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United States armed forces

United States armed forces
United States armed forces Active personnel Reserve personnel Expenditures Budget Percent of GDP Related articles History United States Joint Service Color Guard on parade at Fort Myer in Arlington County, Virginia. Service branches U.S. Army U.S. Marine Corps U.S. Navy U.S. Air Force U.S. Coast Guard Leadership Commander-inChief Secretary of Defense Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manpower Military age Available for military service 17–45 years old[1] 72,715,332 males, age 18–49 (2008 est.), 71,638,785 females, age 18–49 (2008 est.) 59,413,358 males, age 18–49 (2008 est.), 59,187,183 females, age 18–49 (2008 est.) 2,186,440 males (2008 est.), 2,079,688 females (2008 est.) Barack Obama Robert M. Gates Admiral Michael Mullen Ranks American Revolutionary War Early national period Continental expansion American Civil War Post-Civil War era World War I (1917–1918) World War II (1941–1945) Cold War (1945–1991) Post-Cold War era (1991–2001) War on Terrorism (2001–present) Army officer Army enlisted Marine Corps officer Marine Corps enlisted Navy officer Navy enlisted Air Force officer Air Force enlisted Coast Guard officer and enlisted $583 billion (FY08)[4] (ranked 1st) 4.04 (2007 est.) 1,454,515[2] (ranked 2nd) 848,000[3]

Fit for military service

Reaching military age annually

The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. The United States military was first formed by the second Continental Congress to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War. The Army, Marine Corps, and Navy were commissioned in 1775, in anticipation of the declaration of independence in 1776. The Coast Guard originated as the Revenue Cutter Service, which was formed in 1790. The Revenue Cutter Service merged with the United States Life-Saving Service in 1915 to become the Coast Guard, now an agency of the Department Homeland Security and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the President or Congress during a time of war. The United States Air Force originated as the United States Army Air Corps in 1926 and became an independent service in 1947. From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged out of the victorious Barbary Wars, as well as the War of 1812. Even so, the Founding Fathers were suspicious of a permanent military force and not until the outbreak of World War II did a peacetime army become officially established.[5] The President is commander-in-chief of the military, with the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense, as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out. The 11 September attacks prompted the formation of a new civilian agency, the Department of Homeland Security, to coordinate and consolidate a counter on internal United States threats. The U.S. military is composed of almost three million personnel, of which approximately half are reserve personnel. The U.S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. The U.S. military draws its manpower from a large pool of volunteers and as such conscription is neither needed nor desirable as it maintains a purely professional military force. The U.S. military receives $711 billion per year in funding,[6] constituting approximately 50 percent of world military expenditures. The U.S. armed forces as a whole possess large quantities of advanced and powerful equipment, which gives them significant capabilities in both defense and power projection.

United States armed forces
National Security Council headed by a National Security Advisor. Under the President is the United States Secretary of Defense, the head of the Department of Defense and a member of the Cabinet. Both the President and Secretary of Defense are advised by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which includes the head of each of the service branches, led by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Budget
The United States has the largest defense budget in the world. In 2007, the Department of Defense had a base budget of $431.7 billion. An additional $169.2 billion was requested for operations in the War on Terrorism.[8] In 2008, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act of 2008, which authorized $688.6 billion in funds related to national defense.[9] The base budget request for the Department of Defense increased 11.1% to $479.5 billion for FY 2008. $189.1 billion in supplemental funding was also requested for operations in the War on Terrorism for a total national defense budget of $668.6 billion.[8] In 2009, national defense spending continued to rise. The Department of Defense requested about $515.4 billion for the base budget. $70 billion was allocated for the War on Terrorism, plus an additional $65 billion in expected supplemental spending, though this number is expected to rise. By service, $140.7 billion was allocated for the Army, $124.4 billion for the Navy, $24.9 billion for the Marine Corps, $143.9 billion for the Air Force and $81.6 billion for defense wide spending.[10] By function, $125.2 billion was requested for personnel, $179.8 billion for operations and maintenance, $104.2 billion for procurement, $79.6 billion for research and development, $21.2 billion for military construction, $2.9 billion for family housing and $2.7 billion for revolving funds.[8] Major defense programs also see continued funding. $4.1 billion was requested for the next generation fighter, F-22 Raptor, which will roll out an additional twenty planes for FY 2009. $6.7 billion was requested for the F-35 Lightning II, which is still in development. Sixteen planes will be built as part of the funding. The Future Combat System program is expected to see $3.6 billion

Organization
All branches are part of the uniformed services of the United States and are under civilian control with the President of the United States serving as Commander-in-chief, per the United States Constitution. All except the Coast Guard are part of the Department of Defense, which is under the authority of the Secretary of Defense, also a civilian. The Coast Guard falls under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, but during wartime, the Coast Guard is placed under the Department of Defense through the Department of the Navy.[7] To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Component Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard Total Active Military 549,153 201,031 331,768 329,980 42,583 Enlisted 456,651 180,443 276,276 261,193

United States armed forces
Officer 88,093 20,588 51,093 64,370 Female Civilian 73,902 12,290 50,008 64,137 182,845 154,032 243,172

1,454,515 1,174,563 224,144 200,337 580,049 352,600

Army National Guard Army Reserve Marine Forces Reserve Navy Reserve Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Coast Guard Reserve Total Reserve Other DOD Personnel for its development. A total of $12.3 billion was requested for missile defense, which includes Patriot CAP, PAC-3 and SBIRS-High systems. $720 million was also included for a third missile defense site in Europe. $4.2 billion was also requested to continue the aircraft carrier replacement program. With the addition of AFRICOM, $389 million was requested to develop and maintain the new command.[11] In addition, with the continued efforts in the War on Terrorism, $20.5 billion was requested to expand the Army and Marine Corps, while $49.1 billion was requested for the recruitment, training and sustainment of the National Guard and Reserves.[8] 205,000 39,600 66,702 106,700 67,400 10,000 848,000 97,976 approval of Congress. The United States military is the second largest in the world, after the People’s Liberation Army of China, and has troops deployed around the globe. In early 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates proposed to the President to increase the overall size of the Army and Marine Corps to meet the needs of the War on Terrorism.[14] Current plans are to increase the Army to 547,400 and the Marine Corps to 202,000 by 2012. The expansion will cost a total of $90.7 billion between 2009 and 2013 as the Navy and Air Force undergo a limited force reduction.[15] As in most militaries, members of the U.S. Armed Forces hold a rank, either that of officer or enlisted, and can be promoted.

Personnel
As of 28 February, 2009 1,454,515 people are on active duty[12] in the military with an additional 848,000 people in the seven reserve components.[13] It is an all volunteer military, however, conscription can be enacted by the request of the President and the

Personnel in each service
As of 28 February 2009[16] Female numbers as of 30 September 2008[17]

Personnel stationing

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States armed forces
permission of a parent or guardian, applicants can enlist at the age of 17 and participate in the Delayed Entry Program (DEP). In this program, the applicant is given the opportunity to participate in locally sponsored military-related activities, which can range from sports to competitions (each recruiting station DEP program will vary), led by recruiters or other military liaisons. After enlistment, new recruits undergo Basic Training (also known as boot camp in the Navy and Marines), followed by schooling in their primary Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) at any of the numerous MOS training facilities around the world. Each branch conducts basic training differently. For example, Marines send all non-infantry MOSs to an infantry skills course known as Marine Combat Training prior to their technical schools, while Air Force Basic Military Training graduates attend Technical Training and are awarded an Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) at the apprentice (3) skill level. The terms for this vary greatly, all non-infantry Army recruits undergo Basic Combat Training (BCT), followed by Advanced Individual Training (AIT), while all infantry recruits go to infantry training brigade ITB, while the Navy send its recruits to Recruit Training and then to "A" schools to earn a rating. Initially, recruits without higher education or college degrees will hold the pay grade of E-1, and will be elevated to E-2 usually soon after the completion of Basic Training (with a minimum of six months Time-In-Service). Different services have different incentive programs for enlistees, such as higher initial ranks for college credit and referring friends who go on to enlist as well. Participation in DEP is one way recruits can achieve rank before their departure to Basic Training. There are several different authorized pay grade advancement requirements in each junior enlisted rank category (E-1 to E-3), which differ by service. Enlistees in the Army can attain the initial pay grade of E-4 (Specialist) with a full four-year degree, but the highest initial entry pay grade is usually E-3. Promotion through the junior enlisted ranks occurs upon attaining a specified number of years of service(Which is waiverable by the Soldiers Chain of command), a specified level of technical proficiency, and/or maintenance of good conduct. Promotion can be denied by with reason.

Service members of the United States at an American football event, L-R: U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and U.S. Army personnel.

Overseas
As of 31 March 2008, U.S. Forces were stationed at more than 820 installations in at least 39 countries.[18] Some of the largest contingents are the 142,000 military personnel in Iraq, the 56,200 in Germany, the 33,122 in Japan, 26,339 in South Korea, 31,100 in Afghanistan and approximately 9,700 each in Italy and the United Kingdom. These numbers change frequently due to the regular recall and deployment of units. Altogether, 84,488 military personnel are located in Europe, 154 in the former Soviet Union, 70,719 in East Asia and the Pacific, 7,850 in North Africa, the Near East, and South Asia, 2,727 are in sub-Saharan Africa with 2,043 in the Western Hemisphere excepting the United States itself.

Within the United States
Including U.S. territories and ships afloat within territorial waters A total of 1,083,027 personnel are on active duty within the United States and its territories (including those afloat):[19] The vast majority, 883,430 of them, are stationed at various bases within the Continental United States. There are an additional 36,827 in Hawaii and 19,828 in Alaska. 90,218 are at sea while there are 2,970 in Guam and 137 in Puerto Rico.

Types of Personnel
Enlisted
Prospective service members are often recruited from high school and college, the target age being those ages 18 to 28. With the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States armed forces

Non-commissioned officers
With very few exceptions, becoming a noncommissioned officer (NCO) in the United States military is accomplished by progression through the lower enlisted ranks. Unlike promotion through the lower enlisted tier, however, promotion to NCO is generally competitive. NCO ranks begin at E-4 or E-5, depending on service and are generally attained between three and six years of service. Junior NCOs function as first-line supervisors and squad leaders, training the junior enlisted in their duties and guiding their career advancement. While by law considered part of the noncommissioned officer corps, senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) referred to as Chief Petty Officers in the Navy and Coast Guard, or staff non-commissioned officers in the Marine Corps, perform duties more focused on leadership rather than technical expertise. Promotion to the SNCO ranks, E-7 through E-9 (E-6 through E-9 in the Marine Corps) is highly competitive. Manning at the pay grades of E-8 and E-9 are limited by federal law to 2.5 percent and 1 percent of a service’s enlisted force, respectively. SNCOs act as leaders of small units and as staff. Some SNCOs manage programs at headquarters level, and a select few wield responsibility at the highest levels of the military structure. Most unit commanders have a SNCO as an enlisted advisor. All SNCOs are expected to mentor junior commissioned officers as well as the enlisted in their duty sections. The typical enlistee can expect to attain SNCO rank at between 10 and 16 years of service. Each of the five services employs a single senior enlisted advisor at departmental level. This individual is the highest ranking enlisted member within his respective service and functions as the chief advisor to the service secretary, service chief of staff, and Congress on matters concerning the enlisted force. These individuals carry responsibilities and protocol requirements equivalent to general and flag officers. They are as follows: • Sergeant Major of the Army • Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps • Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy • Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force • Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard

Warrant Officer
Additionally, all services except for the Air Force have an active Warrant Officer corps. Above the rank of Warrant Officer One, these officers may also be commissioned, but usually serve in a more technical and specialized role within units. More recently though they can also serve in more traditional leadership roles associated with the more recognizable officer corps. With one notable exception (helicopter and fixed wing pilots in the U.S. Army), these officers ordinarily have already been in the military often serving in senior NCO positions in the field in which they later serve as a Warrant Officer as a technical expert. Most Army pilots have served some enlisted time. It is also possible to enlist, complete basic training, go directly to the Warrant Officer Candidate school at Fort Rucker, Alabama, and then on to flight school. Warrant officers in the U.S. military garner the same customs and courtesies as commissioned officers. They may attend the Officer’s club, receive a command and are saluted by junior warrant officers and all enlisted service members. The Air Force ceased to grant warrants in 1959 when the grades of E-8 and E-9 were created. Most non-flying duties performed by warrant officers in other services are instead performed by senior NCOs in the Air Force.

Commissioned officers
There are five common ways to receive a commission as an officer in one of the branches of the U.S. military (although other routes are possible). • Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) • Officer Candidate School (OCS): This can be through active-duty OCS academies, or, in the case of the National Guard, through state-run academies. • Service academies (United States Military Academy at West Point, New York; United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; United States Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs, Colorado; the United States Coast Guard Academy at New London, Connecticut; and the United States Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York.) • Direct commission - civilians who have special skills that are critical to sustaining military operations and supporting troops may receive direct commissions. These

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
officers occupy leadership positions in the following areas: law, medicine, dentistry, nurse corps, intelligence, supply-logisticstransportation, engineering, public affairs, chaplain corps, oceanography, and others. • Battlefield commission - Under certain conditions, enlisted personnel who have skills that separate them from their peers can become officers by direct commissioning of a commander so authorized to grant them. This type of commission is rarely granted and is reserved only for the most exceptional enlisted personnel; it is done on an ad hoc basis, typically only in wartime. No direct battlefield commissions have been awarded since the Vietnam War. The Air Force and Navy do not employ this commissioning path. Officers receive a commission assigning them to the officer corps from the President (with the consent of the Senate). To accept this commission, all officers must take an oath of office. Through their careers, officers usually will receive further training at one or a number of the many staff colleges. Company-grade officers (pay grades O-1 through O-3) function as leaders of smaller units or sections of a unit, typically with an experienced SNCO assistant and mentor. Field-grade officers (pay grades O-4 through O-6) lead significantly larger and more complex operations, with gradually more competitive promotion requirements. Officers in pay grades O-1 through O-4 are informally considered junior officers; those serving in pay grades O-5 and O-6 are sometimes recognized as senior officers. General officers, or flag officers, serve at the highest levels and oversee major portions of the military mission.

United States armed forces
Congress is the approving authority of a fivestar rank confirmation. The rank of General of the Armies is considered senior to General of the Army, but was never held by active duty officers at the same time as persons who held the rank of General of the Army. It has been held by two people: John J. Pershing who received the rank in 1919 after World War I, and George Washington who received it posthumously in 1976 as part of the American Bicentennial celebrations. While it is unclear whether Pershing’s acknowledged seniority to the World War II era Generals of the Army was due to his rank being superior or because his appointment was earlier, in Washington’s appointment by Public Law 94-479, General of the Armies of the United States was established as having "rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present," clearly making it superior to General of the Army.

Demographic controversies
Though women may serve as military police, fighter pilots, and on combat ships, as of 2008, female service members are prohibited by policy from intentional assignment to certain ground combat forces, and from serving on submarines. (See History of women in the military#United States.) The "don’t ask, don’t tell" law (10 U.S.C. § 654) allows gay, lesbian, and bisexual people to serve in the military as long as they do not disclose their sexual orientation; the Government is also not allowed to ask service members or prospective recruits about their sexual orientation. Since the policy was enacted in 1993, thousands of service members have been discharged when their orientation came to the attention of the military, often through disclosure by the service members themselves. Both policies have been the subject of high-profile public controversy in the 1990s and 2000s, with advocates citing military necessity and the special requirements of combat conditions, and opponents denying military necessity and characterizing the policies as unjustified discrimination.

Five Star Ranking
These are ranks of the highest honor and responsibility in the armed forces, but they are almost never given during peacetime service and are only held by a very few officers during wartime: • General of the Army • Fleet Admiral • General of the Air Force No corresponding rank exists for the United States Marine Corps or the United States Coast Guard. Like three and four-star ranks,

Combat Uniforms
See also: List of camouflage patterns#North America N-Z

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States armed forces

[7] The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. 14 USC 1, states "The Coast Guard as established 28 January 1915, shall be a Marines Army Air military service and a branch of the MCCUU armed forces of the United States at all Force (woodland Old uniform ACU - ABU and times." Coast Guard units, or ships of its BDU, previously predecessor service, the Revenue Cutter desert used by all Service, have seen combat in every war variants) branches and armed conflict of the United States Coast Guard - Operational Dress Uniform since 1790, including the U.S. occupation of Iraq. [8] ^ http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/ fy09/pdf/budget/defense.pdf • Full-spectrum dominance [9] http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/ • United States military academies z?d110:h.r.01585: • United States military staff colleges [10] http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/policy/ • Awards and decorations of the United securityspending/articles/ States military fy09_dod_request_topline/ • Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance [11] http://www.ndia.org/Content/ • TRICARE - Health care plan for the U.S. NavigationMenu/Advocacy/Action_Items/ uniformed services FY2009_Major_Weapons_Systems.pdf • List of currently active United States [12] http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ military land vehicles MILITARY/rg0902.pdf • List of active United States military [13] http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/ aircraft getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_cong_bills&docid=f:s3001p • List of currently active United States [14] Bender, Bryan (12 January 2007), "Gates military watercraft calls for buildup in troops", The Boston • Uniformed services of the United States Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/ • State Defense Forces nation/washington/articles/2007/01/12/ • Military Law gates_calls_for_buildup_in_troops/, • Military Expression retrieved on 11 November 2007 [15] http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/ 2009dodbud.pdf [16] http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ [1] Persons 17 years of age, with parental MILITARY/Miltop.htm permission, can join the U.S. armed [17] http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ services. MILITARY/rg0809f.pdf [2] http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ [18] "ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY PERSONNEL MILITARY/ms0.pdf STRENGTHS BY REGIONAL AREA AND [3] http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/ BY COUNTRY" (PDF), U.S. Department getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_cong_bills&docid=f:s3001pcs.txt.pdf of Defense, 2008, [4] http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/ http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ fy08/pdf/budget/defense.pdf MILITARY/history/hst0803.pdf, retrieved [5] Moisés Naím, "Megaplayers Vs. on 19 September 2008. Micropowers", [19] United States Department of Defense, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/ "U.S. Military Deployment" (PDF), cms.php?story_id=3476, retrieved on 18 http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/ December 2007. MILITARY/history/hst0803.pdf. [6] The FY 2009 Pentagon Spending Request - Global Military Spending http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/policy/ securityspending/articles/ • Official U.S. Department of Defense fy09_dod_request_global/ Center for website Arms Control and Non/Proliferation • Global Security on U.S. Military study Operations

See also

References

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• • • • • Military News Today’s Military website US Military ranks and rank insignia Defence Talk Center of Defence Information on U.S. Military • U.S. Military deployments/engagements 1975-2001 • Department of Defense regulation detailing Order of precedence: DoD Directive 1005.8, 31 October 1977 and also in law at Title 10, United States Code, Section 133.

United States armed forces
• Army regulation detailing Order of Precedence: AR 840-10, 1 November 1998 • Marine Corps regulation on Order of Precedence: NAVMC 2691, Marine Corps Drill and Ceremonies Manual, Part II, Ceremonies, Chapter 12-1. • Navy regulation detailing Order of Precedence: U.S. Navy Regulations, Chapter 12, Flags, Pennants, Honors, Ceremonies and Customs. • Air Force regulation detailing Order of Precedence: AFMAN 36-2203, Drill and Ceremonies, 3 June 1996, Chapter 7, Section A.

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