbs.                                6,000 lbs.
                                                           [22mm]        [40.3Kg]                    [13,600Kg]                                 [2,700Kg]

                                                                                     standaRd PacKaged lengths
                                                                                                  150' Polybag ........................................ Unspliced

                                                                                                  600' Reel .............................................. Unspliced

                                                                                                                            Product Code: 806

      12-stRand bRaided constRUction of Plied PolyesteR and

                                                                                                                         RIGGInG LInE
      Polyolefin fibeRs
      Arbor-Plex is an economical, torque-balanced twelve-strand rope. The tightly braided
      construction of Arbor-Plex holds its shape with use. It has excellent wear resistance,
      is lightweight and has high rigging line products strength. It is widely known and trusted
      as a “workhorse” for virtually all uses. Arbor-Plex is easily identified by a green ink stripe.


n	 Excellent wear and snag resistance
n	 Excellent knot holding ability
n	 Works well when wet
n	 Economical – good value
n	 no twist stripe
n	 Single braid

                                     elastic elongation
       		10%	                           20%	                         30%
       3.0%                            3.3%                          4.2%
        After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

 siZe                    weight PeR                  aVeRage stRength        woRKing load
 [diaMeteR]              100 ft / [100M]                       unsPliced       unsPliced

 1/2"                         6.8 lbs.                          6,000 lbs.      1200 lbs.
 [12mm]                      [10.1Kg]                           [2,700Kg]        [540Kg]
 5/8"                        12.0 lbs.                          9,000 lbs.      1,800 lbs.
 [16mm]                      [17.9Kg]                           [4,100Kg]        [820Kg]
 3/4"                        16.2 lbs.                         12,000 lbs.      2,400 lbs.
 [18mm]                      [24.1Kg]                           [5,400Kg]       [1,100Kg]

                standaRd PacKaged lengths
     150' Polybag .................................. Unspliced

     600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

     Product Code: 346

                            3-stRand twisted constRUction of sPUn and filament

                            PolyesteR jacKet fibeRs coveRing Polyolefin coRe fibeRs
                            A firm and balanced three-strand rope offering reliability as well as economy.
                            Pro-Master is lightweight, holds its shape even under heavy use and the spun
                            fiber on the surface offers excellent grip, handling and knot holding. It is identified
                            by a green surface tracer. For performance and price, it is one of the finest
                            three-strand rigging lines in the marketplace.


                                                                                      n	 Soft touch
                                                                                      n	 Excellent abrasion resistance
                                                                                      n	 High strength-to-weight ratio
                                                                                      n	 Flexible and easy to handle
                                                                                      n	 Minimal UV degradation
                                                                                      n	 Easy to splice

                                                                                       elastic elongation
                                                                                             		 0%	                          20%	                          30%
                                                                                             2.00%                          3.20%                          3.90%
                                                                                             After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

                                                          siZe         weight PeR               aVeRage stRength                             woRKing load
                                                          [diaMeteR]   100 ft / [100M]                      sPliced                                  sPliced

                                                          1/2"             6.5 lbs.                        6,300 lbs.                                1,300 lbs.
                                                          [12mm]           [9.7Kg]                         [2,900Kg]                                  [570Kg]
                                                          5/8"             9.6 lbs.                        8,500 lbs.                                1,700 lbs.
                                                          [16mm]          [14.3Kg]                         [3,900Kg]                                  [770Kg]
                                                          3/4"            13.9lbs.                        10,900 lbs.                                2,200 lbs.
                                                          [18mm]          [20.7Kg]                         [4,900Kg]                                  [990Kg]
                                                          7/8"            18.0 lbs.                       15,500 lbs.                                3,100 lbs.
                                                          [22mm]          [26.8Kg]                         [7,000Kg]                                 [1,400Kg]

                                                                                       standaRd PacKaged lengths
                                                                                           150' Polybag .................................. Unspliced

                                                                                           600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

                                                                                                                                   Product Code: 168

      3-stRand, 4-stage twisted constRUction of

                                                                                                             RIGGInG LInE
      100% PolyesteR fibeR
      Tree-Master is a premium 4-stage three-strand rope made of premium polyester.
      Identified by an external green marker outside one strand and marker tape inside
      one strand. It remains firm under load, is low stretch, and has excellent knot
      holding characteristics. Slightly stiffer than Pro-Master for riggers that prefer a
      firm line.


n	 Maximum wear life
n	 Stays firm under load
n	 Economical – good value
n	 Excellent abrasion resistance
n	 Spliceable

                                      elastic elongation
       	10%	                           	20%	                         30%
       2.9%                            5.6%                          8.2%
       After 50 cycles at % of break strength.

 siZe                    weight PeR                 aVeRage stRength         woRKing load
 [diaMeteR]              100 ft / [100M]                         sPliced        sPliced

  5/8"                        13.0 lbs.                        12,900 lbs.     2,600 lbs.
 [16mm]                       [19.3Kg]                          [5,900Kg]      [1,200Kg]
  3/4"                        18.5 lbs.                        15,200 lbs.     3,000 lbs.
  [18mm]                      [27.5Kg]                          [6,900Kg]      [1,400Kg]

standaRd PacKaged lengths
     150' Polybag .................................. Unspliced

     600' Reel ......................................... Unspliced

      Product Code: 166

                        technical infoRMation

                                                                                                                              In order to establish definitions
                                                                                                                              involving stretch in ropes,
                                                                                                                              it is necessary to review the
                                                                                                                              terms utilized to define the
                                                                                                                              basic components of stretch.

                           elongation data

                         Elastic Elongation (E.E.): Refers to the portion of stretch or        Permanent Extension (P.E.) While Working: The amount
                         extension of a rope that is immediately recoverable after the         of extension that exists when stress is removed but no time
                         load on the rope is released. This recoverable tendency is a          is given for hysteresis recovery. It includes the nonrecoverable
                         primary result of the fiber (or fibers) used as opposed to the rope   and hysteresis extension as one value and represents any
                         construction. Each type of synthetic fiber inherently displays        increase in length of a rope in a constant working situation
                         a unique degree of elasticity. Relatively, HMPE fiber has an          such as during repeated surges in towing or other similar
                         extremely low elasticity compared to nylon fiber.                     cyclical operations.
                         Hysteresis: Refers to a recoverable portion of stretch or exten-      The percentage of Permanent Extension over the working load
                         sion over a period of time after a load is released. In measuring     range is generally in order of four to six percent for braided ropes
                         elastic recovery it is the recovery that occurs immediately when      and two to three times as much for plaited – but will vary slightly
                         a load is removed. But thereafter, a remaining small percentage       with different fibers and rope constructions. In some applica-
                         of elastic recovery will occur slowly and gradually over a period     tions, such as sub-surface mooring or devices that demand
                         of hours or days. This retardation in recovery is measured on         precise depth location and measurement, allowances must be
                         a length/time scale and is known as hysteresis or recovery            made for this factor.
                         over time.                                                            cold Flow (creep): Fiber deformation (elongation) due to
                         Permanent Extension (P.E.) After Relaxed: That portion of             molecular slippage under a constant static loading situation.
                         extension which, due to constructional deformation (compacting        Fibers that have this inherent characteristic will display extremely
                         of braid and helical changes) and some plastic deformation of         lower or negligible creep if minor fluctuations occur in the rate
                         the fibers, prevent the rope returning the original length.           and or frequency of load levels.

                           bending Radius

                         Any sharp bend in a rope under load decreases its strength
                         substantially and may cause premature damage or failure.              sheave diameteR and sizes
                         Many rope users are surprised to learn that a simple overhand         Sheave Diameters Should Be:
                         knot (a series of sharp bends) reduces rope strength by
                                                                                               	 Twisted/Plaited = 10 times
                         almost 50%. In sizing the radius of bitts and fairleads for              rope diameter
                         best performance the following guidelines are offered: Where
                                                                                                Braided = 8 times
                         a rope bends more than 10 degrees around its bitts or, for that
                                                                                                  rope diameter
                         matter, is bending across any surface, the diameter of that
                         surface should not be less than 3 times the diameter of the           To assure maximum efficiency and safety, sheaves for braided ropes
                         rope. Another way of saying it is that the diameter of the            should be no less than eight (8) times rope diameter. Although an 8:1
                         surface should be at least 3 times the rope diameter. A 4 to 1        ratio is preferred, 4:1 is widely accepted within the arborist industry.
                         ratio (or larger) would be better yet as durability of the rope       The sheave groove diameter should be no less than 10% greater than
                         increases substantially as the diameter of the surface over           the rope diameter. The sheave groove should be round in shape.
                         which it is worked increases.                                         Sheaves with “V” shaped grooves should be avoided, as they tend to
                                                                                               pinch and damage the rope through excessive friction and crushing
                                                                                               of the rope fibers. Sheave surfaces should be kept smooth and free
                                                                                               of burrs and gouges. Bearings should be maintained to ensure smooth
                                                                                               rotation of sheaves.

                                                standaRds foR stRength and usage

                                                                                                                                                     TEcHnIcAL InFORMATIOn
new RoPe tensile stRengths
New rope tensile strengths are based on tests of new and unused rope of standard                                     dynaMic loading
construction in accordance with manufacturer’s Standard Test Methods. It can be
                                                                                                 For dynamic loading applications involving
expected that strengths will decrease as soon as a rope is put into use. Because of
                                                                                                 severe exposure conditions, or for recom-
the wide range of rope use, changes in rope conditions, exposure to the many factors
affecting rope behavior, and the possibility of risk to life and property, it is impossible      mendations on special applications, consult
to cover all aspects of rope applications or to make blanket recommendations as to               the manufacturer. For more information see
working loads.                                                                                   page 24.

woRKing load
                                                                                                              dangeR to PeRsonnel
Working loads are for rope in good condition with appropriate splices, in noncritical
                                                                                                 Persons should be warned against the serious
applications and under normal service conditions. Working loads are based on a percent-
age of the approximate breaking strength of new and unused rope of current manufac-              danger of standing in line with a rope under
ture. For our arborist rope products, when used under normal conditions, the working             tension. Should the rope part, it may recoil with
load percentage is 20% of published strengths for rigging lines and 10% for climbing.            considerable force. In all cases where any such
Normal working loads do not cover dynamic conditions such as shock loads or sustained            risks are present, or if there is any question
loads, nor do they cover where life, limb or valuable property are involved. In these            about the loads involved or the condition of
cases a lower working load must be used.                                                         use, the working load should be substantially
A higher working load may be selected only with expert knowledge of conditions and               reduced and the rope properly inspected
professional estimates of risk, if the rope has been inspected and found to be in good           before every use.
condition, and if the rope has not been subject to dynamic loading (such as sudden
drops, snubs or pick-ups), excessive use, elevated temperatures, or extended periods
under load.
                                                                                                       aVoid abRasiVe conditions
noRmal woRKing loads
                                                                                                 All rope will be severely damaged if subjected
Normal working loads are not applicable when rope has been subject to dynamic loading.           to rough surfaces or sharp edges. Chocks,
Whenever a load is picked up, stopped, moved or swung there is an increased force due
                                                                                                 bitts, winches, drums and other surfaces must
to dynamic loading. The more rapidly or suddenly such actions occur, the greater the
                                                                                                 be kept in good condition and free of burrs and
increase will be. In extreme cases, the force put on the rope may be two, three, or even
                                                                                                 rust. Pulleys must be free to rotate and should
more times the normal load involved. Examples could be ropes used as a tow line, picking
                                                                                                 be of proper size to avoid excessive wear.
up a load on a slack line, or using rope to stop a falling object. Dynamic effects are greater
on a low elongation rope such as polyester than on a high elongation rope such as nylon,
and greater on a short rope than on a long one. Therefore, in all such applications normal
working loads as given do not apply, for more information see page 24.

RoPe insPection                                                                                                   sPlicing and Knots
Avoid using rope that shows signs of aging and wear. If in doubt, destroy the used rope.         Splices should be used instead of knots
No type of visual inspection can be guaranteed to accurately and precisely determine             whenever possible because knots can decrease
the actual residual strength. When the fibers show wear in any given area, the rope              rope strength up to 50%. When splices are
should be re-spliced, downgraded, or replaced. Check the line regularly for frayed strands       used, always use the manufacturer’s recom-
and broken yarns. Pulled strands should be re-threaded into the rope if possible. A pulled       mended splicing procedures. When knots are
strand can snag on a foreign object during rope operation. Both outer and inner rope             used, be sure to take into consideration the
fibers contribute to the strength of the rope. When either is worn, the rope is naturally        knot’s corresponding reduction to the rope
weakened. Open the strands of the rope and look for powdered fiber, which is one                 strength and adjust your working load accord-
sign of internal wear. A heavily used rope will often become compacted or hard, which            ingly. For more information please see the
indicates reduced strength. The rope should be discarded if this condition exists.               Knots and Rigging section, pages 13 thru 14.
avoid oveRheating
                                                                                                                        winching lines
Heat can seriously affect the strength of synthetic ropes. The temperatures at which
50 percent strength loss can occur are: Polypropylene 250° F, Nylon 350° F, Polyester            Braided rope can develop a twist when
350° F. When using rope where the temperature exceeds these levels (or if it is too hot          constantly used on a winch. This makes
to hold), consult the manufacturer for recommendations as to the size and type of rope           handling more difficult; the rope should
for the proposed continuous heat exposure conditions. When using ropes on a capstan              be relaxed and rotated in the opposite direction
or winch, care should be exercised to avoid surging while the capstan or winch head is           to remove a twist. To avoid this condition, the
rotating.The friction from this slippage causes localized overheating that can melt or           direction of turns over the winch should be
fuse synthetic fibers, resulting in severe loss of tensile strength.                             alternated regularly.

 All rope should be stored clean, dry, out of direct sunlight, and away from extreme heat.               aVoid cheMical exPosuRe
 It should be kept off the floor on racks to provide ventilation underneath. Never store
                                                                                                 Rope is subject to damage by chemicals.
 rope on a concrete or dirt floor, and under no circumstances should cordage and acid or
                                                                                                 Consult the manufacturer for specific
 alkalies be kept in the same vicinity. Some synthetic rope (in particular polypropylene or
                                                                                                 chemical exposure, such as solvents, acids,
 polyethylene) may be severely weakened by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays
                                                                                                 and alkalies. Consult the manufacturer for
 unless specifically stabilized and/or pigmented to increase UV resistance. UV degrada-
 tion is indicated by discoloration and the presence of splinters and slivers on the surface     recommendations when a rope will be used
 of the rope.                                                                                    where chemical exposure (either fumes or
                                                                                                 actual contact) can occur.

                        RoPe life factoRs
                         There are basically three steps to consider in providing the longest possible service life for ropes,

                         the safest conditions and long range economy: Selection, Usage, and Retirement.

                         1 selection: seLect the RiGht Rope foR the JoB in the fiRst pLace:
                         Selecting a rope involves evaluating         stRength
                         a combination of factors. Some of
                         these factors are straight forward like      When given a choice between ropes, select the strongest of any given size. A load of 200
                         comparing rope specifications. Others        pounds represents 2% of the strength of a rope with a breaking strength of 10,000 pounds.
                         are less quantitative like a preference      The same load represents 4% of the strength of a rope that has a breaking strength of
                         for a specific color or how a rope feels     5,000 pounds. The weaker rope is having to work harder and as a result will have to be
                         in your hand. Cutting corners, reducing      retired sooner. Braided ropes are stronger than twisted ropes that are the same size
                         sizes or strengths on an initial purchase    and fiber type.
                         creates unnecessary replacements,
                         potentially dangerous conditions and
                         increases long term costs. Fiber and
                         construction being equal, a larger rope
                         will outlast a smaller rope, because             It is well accepted that ropes with lower elongation under load will give you better load
                         of the greater surface wear distribution.        control, a big help at complicated job sites. However, ropes with lower elongation that are
                         By the same token, a stronger rope               shock loaded, like a lowering line, can fail without warning even though it appears to be
                         will outlast a weaker one, because it            in good shape. Low elongating ropes should be selected with the highest possible strength.
                         will be used at a lower percentage of
                                                                          Both twisted ropes and braided ropes are suitable for rigging. Twisted rope has lower
                         its break strength with less chance
                         of over stressing.                               strength and more stretch. Braided rope has higher strength and lower stretch.
                         Consider the opinion of professional
                         climbers who may have more ex-
                         perience as to how well a rope performs.     fiRmness
                         Consider also the reputation of the          Select ropes that are firm and round and hold their shape during use. Soft or mushy ropes
                         rope manufacturer. Are they involved
                                                                      will snag easily and abrade quickly causing accelerated strength loss. Because the fibers
                         with and supportive of the arborist
                         industry? Do they stand behind their         are in a straighter line, which improves strength but compromises durability, loose or mushy
                         products with consistent quality and         rope will almost always have higher break strengths than a similar rope that is firm and
                         reliable service? Buying unproven            holds its shape.
                         ropes because they are a little less
                         expensive is false economy and can
                         lead to disaster.

                         2 Usage: use Rope pRopeRLY: oBseRVe Recommended safetY factoRs.
                                           Keep Ropes cLean and aVoid shocK Loads wheneVeR possiBLe.

                         Proper use of your ropes, maintaining                woRKing loads                                               shocK loads
                         them, and staying within recommended                 Working loads are the loads that a rope is                  Shock loads are simply a sudden
                         working loads will allow you to get the              subjected to in everyday activity. They are                 change in tension – from a state of
                                                                              normally expressed as a percentage of                       relaxation or low load to one of high
                          most from your rope investment. Working
                                                                              new rope strength and should not exceed                     load. Any sudden load that exceeds
                          loads are calculated to maximize safety             20% for rigging lines and 10% for climbing lines.           the work load by more than 10% is
                          and extend the working life of both climbing        A point to remember is that a rope                          considered a shock load. The further
                                                                              may be severely overloaded or shock loaded                  an object falls, the greater the impact.
                          and rigging lines. Dirt and grit embedded
                                                                              in use without breaking. However, damage                    Synthetic fibers have a memory and
                                   in the fibers can also significantly       and strength loss may have occurred                         retain the effects of being overloaded
                                    shorten rope life. Keep them              without any visible indication. The next time               or shock loaded and can fail at a later
                                                                              the rope is used under normal working loads                 time, even though loaded within the
                                             clean, bagged and
                                                                              the acquired weakness can cause it to break.                normal working load range.
                                             properly stored when             Do not blame the rope, it was simply over-
                                           not in use.                        loaded and failed from what is known as fatigue.
                                                                                Recommended woRKload limit
                                                                                (expressed as a percent of new rope strength)

                                                                                  Rope Used                  Braided            Twisted

                                                                                  climbing Line                10%               10%

                                                                                  Rigging Line                 20%               20%

                                                                RoPe insPection and RetiReMent

                                                                                                                                                                TEcHnIcAL InFORMATIOn
Sheeve diameters on rotating                               Knots and hitches                                   RoPe stoRage
sheave blocks                                              While it is true that a knot reduces rope           Keep your ropes as clean and dry
Twisted Rope = 10 times the rope diameter                  strength, it is also true that a knot is a          as possible and store them away
                                                           convenient way to attach a rope to tree             from heat sources. Many climbers
Braided Rope = 8 times the rope diameter
                                                           limbs and other ropes. The strength loss            keep their ropes in special rope bags,
                                                           is a result of the tight bends that occur           which keep them clean and makes
Fixed PIN Termination Diameter                             in the knot. With some knots, ropes can             them easy to identify at the job site.
The diameter on fixed pin termination should be at         loose up to 50% of their strength, which
least 3 times the diameter – i.e., the bending radius      is part of the reason the work load limit
for 1/2" rope should be 1-1/2"                             should not exceed 20% of the rope strength.

3 RetiRement: RetiRe Rope fRom use when it has Reached its discaRd point
One of the most frequently asked questions is “When should I retire my rope?” The most obvious answer is before it breaks. But,
without a thorough understanding of how to inspect it and without knowing the load history, you are left making an educated guess.
Unfortunately, there are no definitive rules nor industry guidelines to establish when a rope should be retired because there are so many
variables that affect rope strength. Factors like load history, bending radius, abrasion, chemical exposure or some combination of those
factors, make retirement decisions difficult. Inspecting your rope should be a continuous process of observation before, during and after
each use. In synthetic fiber ropes the amount of strength loss due to abrasion and/or flexing is directly related to the amount of broken
fiber in the rope’s cross section. After each use, look and feel along every inch of the rope length inspecting for damage as listed below.

When the rope is first put into service, the outer filaments of the rope will quickly fuzz up. This is the result of these filaments breaking
and this roughened surface actually forms a protective cushion and shield for the fibers underneath. This condition should stabilize,
not progress. If the surface roughness increases, excessive abrasion is taking place and strength is being lost. As a general rule for
braided ropes, when there is 25% or more wear from abrasion the rope should be retired from service. In other words, if 25% or more
of the fiber is broken or worn away the rope should be removed from service. With three-strand ropes, 10% or more wear is accepted
as the retirement point.
Look closely at both the inner and outer fibers. When either is worn the rope is obviously weakened. Open the strands and look for
powdered fiber, which is one sign of internal wear. Estimate the internal wear to estimate total fiber abrasion. If total fiber loss is 20%,
then it is safe to assume that the rope has lost 20% of its strength as a result of abrasion.

glossy oR glazed aReas                                  discoloRation                                inconsistant diameteR
Glossy or glazed areas are signs of heat                With use, all ropes get dirty. Be on         Inspect for flat areas, bumps or lumps.
damage with more strength loss than the                 the lookout for areas of discoloration       This can indicate core or internal damage
                                                                                                     from overloading or shock loads and is
amount of melted fiber indicates. Fibers                that could be caused by chemical
                                                                                                     usually sufficient reason to replace the rope.
adjacent to the melted areas are probably               contamination. Determine the cause
damaged from excessive heat even though                 of the discoloration and replace the         inconsistant textURe/stiffness
they appear normal. It is reasonable to                 rope if it is brittle or stiff.
                                                                                                    Inconsistant texture or stiff areas can indicate
assume that the melted fiber has damaged
                                                                                                    excessive dirt or grit embedded in the rope or
an equal amount of adjacent unmelted fiber.                                                         shock load damage and is usually reason to
                                                                                                    replace the rope.

When using rope, friction can be your best friend or worst enemy if it is not managed properly.                   The critical and melting temperatures for
By definition, friction creates heat, the greater the friction, the greater the heat buildup. Heat                synthetic fibers are listed below:
is an enemy to synthetic fiber and elevated temperatures can drastically reduce the strength                     	 TEMPERATURES          Critical     Melting
and/or cause rope melt-through.                                                                                                ®
                                                                                                                   Dyneema               150° F       297° F
High temperatures can be achieved when surging rope on a capstan, checking ropes on a cable,
                                                                                                                   Manila                180° F       350° F*
or running over stuck or non-rolling sheaves or rollers. Each rope’s construction and fiber type
                                                                                                                   Polypropylene         250° F       330° F
will yield a different coefficient of friction (reluctance to slip) in a new and used state. It is important
to understand the operational demands and ensure the size, rope construction and fiber type be                     Nylon                 350° F       460° F
taken into account to minimize heat buildup.                                                                       Polyester             350° F       480° F
Never let ropes under tension rub together or move relative to one another. Enough heat to melt                    Technora              450° F       900° F*
the fibers can buildup and cause the rope to fail as quickly as if it had been cut with a knife.                 *While the term “melting” does not apply
Always be aware of areas of heat buildup and take steps to minimize it; under no circumstances                   to these fibers, they do undergo extreme
                                                                                                                 degradation at these temperatures:
let any rope come in contact with an exhaust muffler or any other hot object.The strength of a                   Technora and Manila char.
used rope can be determined by testing, but the rope is destroyed in the process so the ability
to determine the retirement point before it fails in service is essential. That ability is based on a
combination of education in rope use and construction along with good judgment and experience.
Remember, you almost always get what you pay for in the form of performance and reliability.

                        RoPe insPection and RetiReMent cont.

                             RoPe insPection                                         oRiginal bUlK new RoPe
                             checK list

                            	 Condition Discard Point

                             1.   Original rope bulk reduced by abrasion:

                                  • Double braid* cover by 50%                   
                                  • Twelve-strand braid by 25%                   
                                  • Eight-strand plait by 25%                    
                                  • Three-strand by 10%                             volUme RedUction                               PUlled stRand
                                                                                     Rope displaying 25% strand volume              Rope displays a snagged strand. If the
                                                                                     reduction from abrasion – rope should be       strand can be worked back into the rope,
                             2.   Fiber strands cut:                                 retired from service.                          no need to retire. If not, this indicates a
                                  • Double braid* by three or more                   Note: Amount of volume reduction that          retirement point.
                                    adjacent strands cut                            indicates retirement depends on rope
                                                                                     construction. Refer to “check list” at left.
                                  • Twelve-strand braid by two or more
                                    adjacent strands cut                         
                                  • Eight-strand plait by one or more
                                    adjacent strands cut                         
                                  • Three-strand by one or more
                                    adjacent strands cut                         
                                  *Refers to double braids that have both core
                                   and cover strength members.

                             3.   Diameter inconsistency:

                                  • Localized diameter reduction                 
                                  • Flat areas                                   
                                  • Lumps and bumps in rope                      

                             4.   Glossy or glazed fiber:
                                  • Localized or extended areas                     cUt stRands                                    melting oR glazing
                                                                                     Rope displays two adjacent cut strands.        Damage depicted below caused by
                                                                                     This rope should either be retired or          excessive heat, which melted and fused
                             5.   Inconsistency of texture:                          the cut section should be removed.             the fibers. This area will be extremely
                                                                                     If possible, re-splice.                        stiff. Unlike fiber compression, melting
                                  • Localized or extended areas
                                                                                                                                    damage cannot be mitigated by flexing
                                    of stiffness                                                                                   the rope. Melted areas must be cut out
                                                                                                                                    and rope respliced or the rope must
                                                                                                                                    be retired.
                             6.   Discoloration:
                                  • Localized or extended areas
                                    caused by chemical contamination             

                                                                                     Note: Number of cut strands that indicate
                                                                                     retirement depends on rope construction.
                                                                                     See “check list” at left.

                                                                                                             RoPe handling
Removing RoPe fRom Reel oR coil

                                                                                                                                              TEcHnIcAL InFORMATIOn
Synthetic fiber ropes are normally shipped on reels for maximum protection while in transit. The rope should
be removed from the reel by pulling it off the top while the reel is free to rotate. This can be accomplished by
passing a pipe through the center of the reel and jacking it up until the reel is free from the ground. Rope should
never be taken from a reel lying on its side. If the rope is supplied on a coil, it should always be uncoiled from
the inside so that the first turn comes off the bottom in a counter-clockwise direction.

RoPe stoRage
                      figURe 8                                                                              coiling – twisted RoPes
                      Great care must be taken in the stowage and proper                                    Three-strand ropes should be
                      coiling of braided ropes.                                                             coiled in a clockwise direction
                      Braided ropes have no built-in twist and are far                                      (or in the direction of the lay
                      more resistant to kinking, than three-strand ropes.                                   of the rope) and uncoiled in a
                      Even if kinks do develop they do not develop further                                  counter-clockwise direction to
                      into hockles.                                                                         avoid kinks.
                      The best method for making up braided rope is in
                      figure-eight fashion. The rope should not be hand
                      coiled in either direction as this merely puts turn into
                      the line, which may develop into kinks when paying-
                      out. Remember that there is no turn or twist in the line
                      to begin with, so do not produce it by coiling.

                                     Bagging is the most common method of storing braided or twisted
                                     climbing lines. The rope is allowed to fall into its natural position without
                                     deliberate direction.

avoid KinKing and hocKling
The continuous use of a line on one side of a winch           Braided and plaited ropes cannot be hockled;
or windlass is a common abuse that can render a line          their inter-locking strand construction prevents
useless in a comparatively short time. Repeated               the unlaying. Strands run in both directions
hauling of a line over a winch in a counterclockwise          creating a torque-free balance thus eliminating
direction will extend the lay of the rope and                 any inherent tendency toward twist or rotation.
simultaneously shorten the twist of each strand.              Swivels can be used safely but are seldom
As this action continues, kinks (or hockles) will             necessary. One word of caution here: when
develop. Once these hockles appear, they cannot               marrying a braided line to a twisted line (and
be removed and the rope is permanently damaged                also to wire rope) the twisted line can impart its
at the point of hockling.                                     twist to the braided line if the ropes are married
If, on the other hand, the line is continuously hauled        without a swivel in between.
over a winch in a clockwise direction, the rope lay           A braided or plaited rope, being torque-free, can
is shortened and the rope becomes stiff and will              have twist induced by constant working on winches
kink readily.                                                 and capstans. If a twist develops, it can easily
To avoid detrimental conditions, the direction of turns       be removed by “counter-rotating” when the rope
over the winch should be alternated regularly. Clock-         is relaxed.
wise turns are recommended for the initial use of a
new line. If this practice is observed, the original rope
balance will be maintained and the lines will have a                                                                        A hockled rope.
much longer useful life.
Excessive turns can cause kinking in any rope
but hockles can occur only in the basic “twisted”
ropes (three-strand, four-strand and cable-laid).

samson’s legacy of
innovation is bUilt on a
committment to technology
Samson has dedicated more resources
than any other cordage manufacturer to
the continued development of high
performance synthetic rope products.
We maintain an extensive research and development
organization – fully equipped with the latest laboratory
facilities, abrasion testing equipment, drop test tower,
and one of the highest capacity tensile testers (1.1 million
pounds) of any rope manufacturer worldwide. Staffed by fiber
technologists and engineers dedicated to the development of
more efficient and stronger ropes, Samson continues to lead
the industry in technological developments in fibers, coatings
and constructions. Our staff works directly with the leading fiber
manufacturers to explore and assess the properties of new
fibers in development.

The engineering staff also works closely with field sales personnel
as application engineers. This interactive relationship allows us
to be responsive to the operational concerns of our customers.
From on-site assistance with new products to evaluation of product
performance and the development of safety standards, the
application engineer is an integral part of the field sales team.

Samson is committed to constantly meeting the challenges of the
arborist industry and assuring the highest consistent quality climbing
and rigging lines available today. We are ISO 9001 certified, and our
climbing lines meet or exceed ANSI Standard Z133.

 International Society of Arboriculture
 ANSI Z133 Committee
 ArborMaster Alliance

tRademaRK notices: Dyneema® is DSM’s registered trademark for high performance polyethylene fiber. Technora® is a
registered trademark of Teijin Ltd. ArborMaster® is a registered trademark of ArborMaster Training, Inc.
acKnowLedGements: Thanks to Ken Palmer and the ArborMaster® team for technical assistance.

2090 Thorton Street                (T) 360.384.4669                               © 2005 Samson Rope S/WD #106135 15M 10/05

Ferndale, WA USA 98248             (F) 360.384.0572

Shared By:
Description: safety